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Full text of "Audubon"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/audubonnati23nati 



(oV 



iBirti lor 



STUDY AND PROTECTION OF BIRDS 




VOLUME XXIII. 1931 



INDEX TO ARTICLES IN VOLUME XXIII 

BY AUTHORS 

S- Bhiw. Mwtfice C. ChrMUnM CcuH^ is. 

MMdMfd Gcocce C. Cbftatans Cnwufc s- 
BHmoc Bou J^ CfcriilMai Ceiwn. tb-, Two 

Km* KMtvdqr SaatrtH% 144. 
Bodhe. Ifn. Dwitiwu. Saoctary. 576. 
BoawrwI. V. C. tre Nkm. A. F. 

■. Dcatoo. MC Clutaty. Bajrmrd H. 



SKI. Ilfliry Curtk. Chi 
\>tknib(ML PuL Kc rhkcr. U. L. 
MUit. FnalL ClBtabMl Cwwi. is 
Allm \ F7CMttM»GMMma«. 
Ailm. \mdb 



tA. 9A^ I4A. selk tfc. sts- 

Aim. AftlMtt A, A Bird ia the Srkoolfwa^ 46; 
IV Bird M • V\g^ lladrine. 4t: plMtomttht 
by. TT. i<5; 9u « UM » taA Habk. loa; th* 
iMplaacatv of Bhdik lu; SoauMr Bird* 
Siady. 154: 11m GMftafwjr ol BMt. 115: 
The YHkw Warbler'* Tdr *i6: Tbe Color- 
■tioa o< BIrdi. >to: CommIbc Cdocatioa n( 
BinK jM 

AOra. Manr PlMm. CMrtaas CnaHk ij. 

AakiBtv. BdM. CMrtw Cm 

A di oa n, B— L t B a f fc T. L. 



i«4- 



A A iabMi t Hot» A FVrk^* Bad. S4S. 

Raport d. j66 
:urSrlml.aitaUaaa 



At«va.G«a«( 
Ayro. DovgMJk J 



B«K Aaroa C, and Johi L.. •« MkcMI. 

Bailqr. Gay A . Tkam W«As h tW Boat BUad. 

B*&. Mrv |{ M. Tbt PMdWf BatUi«. 156. 

Buua. Rogrr A, mt %jmp^ O. Davii. 

BMTvft Mary T, Palliaiiialr RoUm BatMi^ 

irS 
BatM. Gardacr. CTaKwaa CaiHi, *%. 
B*i««. T L, Oiiifii Cmmm, at. 
lUtiHl. Mn. P. U Modd^Uid Whtm ia 

l<Mra.n. 
BayMtd Oacar K, m« M oaala. B«yl T. 
lU^Ir \ tt rtw tt«Me Takaa ShMrar Bath at 



i>r(K. Mrrocn 11 . l: 
C, 



GfWMa. 



17 
nt 



Bapatt af. i|a. 

ATu 



Rajs' CWht 

11 ■■ il III wt 



•I. 



H 



Sacialafy> Raport at 
CbrtaUMa Caaaai. jo; 



J«> 



CM*. 



K. P.. ChrttUMt 



llrtarfl. Un. B. T- PMidaL Rapart aL jti. 
B img l ijl Pjjdd Oab aiJD SwCtOhiiaaByi 

■Mk. Bab Md MnL m TkaaML BdvMd 8. 



BdvwdS. 

Pubar. flrirtMM C— k tf. 
Maarioa B. CkftalMi ~ 



Baame, Tboasat L- aee Savaft. JaaM*. 
S. Scottanr. Raport 
Bicwcr. Gflbart. lae Bmwioai. E.T 
O.C. 



of. <i66. 



ChfMans OiMaa 19- 

■M awl Udwi wit 

Briataal. Ut%. Artbor W.. Wraa Attacks Sqoir- 

rri. i4i. 
Bfooblyii BirdLovcrt' Club. Cbrlatana 

IJ. 
Brookt. Allan. Colored plates by. fadac. 

»3l. 
Brooks, Cbaadlcr. see MacDonald. Geome. 
Btwii. Fnok. awl R. W. Paid. Chrirtans 

Cmm% S. 
BaBard. Mn B P, Saactaiy. Rapatt at jgt. 
BonV IC, Chriatiaas Canoa. rf. 

Ban "^ecrctaiy. Rcoort oI, 186. 

Bwrouan« Smtitn Chib, Cbnafai Cwii. t? 
B«h. OavMct H, OeldhKiwa NaM ia TWatka 



llOb 



Battanrfck, O aw W A.. 

niifiiiB iiu rum 

Calvart. Bari W, 



TWatkik 



Mn.Jol 
GaMri. 



Cahrait Mn. Joha B.. Prwldiat. Raport af. ni. 



CaidhMl Onrflkoli«fcal Caah. CMataaa 

CaitviMM. Wbu I4 
Ca«.(3fardM ' 



Caakay. R. C CbrittaHa Cmmm, 14- 
OHpaaaL Prank M> R a ti e a i bar. 4t. 4i. 44. isi> 
if*, til. 157. J17: a dBwI a l iby. 45. loi. iii. 
<t4- *S9> i*9: Notas on ibe Phiami af Nortk 
Aiaarkaa Birds. |a. i«s> *oo: Joba 



JiMia r.« SacralM9« Rapatt oL jlO' 
Rldbaid M, at ■■■mi, fc.^. «a 



Maada. GaHaa li; BhMMr M BaM. ssi 

A Naal Cm—, tjt. 
CUUk VUkm P.. Sacfttaiy. Rapait *C jAe. 
Chfkly. Bairaid B, Oraaia Ohm% 19. 
Oaik. L. nbabalb. Tba VUl«a la Ml laMMlad 

Batb-Tab. iii. 
Cole. Manaml^. A BlaMid'* NaM b a Mai 

"ml Bi^> A Oiaat BanMd CM. •«». 
> Mlpniiaa NaM^ jM 



«) 



Index 



Ccmt»mL M. I. » «<»l— I mm! CiHiii Bi i *. »*t* 
C^MVIM. Mfv C. N. fmUm. K«pa*t of. 
Caak. Ff tfc r, CWfal— ■ Chmmu iA. 
C9n^ fari^ A. HiMJM Ik* M id IIh ii. go 

ruiMtt. t««. 

' '». Mnit l>^ ^widnil. Rrfwll of. mA. 
akwrjntiiilwi I II 
^ ' :r^.-. **• —»* f» CMMflHM C«MM. la ij: 

C«nii«. AMradYrrX iM-BMk «f lh« CMtwIak 
Calvtr. DrfM K, CVIiUM* CtMM. i6. 



A. J, CWaUBM GHMWk. !». 

Ddi. B. M. S, 9iaHk««ad llml 'tSifwm ta 

TTHrin. Mtb 
DMfa>«k la%* R. Aa t'MUMl AcrUort. ajA. 
Daafafilk. ttmut T. CMmsmm Cmwh. is. 
DMkK liMNr, OkkUBM Ccimm. >»■ 
Dmmt. Mur il, CMmm* Chmmk. u- 

Davk. Bdvh > ■■ ObIiImi CoMWk A. 

Davk BanMadL Mt BMNkT. L. 
DaMtTirM. L . ««^ nrtSmoik. H. C. 
Dortaa, Adtk*^' ' •vdmatad Wariikr 



Dmt. WWuB. «T m>>.. Hcriicrt H. 
D« MiV. A A. Noln fioa Novm Scotia. 
Mnib, E. S, ChriMMM Cmwm. *e. 
DowwMMk Wakar. ma WMt», Bartha K. 
Doolttlc. E. A, Clwfcfaa Cmmi> m; More 

AbaM ikr Saacaf Ike Rfd-ayrd Vlnow m* 
Dov. 8cmI« awl Edmrd H. HkKfclry. Chr 



Dotkt. CoHMla. A Robta'a Not and Faari^. jh 
Dnacl Evaa C. hw Foa^jrcr. Gm> L. 
Dwr. H. E.. CMaUwM Cmmm. aj. 
D— bar. Laara. aad Kafcnt. |r, ChriaUaa* 



DwiiiN. JowthaiL 
Dm. Mn. W. E. U C< 
RafMfftof. iSr 



Earie. Gcacc E.. aad O^ CMaUMu G 






The MocUi«Mfd «( the AraoU 
<- EaMWMM^ E.T. 



Is., awl Edwia S. fhirilh. Chrktaa* 



• 7. 



Many E.. Tht CoarhM: A PMarilr. iS< 
u A.. Chria—i Ctumm, jo. 
i |{ «cSiahLR.H. 

Saoftaiy. Rcfntt cif. J05. 
Chalraiaii. R^nn of. jos- 
uov r. I ^ ChriHaiM CaiMH^ la 
Havy Laaa. Chrirtaaa CMaaa. is 
Eral Cmim B, Fwpaiallw af P«od by a Blark- 
bM. 140. 

Parky. Piadl. Chrtalaaa Ccmw. 4. 
PaaTlteialaa M- BInb' Low for cJor. 107 
Phhqr. WMub L. FMdAamljRaaort ol. iso. 



FUhk. Dr. aad Mn. G. Clyde. 

II. 
Flihv. M. L, Cbikfai CaM«m *s- 
FluMkrs. DaW* Saoalary. Bapart of. 484. 
naaaar. Ovaa D, Caidlaal aad Othv Mnk 



Fiirtiaih; EdvTlfcwc. FlaM Afiat. Rapuw of. us 



Futti. i.<luiM- r* HV I'rlln 



^tMnrr. uiaay*. A iruow hau la • Mrm. n$. 
FkvaABinHmi CkrfrtHH Ommc ij. 
FiMdncMk Ftaak. ■§ naaklMaik Floi. T. L.. 
FMadaaaBL E. aad R, Chrfataaa Caaaaa. la. 
Faartak Loda Aparia; Oriarad platea by. 
Iadi«. yi. 175. Ml- 

Gaadatt*. Mark E.. Sacntaiy. Report of. jM. 
Gaaaai. Harvki. The B un oa«ha Aamboa 

Natavt Cliib of Rochealar. N. Y, 6S. 
Gaidaar. Mn. Artbvr F, BMi I have Scan 

Bathe I M 
(«Mr. Mn. t;. U. With the Bkda b AlaAa. »m- 
GflMaa. Haadkoa. aad Tcfthn vaa Dyha. 

CkrkiaMa Ccaaww is. 

(;inrtlr \fr^ T) C tn-Maliw^ Mfb. F. E. 

>.iacbkd. *4Jl. 

M- II '■ ' r I . V nriMiaaa Caaawk t. 
<,-.t:t,U\ 1 u-'.«'M and Charka MacNaaauB. 

< lif :nIthji< ( »liMi». 4 

ir..,,l'. M^.i!^.-..| *. Chfktaaw Crawii. 4- 
t.jt!:K<i \\.>iirr ( hriaaias Ceaawk la. 

> c Bc»»c U^ ChiklaM* Ceaaaa. 6. 

' c^ Fiaacaa BUacr, CkrklaHa Ceaaa^ S. 
■ rn. Beat tL, mi Bdaa Jakaiea. ChrkUMa 



H. ja. 
Gnca. Jtaale Lovaa. Seovtary. Report of. j8a. 
Laraaao S, Chrktawi Craiai. a4. 



<-n. 



Manivt S^ Scoftafy. Report of. 
WHlaai C, Letter fiaa. a79 



(.nnry. Stapkaa S.. Jr, aca 
Gnka. Alieft P. A Toftad 1 
Grkeaak Ludlu* 
Gray r 

CfTkaMiio. ' 



Pfefkcr. 
TkaoaM Sloa^. to. 

CriMbv. Maunarll S : ov 



H.. Sacaataiy. Report 
HaB. Eather tL. SeciMaiy. Report oi. 
llunStoa. W. J.. Photomph by. lyS. 
lUndky. Cha*. C_ ChiktiBas Ccaeaa. 



Haibaaw 
Paadly 



t., Chrlatawa Ccaeaa. «. 
hrietanaa Caaaaa. a4: A 
i hmahe*. ifo. 
Haidy. LcuoAxd iJMtxki. Bifd^otca fmai Mk- 

riadppL 56. 
Harr- v,....u m McAtoe. W. L. 
liar- kuMo* CHy RcRkik j^ 



14- 



Ham. J .r... i . «ea Bkka. Maark* C 
IUiha»a>. Il«ny S.. CkrlMaaa C 

kuk. 



Ilaukobcrk 
Hayward. " 
Meacodu I 
Heaaav. tnn^ 
Haawal Eatkir- 
HeaJeraoe. Mr 



inl F. CltrMti 



-.rt of. w. 



79 



Herr. Har 
Hkjbar. Itaa.^ - 
Hi. F. Bkad>' 
HtedJcy. Ed»4 
G. A.. 



<*. '46 
Hb. Gaone E 

Hooker. Affiac L. _.. in NV» 

Jenry. joi. 
Ilurtcy. R. E.. aee Edaoa. Wm. I 
Hondal. R. Bmoe. Cokaad |date b>. ■•"og. t 
Hoctaa. Tkaodorc. Ptaaideal. Report of. s7^ 
Hotckkka. NcO. Ckrkuaaa Caaaaa. 9. 
Hoocktoa. Ckrcace. aee Lawrcaea. Dr. Joaeph .S 



Index 



III 



E. IT 

RmcM. C 



i«<.jft«^ 



**. JWJ. 



iBMwnK. S. lU EoUm wd FldMn. ij7: As 
AMmP 



Rflrfrtaft. to«. 



{•wTlii. Dr. E. R. P. Mt Owbjr. Mmnwl S. 

Jirmt. V n—i. wr Elat W. A. 

jr(lrr> Vrtlar A, PWlatni^bjr. i8i. 

Ju6. Ucfbtft K, Pfcnto j wp ll by- cu Annu*! 

lUp«t.iu. 

ESm. m GfcoL BcM K 
I. H^ aad Mary BcUr. Laratauu 



rUmwar P, ScaolarT. Scport d. j»a. 

'^»^ j I.^weSukLT H 
J -nr^ 1 mmK Obcriia RrcKin. m, 145. Mi. J07* 



Kur. VOrtU r . wr Vt 

KrU. j » H . Binb awl SM. i«9: Scarcity of 

k.i.Uc. \ N IVaidcat. Rc|n«t ol. j6S. 
lUMa, K4««rd D. Cbrirtawft Ccmm. sj. 
Klas. Mary. Mt Daaacr. May S. 
Kktmbr. Mr. aad Mra. hmfk. Jr, CMrtMS 

CcMttft. 18 

Kanrdk Mary Eaatwoed. ScocUry. Report of 
dtt Fopot Mb CaidiM (N. YJ ' ' 
Sodrty. ML 



I4>. 



K^^ M. H^PWl^iidi hv. s<- 
EoMrr. La«ia S^ CWfafai Chmm. 14. 

Utrr. (larVicte A, Saoolary. Report of, ssn. 
l^n.jt.trr. t. W Oihlwai Chi—> «7- 
Uncv. It^ Tlw EvoaiM GmbHk a Smmw 

RoidaM hi SortlMrm Ml 
Laaa^ Albert, tm Ratak T. L. 
Larrabot. P. J, and A. P.. Chrfalaa* Ciaiin. »«. 
Lanoa. Adrka. Owfatawi Ciaaai> aA. 
LatlMai. Roy. Cfcrfnaiai Caaia^ 1*: rat Sailk 

Mrt. FraaJt U. 
UwmKv. Dr /o«pk S.. aad Ckwacr IfnatlHoa. 

fhrnlfiva* I mutk. u. 

l>rT 

Lr«a. t nanr* «% . :MxrrtarY. fcrnan at. JM. 

Inailiir. W. P, m Motm. H. G. 

Ltwk HMitaaa P. TTahlMi Cmmk, i. 

Ultl*. L. T. ClirfclwM CaaM. 6. 

LKonaan. Roiiat. A fifbl lor a JloaM, >«•. 

{.ncu. Wia. Sptacor. CMrtaM* 1 

l^^n^t ( loodc. M. D, CMMmi GHHaa. as. 

l-ui»rrw. Mr*. C M, " ---:= 

LoagUaad. jo^i. 

MacOoaoM. Coaivr. aad 

Chrklaaa Cmm^ $. 
Mm Naauia. CWriaiL «• Ganalqr. Lkaori 



Manball 
Martin, v 

M«(bar. Mr*. P. L CMmibm Cmmm, it. 

MattWiTwW ^<o MiirJBL&MlM WT 



Maiadl Mft. R. D.. Saoalaiy. Raport of. jSf. 
McAtoa. W L. ~ " 



McCoaarB. Marry B, Ckrimmm Ciinai. $4. 
McCnaaJ. Uab aad llaaM U ChrilMa 

McCoaariL laoaaaai lac oHO-naaH For Aapic 

Martial^ 1%. 
McGrw. a. D, Photaaapli by. ^i- 
Maada. Gordoa M JaadR. M. ClMaa. 

Cttmm. 10. ^^^ 

MaaL A. K.. tea SliicanridBii Cbarlaa A. 
Ma«(L Mr. aad Mrs. G. Hcaiy. drlalani 

Manteaa. R. Owea. A Nmtetdi Scakkm •»* • 

Woodpecker Sao«>Balbiac. 1*9. 
Macfkt. Charloi W.. aad Wm. MattlwwK 



Gcrttwdik aaa WUliu Bartaa E. 
R. J, A Catbkd PoM^B^ at. 
Aorabaai Boflii taa Bcdu Hcfbcrt H. 
TdBrr. Piaadi» aaa Saydcr. Looy. 
MMv. WaMraa DaWkt. OwMaM* Ccana. 14. 
Mflhi Riibv R.. SaoMafy, Rnort of, 381. 
I. Arthar, CWIrtaMU Caaaa^ 



MRchal. Arthw, Cbriatawa Cwwi. 6. 
Mm. Laara B.. mWUte, Bcrtte E. 
Morlock. LoMcr. Ftetompb by. qo. 
Morriik Lacy N., Scrrctaiy-Tfoaaanr, Report of, 

3*6. 
MoTM, H. O. aad H. Grace ChrkftaMM Ccaaaik Si. 
MoaMa. Bacyl T, Lawfa H, aad P^ai. CMrt- 



MawNT FHvia H, CbrtataMa Ceana, t. 
K irk. Pitejdaat. Report of , jj 



Mur 

M: 



t. 



t WiMaan, Wiatcr Bird 



i|6. 
Uk ia 



.^nfcm. 71. 



Kaf.^ 

Nehoa. PhBp H.. aee Nkkobw Edaard G. 
Ncwkkk. Garrets. A FBckcr't Food. 8s< 
Nke, Maifaret M.. Cbrtoaiaa Cwaa» ae; See 

Bhd Obewadoaa Dartat • Mfld Wialar ia 

riatial Okkboaak joe. 
Nka. MaiMa Daacaa. TWo T^ Mwarajag 

Doraa, a6t. 
Nkbok Edaard G, aad L. Nateoa. Chrialana 
J^eew Mi. ^ 
Nkaalis Joaa iVeadadL Bird-Lorv • Tarealy* 

Im Cbrietaaii Ceaea*. j. jee; review* by. ««. 

ail. J17: New York Rnia. st. 92. 143. *eOi 

><o. je< *^ t.nnacr, Wakar. 

NirhnlM>r SrfllMII ClBiai. it. 

.N'uriuci. A i iaM Afnt Rapott of. lu. 

Noetoa. Mr%. uany UNL Sa u a ttiy. Rapait aL 



Raport of. S7S* 
NovU. Praak. CMMaaa 



Secretary. 



Nortl; 



—$' 



Hany C, Wi 
1U, iA«. soe. tMK jsf : 1W 
AiMfkaa Bir«. ft, ip«. 

hduad, RackeL Sacralaiy. Report of. siy 
- ' % WiMlMapk PWd Asaai. Rapait of. M*: 

Or. T. t^ jUJCjt H. Tlayw^a^atft- 
I la BIm Piaiactaaa. ttfs twfm ay. 
tflL Jit. 
PawbatB. CMord H, Cbrietawe Caae«k 16. 
Paraoe. Dr. J. B., PWMfiaplihgr. i7T. 
Paikbawu Aanr C l agalaqi. R tfan of. J7«> 

Nwewaa. CTaiaace B. Tit 8aa« Speurra* b a 



Index 



Omht. to; 0« 



T. cabmu 

NalfaMlPkHMteOrwil 

iti; 1W fMvM* A Omir «■ 

ta^amTC^id MmC, lu: SMI UrfiMwi 
UM»m% Iff: Giwi ll o w w Ovt rt«: La* 

t«^rdli« Sdt Md Wariat of FtMhOTk t«9: 



tfoB, tya; Nmt Yvft UiUiliHk irit Y« 
MM ruk Affth Atlacktd. lyi; AmmI 
Kappft for Uw Imiat Aadabm SocMh^ »»»; 
71m Li«d UIm«I 

Immi wCf FiDrtM MM 



I. «*9:lflkiM 
lor Iki BMik tat; Ghm^k Goon. »|o: Joal 
AMoh AIM. OMMwy. n4: N«« kiUbom 
Wri >MM igii— . af : Ay—I Myriy . trVi 

Faalaak I>iii3i« j, iCcom-EatiiW Woodp acfc« . 

MLSlWVMMl M, aat Blika, llMHka C 

Pirihw. Mwtoa |, OiriafMa Omw. aa 
HMm. Dr. Aom E^ Notti froM Cnlfca. N. N 

vAm, Id— Id H, Qilalwai CaM«fc 4- 
PiAiHk S. B. A Wkka Craw. t4» 
Fariar. Manr D, Ostarie Kotn. jei. 
rariajr. W. B, Jr, TW Advastana of • Spanov 

ntSMM, H. A^ aacMaiy. Knott oC m^ 

P>Im» ItofMat. ItlictriM iaOthliwa. ic». 
PtM^ ai iJOM tlMc Mt TW*' BmI — I _^ 

TftKtk Wtti J« CknattBM GHHik wti Btraa aad 

Pla acau LBas W« Sacntaiyt K ap wrt ala job. 
niBMu ABn W>a sacaaiMQr* KaBait al. jay* 
^avwiKi ^vaiMBi saa iiaa Mai^ MaaiaaB s» 
^Mtar. lUmOtoa P, WMia Bpata at SwUhia— . 

N 
Pottc: . aaa Ctolvar. Ddoa E.: PMla- 

dalpaM KccioM. ^ joit 
Ptalt* HalaB S« Sacivlanr« Kap o c t of. jso- 
B. A« aaa McAlac W. L. 
Miliaa D. W, Cliialaaaa Ceaaua> i6. 



lUvaftotjBi. 

4- 



tak«, Maiy B. aad W. 8« ■■ Dkl. W. A 
KallC Vkte Jaaa. A BbdT^Madr. 4*7 
Ramraaa^KailHriBai Saoataqr. Baport of. 
tanr.Ka 

MHik at 

Edvaid S. 



Kki. Waid J, Om 
Pia^ aaa 



-.A.A,i ^. 

. C A. aM W. L. MaXMik L. T. 

Robam. Piawin. a« Infaa. Wak Snacar. 
Rakarta. Dr. ThoaMt S, Mlnaaaota lU^ jA^ 

8aB? A KJi^Uara Naal. i«t. 
P. B, OilBBij SiHUa to pa aad 

-***" G,CMalMaCa.a«^ii 
t IL. dirtataMa Caamw If. 
B, aaa O daar.J ) daaB . 




Mai. J«Lw, 



Haltialf^aM 
SLUaiaBMCIak 
Sagt. Un. Maqr 8« PMd 
aaa bowi. Bkaoa D., Tka 

CaSi 



T 1 



SaaJnd.f'NVp.. TW Woodceck m a 



>■«»> SBMdani AaalM A^CMrtaH 
'aiai^ 1iiaaBi.JaaaaataadTlwaaL. 



Sairapa. L. P, aaa McCoaatl. Tlieiai L 
Savyar. Baattfca. A Prioadbr Wood Prww. jaj. 
Scftaiar. ElkiL Sacrctaiy. Rapett of. jtj. 
SdMU Oipka«d M, PiarfdvC B^^ af. 

M. i4»i aee. tu. au. 
Sdkmkr. H^a fC CMaUMi 



tt. 



SchaB Arthar. acr .Arm. TVmhIm, Jr. 

"Hrtafoa Cwiaoa. jo. 



"jaattla Aadabon 
Saftold. P. P^ ar 

Smnrr. Tlmrv W 



II. 

'<nt\rr. CltAfWa A. 



-ha? 

-:U? 



Scvanoe. H. P, Robia'a Ncal on a Ttalar Wire. 



R T, CkftaiMa Cmarn, aS. 
Skam. Mr. aad Un. J. E. Nortaa. ChiktaMa 

r. P. Rklv. aaa Edna. Wbl L. 
aw SMkhaidpb Ctailaa A. 
alt L-QiiilMii OMaa. »t. 
U. P.CIHifii Camm, to. 
^ i i p M .HMiyA, A Badtett Tkapady. a*!. 
Sml»K B. B. rWlalMaC—aa, m- 
Sadlk. EdiaiB &. Ma Bkhvar. C. E. 
8 a*fc. Eth al If « I ntlalita Taaapar fai Mi^- 

Sadtk I.»i.^^ CMattaaa CaMaa. t. 
Sa■lt^ k D., CMahaaa Cmmm. la. 

Saahi Kv«Bfaw Giaabaak Ncalii« ia 

Wiacnum. no. 

I P.. Chilat— a Caaaaa. «. 
' P.. TW YalewWaaHadCWtaad 



tW CovbM. t7S- 
Sajrdar. Larogr. Clrtatiai < 
SeadH^kad H. A.. 




O. A, Saoataiy. Raport of. j«7 
IdtkCWflaa ' 



^ IS- 

' B« StcMtaiy. Report of, jt^. 
, D^ aM Lanabaei A P. 

Wlqr Bkda lalcrat lie }.ti 

TaWr. ftrteqr RkhMad. A Bhd Bank. . « 
Takot L. R^ Piaaidaal. Raport of, j? a. 
T>per. TWa.^ A Soaa SpamNr Paaaijr. 147- 
aaaCaaaaa^y 



Tany. ABca. CbriatSMat 
T^ny. R. J.. Sacnlaiy-I 
TWyar> Bwtaa. aad CWilaa 

Caaaaa, $». 
TWaM^ Edaaid S, 

TWaifc CfS S, Ptotograpli by. tia; TW Bird 
Balk la dolUiv TIaM. tSi; CitUvoth« The 



Baport of. j6s. 
Joba. 



TBMa. Dr. Joaiab OiBb. A Saaacb Owl tWi 

SaaWd, ity. 
Tlppatta^ Un. K. B.. Praaldtwt Rtport ol. y/o 
TovMBod. Maaloy B^ aaaOaoda. Mrt. Harnet I'. 



Index 



lin. Uahd H. Prarfdml. Import of. 

R W, CMilaM* CouiM. i 
t. WkHor U^ BmIm Rtskifi > 



C«. 



r. OmcImA, 



Dmm. BMWud. 
f aa Djrka. TcrtfaM^ mc ' 
faa Hon. Dda R, A Mrt lith far Yoor Uwn. 

Vu TjTM. JiiMilyii ami dndi. CMrtWM 



Wciicr. rtMifat S, CMmmm Cmwi. it. 
^ X w.. Tkt BhM Jar's Bath. ii«. 

. A^ Ckfkuaaa Cmhk ti. 
U«.i>. I mil J.. Comivoadiac SacnUry. 

WMS^Mamrd E^ Qowt ■■thiac. tio. 
Warta^i FkaacH MWr. CMrtaaa C— m. at. 
WIlMb Boite Bi, Cmmm* Cmmm, to. 
WUMilur. Ukk IL. Tla Blaa Jajr Balks in 

WiMw. laS. 
WMttk Mr. aMi Mn. Charica U Me FktdMr. 

L.B. 



\ u WlaUe. Mn. O I, Mt MalWr. Mi^ P. B. 
VftitdMB. EIm. aad Vifatto C KaM, 



GaawT. GriMaU. 



Vlwt.C 



%r, aiad 



•ffThi MaM R« SHmm Macts tetwv. tr. 
WBS^ Bhk S.. wBia E«wt fa rSartlf I. 

Wlintt. Gcofse B.. Prcaidcot Rcoort of. j7>- 
■ - li n7a Do«bk 



WaftrUa. Ciwlfar C, Secretary. Report «i. ^i. 
Wakk. WoMoa. Chrirrmw Caaaua. 4. 
Waftar. Ala, CMrtaaa Cmmm. jt. 
Waftar. Edilk P, mo Tmy. Alke. 
WaJkor. laabali. SocfoUiy. Report of. 569. 
WaraK. WBb B, sh Forilrca. Geo. L. 
Way. W. Scott SaoclMT. Report oi. t6i. 
WiyiMiii. a W.. an foiifCf Gw^ L. 



Dr. aad Ma. Fiaak 

5. aSi. 
tta S. CMrtaMS Cmna. at. 
Wflaoa. Gordon, aee Laacaaler. L. Y. 
Wlaoa. Mn. Cbarka M.. Secrctaiy. Report of. 

W l raaB. Aaty P.. Saottafy. Report of. 377- 
Wood. PMfah The LoM-tailed Chat. lai. 
Woriajr. Jolak bm McCoaaal. Buty f. 

Tahwy. Lawreaoe. CWabaaa Caaaaik »: Photo* 
graph hy. 85. 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



AdriMry Cooacg. WkA4jauf%, 1. 

Ak-ffOHL Lav gnamnBn Mb oC 



Air-faan lav ooamaMf mm oi. M. 

AlaAa. BMi in. tM. 

AIn. JM Wi^ii. OMtoaiy of. 874: Photogtaph 

fll a7s: TMMia ta^ it«. Mf 
Aaaerkaa Bhd-HoaH JoanoL ao 



Bhitbiirl. Bfcwcr'a. aos: ficand. facta 
:Rad-«hwid. 



aSi; 
»9S. aoS. ago; Crow, igr; l> a d a fa g wl . 9a. 94. 
t4S. 144. ao7. aio^ a46. ^lo; RaMy. jA^ ga. 04. 



Bad, ail. 

htar Uafaa. tAaMtaa of 
at thu; 4$; Report of Aaaaal ] 



AnaaMiL aC^ 

Aadaboa Secfaliaii Aaaaal Meeth« of the 
Natfaaal AMocfalhai of. a7g» lao: Adviaory 
Board of Dfaactorik uo; Aaaaal Report, su: 
Riparta ol fWd Aaeaia. Ms: Stale nporta, mL 

'Aak. Tha.' nrlewcd. 00. <ii. mi. 

Avocat t4& SU 



BAldpalr. 141, 15a rv7. t^i 
BrT)! * UfeUrtorkaof Nort 



North AMorkaa Gaiiaad 



lrm%.' 



sn- 



BO. CoaMnratioa. 66; Water-Pmrcr. 64. 6<. 111. 
Bfafagfail Sarvay, Report of Banaa of. laimvad. 



_ Maa— I of laMfacttaaa far. ati. 
BbdChiha.»77;Lfalo(.Ml. 
Bfad Maajakjf. ••. 

Mid Nafaa aad%m^* a«&fa'u- 
Bhd^Paiadba. Mr el plaMM of the. 167. 



143. 144. ao7. aio^ a40. iio; xaaty. jo^ ga. 04. 
05. I4J. aos; ficvred. udas. ati; aos. aw; 
TrkdoMd. aiorVellowheadad. fcnradfaciw. 
I4. ISO. JOS. >ta 

S<. go: oa. 04. 96. ia7. 14J. 
aoa aai. 240. loa. jos. 311. 31a: 
40^ 41. 9^ i4«; Wealcra. 3IL 4A gSw 
I4» S96^ 314. 
Boat-Blad. 333; feared. 333. 
Boholhk. Lawte New Jetwy procacthw the. 16S; 
_ —Si *^ ••7. >SOt 3*7. 
Boh>wMfak 35< w6. ao7. 
MMaad, is. 37. 40^ «3- 
*BaiallB flftke Emoi Cooaty Oailhok«M 

Cfabh' laihiaad. 00. 
'Bdfada of the Now 

Socfaty.' aotked. ast. 
♦BriiUhi of the WoM OMlar (PaJ BM Ckb,' 

iSiot Ml. aofti aso^ 306: LarfL 147: 
8iaai6; Saow. ps- 
_ . ■. OMbniy at ito: 
oi tea laa; Bkthdoy MaHata, 167: 

A MOC fal hlll. IS3. •«4. 

"nHkoy. ■MVataN. TWh«T 






13a. 133. I*', tlil. a4i. 



•l^ 73. 74. ia«^ i3>^ 
aML •901341. 



Bi4»'F«d.««i 

BMir naMoaa. t3. •tab *90- 
Bkdr Seagi^ 14s. 179. 

BhtMs. i4t, sof. tob; AaMrkaa. aea: Cory'* 
•6s; Leaat jai. tM*. 



Dotr <■ laportad. 1 1 1 
jt. jll ?t. «lh pd. i4«. M 

■tii #<Ji 114. mim jtj. J87 

GsBwdbadu ft: ipn4 loi; lit . 
CWdtaaL 3«< «3. VS. *44. 14^ aoo. 



Calfchd. 



jj INMaty-MCaail. ^as^. 



v{ 



Index 



CUdkaiAi*. ui 






U7- 



. iit. 



JV- lo. Mv <^. 1 47. 

*CMdor. TW.' w » fa »iJ. tjA Alt* 
Ca—*rtki. 7. t. MS. 19«> JM. iM> JO*. 

CmbvS 'Blrak of tM WMMHilaM 

u rii wi t tji. 
Cdat 9». IAS. i4T; Aiw fc— . u. tM. aoT- 
CanaotuM. 9I «i<»: •ruMfTK 190: DouU*- 

c t lad. i*. t«tk, MS. jeo^ ill. 
Co«MmL 14A. 14s. I7S. iH. MS. *07. je<: 

iVOTd. i7*k *»j 

Cntptt. 04. M9; Bfwa, CgwvdL fadai; 1. to^ 

ClVMbflL AflMflCMk MS WIm#.wmi9M» 05. 

■(MfHl. io4i BmL ■mnd. jot. 
Crow. M-jA 140^ us. JM. 

MS. soy. asf. t|ft. 
('Mffav. 111: Had— fa». i40b MOb ass. >S*: 

t Hrt diwi MS. ao7. iftt tsa> i< * 

Dovt. M6: MWOTtlfc ••. 04. 144. '55. '»": 

ffand, tiH ita. ils. sM. joS; jroaos i>«>«>l. 
lit: W«tani Mb —Iih. jm. 
DowfedMr. I40b 19a ass. JoA^ J>Jt S14: LiMff- 



o. ifOk ao9. 
Dadu Bbdu la. is. 14. W. >44. ao>: Fahnm* 
r, Ctmtm Saapk 



Tiw. mo; Gtmt mt Scaufa. 54. OS. i4<>: 
ScM^ 34. IS. «S> *44. 147. 14a. Ma. *S4: 
Riac-aKktd. 146; Raddy. 144. 14A. mq: 
Scaapi. 147. aoo: Wood. jj. mt. tS4. sio: 
annd. afts* 
pa^ kfljif bjr fujiliai U. to. 
of I 



DatdMT. 



Kaflc Bold, J4. oj. J06. 

Cent. AaMfieoa. ooi 41. 190^ '44. a4S. 'So^ SOS. 
•07: Mb of phaacs of ihr. 1^7 

'cTifc 



No. lit}. iMXKrd. ast- 

PMibw*. Low npofdiai mIt 



of. 167. 



PMd Aaaau. Mpoito of, j4S- 
Fiadk CoWondft Ptirplo. 0^ nn. 314: Caaia's 
Paipk. 514: HooH, 3$, 147. ao7; nirplr. xs. 



_ •$» 

PIdwr. Bs. 04. ttS. MJ. (47. aog^ aA 

«kli ani. at7: jio: CuMia alagw. 97: R«d- 

dMflnL 07- 
Floddo. M. >i: bbd pfotoctloa ia, 9»^ j6i. j7«(, 



S>S. JOO. 

nsrcaldicr. AUer. Ma; CioMod. aos, 
JOK Laal. mi. aos; Oi»i ddaq mA^ mo. 



tsi. as4. 



ay. tji^ jm: TraflTi. »o^ ten. as4. *ss. »S«: 



Ml ajiib JiJ. 



Go bri ilw ^ Ite Bhd» Poaad ol Monladl 
Coaatjr. Iowa.' aodcad. ais. 
' ~ %%. M7. 

J0« 

Cia— Idwi. BiKfc-iolML ass; Bl aeGtay. 144. 
aji; Wortcta. 401 07. JiJ. 



17: Cmm 
fadac »ji 
Saoor. IS. I 



■ .ivil. MoffaM. 4a I40. iJOk nik tfS. t0 

iij. ii4- 
Cidfca y ii. %*, is. J7. 40^ «j. 0^ «f, «S4' 
fiiddiafi, la. a47: Cma badiodL t40> ajft; 

Loa waw ^ aoo. J14: WMev. A 141^ Jta 

•fO. 114. 
Goow. Blaa, 14^ 147: Coaada 

146. jii; ft 

matad jj. 
Gtadtlo. Bi B—d . os. 14J. i4A^ loa. loi. lOS. 
M7; Cgartdl (orMg. its; fir—~* •■» •"•. 
xiy. liarido. igared. fadar 
ntfpk. oa. 01. 04. 10*. )> 

GnbanBalMaViL ^ 14s: Honiod. ja. 5«. 146. 
sis: Pl ad b B b d. 14. ^ 14^ 14*^ *4^ aos. 
M7. ill; Eo d agcBod. jie; Waatava, 40^ 07. 
o&i 140. <s6. 

Gfodiaak, aladi awdad, isa ao}. aoS, *S^ 
iij; Blaa. ae^ sov. ao», aia iS4. >sA: Cvaaiac 
Hh 01. os: CfandL 104. 141; Pba. okm: 
Roa^bfoaaled, aos, ms. t%tt JBS: acaiTa. 



a«4. aSo. aoa Mi. 






Gal. Blodi.K-.^-' - 


•at-wfncrd. 08. 


OS. 

ifo: 
•so; 


Ilccnaaa't. 40. v 


''■■■- ■ 1. 


04. 


'Rio«*-&«drJs.l;. ' - •• 

SoUoc'i. ii4: Siafi-Mliad, o*: Weaara. 


Mj; 


JiS- 







Hawk. Braad-vlaiad. m. aoy. jo6: Coopar'*, 34. 
M7. aaA. je6; Dan. i4. 5> ■''' •^><>- Joo: 
Fcrrmlaoaa lliiinh hmd. •/ h. urn 

OilMcjr; Hank. J4. 04. 146. faoa. 

Ml. 3/019, ill: Bcd-bcnM. aio. Kmiaiird. 34. 
ja. ill: Roaiblaaad. ss. s*. i4«; Skorp- 
•Uoacd. i4. 147. aeS, joAb joo> i'i: Spanov. 
jl, jA, }os> io*^- 

tlcfoo. Aatboay'* Graaa. aoo: Btark-ciovocd 
NiglM. OS. M^ 14S. ao4. aoo: Great •" - - 
njk, 14I. aea. aos. >>« as4: fgarr 
Gmob. j6; Icarod. witkjHaC 77 
ao7. aoob^ 

Hoaoid'i 

Hadaoa'i 

Haaaid^bkd. mi: Alk 
ill: Aaaa'a. oB. <>o> • 
C'aJIkifw. t$tt; CoaU't. I JO. : 
ihrMtni. 140. I sa aos. >Si. - 

Ifaia. Wkko^accd Gloaqr. aie 
UiaaiB. as. aft. os. <4S. aos. a5> 
ladiaao, as. O7. i7«. JOS. JOS* 
loaa, a«kn.i70> 



a. jd; BBano. wiu am. 77 
MOb jiaft. jeS: Little Blac. afo^ jo;. xii. 
J't "farritonr b BM-Ufc. ' irvirwod. as7. 
I'a'BMaof UPlv- • - 



Jay. BhK. ib, M. 

J06. Ill: Blar< 

atalad. jS; 
Jaaca^ ja. 41. Oi 



JOS. 

IvOOIf 



■ llffjiuvr ». \f*. 



9!mSm.'^ jn: Plak^dd 
iddt'a^j&i47: Sena, jij; 



. M. 04. 147. 14O1 ao6. M7. MO. 
OCTy' l i tada d. A 4A> 140. .t'j; 



^.ddad, jl Jii: Shu 
Jij: Shto-aHofod. iS. 
iis; TWofbcr'a. 40^ *i^ ii4> 

Kahabadi aad GafaddMa'a 'EoMMarfc Valaa of 
tko Slaiiw ia tke Uakcd Slalaa.' icvkircd. 



Kcatadijr. »0. ay. 144. 

KiBdocr. j6. 4t. (44. (46. i4<* aos. ao7. ajS; 
jaj. ja4. 






Index 



Ml 



1*7. IqS. mi. *0S. JII: CMilB'*. 9A. 

o«. oft. los. *ie: I gM W B. lOis. 9ts: 

>«iici ow— d. A^ j6w Qi. 04. 07. 
Koliy- qw w— d . ji^ 14J. 144. 
Mtt. JOS. job. ili 



Kiniri 

• «'. 

kif«. kOT'. jolLjis. 



(nirril 



<« jU. iB« 4a »«. o^ •4<k tie: 
•niMi 9«. 146. 147; Wc9t«m. oS- 

1A17. 168. 171. *>s. a7o: 



<.f» mri 



for Bird 
Ualfact of tke ProwdlwBi of 

44- 



liaart. 110 

LaacHMr. «s: liaphod. os. >4<k >47: S erftbV 146. 

Loan. 4a oil <os. iiOb J15: K«d-thn«lcd. 4a «S. 



\UtU 



t. Tkr.' nolind. *ij. 

gii. «4. oAw 144. 147. ae7. *S* 



»S4. JfO. ill 
MalMw Lake Bwrvilhwi. is>« jM. 

\l»Mm I'unir ^ft. 75. 144. 145. 147, 19O1 MS. 

tgi. joa. J07. iioi. ill. J14: 



^' \ ' s pktttfc Irctum by. 

-. 0X rt. Is. ^. 94- 9$- ^ 9B. tAS. 

toft, M7. *6i. jia; Acofcd. 71. 961. 

:«•, 7«. lo. ii. 81: Florida. 80: 

term. 8>: Rio Gnwdr. 80. 8j. 84: 

^titcra. 8j: W«lt». igwod. bdMK, 71. St. 

• Si. 

M<rr«iM(r. Aacficaa. 40^ 08. 144. 140. »o»: 

ll>wdcd. ij: Bcd-twaaatod. i4. isa tot. t$b. 
^!'^Hn KirWihoo'a,. 148. 



0«. 14'. M4. I4i. t$t. JOi. JOO. 



'■£, 



146. joft, 1S4. ill. i6s. i8o. 
«i. 07. 144. I4» ir» Mi. 

JOft 

Iht. aolicvd. >ii. 

'< '■UamwUmt, 171. 
'>«al Daafir h our. 54: Rrpoti 

►t Bu waaal BiolaskalSarvty.' 



I Piotoctiaa ia. i4S. 

• 'S^ J^^ 3^^ <^^T* 



M. 1^ JOi. jM^ J7«k iSAw 
168. 

•i. i*. oa. I4J. se& joii. 
S7i. i7t. i>J. iM; U«i»- 



)>. 10;. 101. lie. II ; 



p #v. » yB">». ""J. K"! UfT»MCI|. Xl. 



JO7. 

Mf. 



tikio. »». ai. a4. if. MS. Mi. J07. J67. i9«. 
(Alkteoota. 99. 10* •'»• 
• *! Sttuaw. »«. > 
'Ht(4«ia. i. 4. n^N 
•Xvaon. jo^ii. i6i. 



«•: 



I »n>4r. A14: Arteaa Hoodtd. iso. aio; BtkiaMwa 

Ml. M*. M5. M6. lAO. 'Si: BatDck'li, I90k 

ao7. J08. J to, t%ft; Orraanl. m.i. ae7. tst. 
Ot^ny. i4. 105. t4i- '^- ■'■ "Oi. aie^ 3106, 



Ml. MS. XO' 

OM, Bam. ii. 10 

II 



*i ifonMri. i4: fm- 

l-onc-aared. i4: Saw- 

^>. . .. ., .. >cTBfdi. IM. asa:ic- 

and. 177. ili: Stiort-cared. i4. JOq: Soowy. oS- 

Patck't ' Bifd Storim.' rcvirwcd. itt. 

PcHcaa. Brown. oS. Sis: WMto. is. 40w aia 

iii.ii4- 
P — wyK a aia. 16. 17. iS. ii. je6. 360. 371. i78. 

Peawe. WbiaiL acumL witli acat. so: aos. ao8. 

aoo. aia a|6. ioi. iii. 
PkaiaoiMpla. ignrcd. 74: 07. »$$. '56. ii4- 
Phalarape. Nortlma. 4a aia iii, iu: Red. 

ii4. itc; WQna't. MS. aoo- 
PtMcbc Black, ficurad, 7i: Sajr'*. 07. U?. 'iol 



PifMO. Baaduded. 38. iaS; Chiaoc Spoiled. 07- 
PfMafl. i4. iS* 9i. 06: BfUftd. ids: 144. 14S. 

iia M7. aoo. >S4. ill- 
HpiU U. 40. 41. 07. oS. 149. 14*^ 140. it4: 
^Aaw nciB. 0^145. ms 
Plovcf. Black -b < il i id . 1 

Pipiac. 



40. Mi. aoo. tss. ioS. 
ii4; Goldea. jo8; Mountain. 41. 07: 
jot ■~^- ^"-mipalnuled. 4a isa J0.1. 
(>, ioH. sty, ntrurcd. 1 ; i 



aos. Mo. 
Sooary. 4' 
Pafia. iSifud. 14!^ 



I'liiami. 147. 



Quail 160. aoo: fiiuiad. aSi. a84. aSs. 
(>M!bw. i. i87. 

Rail. Viviiaia. igwed. si. «Si : Yellow. 8$. i4>- 

Radrtart. too. mi. ao$. n^ '<» >(> x^. ioR. 
RcdpoB. 01. OS- 
Rhode lalaiid. 7. i«8. 
a 10. 
34. Oi. 04. OS. 06. 07. I4i. 144. MS- 147. 
140. MO. ao7. aoo. ioj. J04. iia iia. iu: 
igwed. 18a. ilii: ac*t figured. 80. a4o: Wntrrn. 
i8: tgurcd. 7a. 
RoMM. Tka IqpJ killtiv of. i»s. 

Sam* Mfs. Mary S.. PlMtofiapli of. iS7. 

S aai Wdli i g. 41. Mi. a«i. 308, iis< 

Saadnipar. iii: Baiid't. Mi. iis: Bufl-breaaled. 

job; LcaO. Mi. aos. Mft. aoo. *SOi. asi. t$t. 

jot: i^KU«al. asi. ioft. 108: figuicd. iai: Red- 

baocrd. 40. 140. aoo. ioa. ju: Scadpabatod. 

Ml «a8: Agund. >i4: SoWafy. tea. 

M< II. 140. M4. aeb. aio^ asi. jo8: 

Still. .... . ,.. Waauro. aog. tss- 

SafMackar. 149; Riil Iiw<ai1. 40; Rcd-aaptd. 

jia; YeBow-^baMMl. tm m td, 107. Jos. J09. 
soHnaK MoauiQr. ivnawaa. aii> 
Sflolar. SwC. 4a 41. •>. 14*^ i40> its: WMtr- 

vdagod. 34. JA> «•> 140. aea. asft. its- 
The. St. 01. 143. Mo^ MO. i04 



ir. if. «!. 144. 14*. isa ae7. aoa. lU- 
SkrlM. MvBM. 147. M4. aot^ ajo; Narawra. 
J* Aw. 9$. »4* 

gyr!^ Jtf;,M;M7.iy M^ 300. 

awai Mi^ I afwiigiapaa oi. iio^ laa. 
Sa^tL Wina't. 3*. o*. 04. i4i^ <fo. 

I*. I4t. 140. ill- 



SaMk Dakota) A lAy. 



via 



Index 



»i4; 



JB«k i*4 



14^ 144. I 



vtik 



41. 



MM, JI4: 
•Of. lOT. 

IfMitf. wkk MM. itt: rhM. t4i. wy: ^ 
jMi^ M. 141. 144. 140. soft. l« > JI4: C "" «l i f « 
«ll 147. •oil 114: IcMvd. 441: GoMm* 
>a. «a 41. 9lw i4» »o& m; OCIM- 
Mi. *ot; «fW«dL «i1ck BMl. fta; 
Hinli'*. t4T. Mi. M&. Mf. Mb jtt; H«»- 
•iawlk loa^ Ml. jos; iBl i ti M d ii M . 140. m1 
iij: Uffu 14^ SOS. aos: UMalB'», 94. 14;. 

Mi. Mf . JO>: KMfclMCWWMd. ttOt SsVMMMh. 

Q*. 9IL iiS. M4. mA. My. soft: Soag. ja. mA. 
143. 144. >9a^ *SS. Jo^ J<«k i<*: fifwad. wfcli 
MM nd yiiii— . >47; Svmai|ik oi. Mf: TVm. 

U4. 147., «^ im; wbttnOinfac. 41; 
WMiani Uffc. t4» lot: W«aMa bvMMk. 
t40: WcalcfB yfmfm. 140; Wkl to qw— 4 A 14. 
joi. ill; igM«d. fty: WklM-lknalad. «!. W. 
Its. 441, aol «i ts4. JM.ie4.ieS' Je«k3i*- 
. .ta. t«A Mi. 
. iUpofto of ABliaicd. ISO- 
Mo>_<fei mo: Bh c fc — ti i il . 114- 

190^ MS. wy. aeo. as4. ts«w ill. 
jt4: Bern. 14. 14s. m*. aes. >ia *sa *S^ ley. 

ill. iii. su; CVff. 19a tis. iu: Noftlicni 
'iolal-<i«w». 190; Rwnh wtinrH. i4. mi. mq. 
fS4i TkHk 0*. Olw I4C. 14! tio^ Ma. MS. MO. 
, iw; VMM GcciB. aoD. »s^ iu: 



1*. 

Smb. WhiMlM. 01. i4S- 
Smit, CkiMBnr. mi. aos. aoft. a4S. lei. im; 
Van. aee: WUi«.«l«MiadL 4a 41. ^ "o. 

109: Scaakt i4. aos. ajo^ 
.^ 11* aiok as6 iii. 114- 

TuUm,wmimla^ too. aia its- 
TadL BlB»4Ha|id. aoy. as4' Jie^iHiClMMaMk 

14ft. 1I& aoo: GfMMHocad. JS. 07. 0*> >44. 

My. 14*. iie^ aeg. 
THMMaMo.iiy. 
Ton. Aidk. i4S. 14*: ttatk, ifvod. so, loj. 

ais: MM Igwod. 901, aos. My. mo, as*. «S4. 

*l^. ia» ill. 114: CaapiM. ise^ »S$. *S^ lo» 

ill. lis: Coaamwi. aM. aos. 'S*. JH* 114. 

J4S: (fwad. i46: Pontar'a. *$$. »s^ lit. iu; 

Umi. aiA aft^ ill. iis; K o wta. i4S. 14^: 

ifMBd. vkh Mat i4y: yems igwad. 34*: 

MgroLot. 
TaMfc I lialailiw lo. ayfc 
IWar'a. Abbot H, ~ 

PftMclfaM* aa7* 

ua; BiMm. .m* Mf. MT. 




otivi!bacbi3 



aM. aos. M7; H in oh. is. i^ 07. 



MJ. aoAb aoC ioiti aog. iii. iu: ( 

aoa. aos. 107. iii; Raaaat-bMad. aeg. aio, ass. 

|U. S14; VahnL ^ 4a 97. i40b aoA. as6: 

WMM'a. 



TJWM*! 
TliaMiMi. 



aoa; Wood. 140. mi. aos. aa0^ afo. 

Mn. KalbaalM. PVotafrapb of. isa. 

Toflad. •» 144. M^ M^ 



to tbo 



Tfaida 



To 

Tbwaaaafa 'i 

CoMtjr. 
TWMlaM. asu joOk jet: Block. 4a 41. MOb ajtw 

jiS;Rad4r. M^ >*' 

Vaonr. aos. 

Vi 



Vlaask B8l*a. aey. in; 1 

C^abi' 

«S6: Laaat. lae: 

iJUd^r<«r- 



baadad. loy. 109 



m6: 



bu^^^j^L^ 



IS© 



'■•'a. 



iti . KM ay cn •-■ — ;$a as4. j>~- j.>'. :>oU- 
tanr. 144. »c rbltag, Mik tiBk aos. 

ao& aji, 10(». ^^Idt^-ayad. aot. aoy; 

Ymoii AlMlgiJL Mi. ijA asi. 



VkaWo. sa. 



lyiibay. 14. 17. 40. mj. aos. J06, lie- 

WaiMar. Aodoboa'a. 140, ijo. ao^ i*h.J**'' 

a0o.i07.i0S: Black and WUtr. 

M4. 147. Mi. Mi. aos. *Sl. lOAi. JOB; 



HackbanlaaL aoa. joA. sic: 34. aos. 104. J05. 
jet: Bhck-tbfootcd Bhw. mi. mi; Black- 
tbiooied GcBjr. 40^ ija aog. it«; Block- 
tbraotod GfOM. aot. m6: B lo a oJa pd . mi. 
aoa. aos. ao«k asi: CalavaiaiL 190; CiMiHaa . 
aoo. Ml. MS. 907: Ca|io 11^. aoa Ma: 
(• \: Cliiat—t i*dtd Ml. tot, m$. 

x- cioactkat. Mi, ioo: Owby. no, 

Ooiara wingvd. aoj. joy. joS; Ucnolt. aio. 
Hooded, mi: Kaatockjr. *o^ >}'i Lotaacrai. 
40. 148. 1901 aot. aog. as6. jm: BlaqtiDhrTajr'a. 
lie: Magnnlia. mi. aos. iot; Mooniac. Mi: 
Myrtla. ja. 91. mA. so*. *os. as* 104. los. 
ie6k J07. 109: NaAvflh. Mt — '»^ii«r- 
caooraad. 97. iii: Paba. aos. ' 'O'* 

PBaobted. it. 40> oy. t4t. tfo jii. 

114: Plaa. 144. Mi. aos: PraMc mi. jji. jot; 
Pwtboaotaiy. Mi; Taaoaaaaa^ aoa aoa. ms. 
ao7. jet; Tobnk. jt. i4t: Tovaaead'a^ 40. 07. 
140. ija ill. iu: WlaM'a. Mi. ms. ioM. 
Ydlow. it. 4011 Ml. aos. >oy. aot. aog. jio. 
fife. iso. a$i. a$«. JOS. iia l»i: Y«**o* i^ 
iJ. 14. Ui. 14^ t4S. io6; YcBow-tbMotod. 

WaSuMlaaL D- C. jo^ i4. oa. (44. aoi. ts». 3m 
Walar ObmL 40. 

Walar Thnak. 040; CriaaaTiw aos: Le w ia i a n a. 
14.i4S.M%aof}Nortbam.iM.a44.«je 

Wanrii^ Biibiitii, os: Cadar. it. 40^ 97. ot. 

i4» *tA. ato. Ill 
Waat Vbibria. 19. 
WUpiKxir-viil. ao7. aoo. ii<- 
WldtaMa'a ' FaaiObr Stadica of WBd BMa. Tlwir 

Haaala aad Habka.' iwiowad. 44. 
WUpoa. ill: EuMpcaa. 97. 0>- 
Wifit, 96. 149- >sa. *s6. aiBtb, iu: icand. las: 

WImb BiilafiB Taa. laviewcd. 100, jii. 
ta. tft. a4t. 491 

"ISO. 



tja 14s. 147. aee. m 
r/Botdiddcr'a. tat: 



ato; Dovajr. lag. 147. asi; kpaod. a9i: 
UaVa. 140. iii: Nortbcra Plleat«L 



Liava. 140. in: i^« 
Piaalad. ficarcd. 41. Oi. 
baMad. aos: Rad-baadadL 



ortbcra nieataiL i$; 
aos. ao6i, 907: Red- 
9«. 9S. 144 aos. *i^ 

Wita, Bcvkk'ik aej; Ckctoa. an, CaAoa. as6: 

CaiaHaa. u. 91. i47: Hoeaa. lat. aoo. mi. 

aos. aeib aet^ ao9. ajo. iu; Loac-bOlad Manh. 

Mt; PaifcaMa'i^ 40^ as6: Rock, aotw jii; 

SboftMBad Matih. aoo. aso. ioo: Tcaaa. joa; 

TM^mI i9aiWialar.9i. ao6. a44 
WaMTk. ass- 
Wj iiMiii. ao; Wk SkaatiM fai. 170; I atf*Hi» 

io.ar». 



Y ai o a h ga . IS. (4*. t4t. 
CtMtar. ISO. ao6L asi. asa; 



tX.'&S 



aio: MaryUad. mi. aos. m6. 



Caaiaaaai 19a* ■* Pbamb M. Caaf aw 









Pamar-CsmttM 
Sudn ' kmrnrntaimA 




S^irbUore 

A BI-MONTHLY UAQAilHti 

D K VOT mD TO THB tTUOY AND WtOTBCT lO W OT BUKM 

0^ncl■^ 0*««M «» Tmc *wev»e« •ocicths 

VoLXXm JANUAKY— PBBRUAKY, 1931 No. 1 



Bird-Lore's Advisory Council 

WITH some slight alterations, wc reprint below the names and 
addreiaes of the omithologi.Hts forming Bird-Lore's 'Ailviaocy 
Council/ 
I'o those of our readers who are not familiar with the objects of the Council, 
v%-e may state that it was formed for the purpose of placing students in direct 
"munication with an authority on the bird-life of the region in w' ■ ' •' 
to whom they might appeal for information and advice in the i 
uhics which beset the iatdated worker. 

The success of the plan during the twenty-one years that it has been in 

' Ttrration fully equals our expectations. From both students and members of 

* :ricil we have had very gratifying assurances of the happy results 

liti); our eiTorts to bring the spedalbt in touch with those iHm> appreciate 

i>|x>rt unity tu aN-ail themsdves of his wider experience. 

1 : is requested that all letters of inquiry to members of the Council be 

■it-iumpanied by a stamped and addressed envelope for use in replying. 

NAMBS AND ADDRBS8B8 OP MBMBBR8 OF THB ADVISORY COUNCIL 
INITEl) STATES AND TERRITORIKS 

\i AMI* -Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 1919 t6tJi St., N. W., Waiiiincton, I). C. 
i^ADo, ]>o K. Lafayette Ave., FayetteviUe. Ark. 
I Tbombcr, Tuckm, Aria. 
joMpii Gfiaadl, Univertity of Calilomia, Berkeley. Calif 
Walter K. Flaher, Palo Alto. Calif. 
-Dr. W. II. Bergtold. iiS9 Race St.. Dcsvot. Colo, 
tt — j. H. Sage. Portlaad, Coan. 
iu>x^Ki> s N. ftbooda. Haddoafdd. N. J. 

'>Lt;iisiA.— 6r. C. W. RkkaMmd, U. S. .S^i 1 Mu< , w 1 ' « 

■ nk M. Chapman. Am. Mua. Nat. History, New York ( 1 
VVcaura.— R. \\ i«. Jr.. U. S. Dep(. Acrictdturc, Waai»ti>K 

-Dr. E fia i M xugmia, Ga. 

1 NOM, Mmthum.—B. T. (.auii. GIm EUya, III 
1 ■ : HOM, Soathsnu— Robert RUlgway, Olacy, 111. 
Ki.iAMA.— A. W. Btttlcr. State IIoum, Indfanapelis, lad. 
I *A -~C. R. Keyea. Mt. Vemoo, Iowa. 
K ^s44«.— Harry llarria, tS W. s^l St., Kansas Oty, Mo. 



7 Bird - Lore 

\ C. Wtbb. NaalivUlc. Tcm. 

I'rof. G«ocge E. Beyer. TvUae Unlvmity, New Orican*. 1^. 

Maink —A. H. NortM, Society at Nalorml HUtory. PortUod. Maiiw. 

MAUMHt-ftcm.— Wiator M. Tylr- *-■--- Ma»». 

MicHioAK l>rol. W. B. Barrow* 'liege. Mi 

"! i*'er»lly ol Slinn . Minnca|N»l> 

■MlU. Mo 

1 jbl. hUi- ' nl. 

V H. Wd. ».. 

Nevada.— I>r. A. K. FUher. i ■ y, liepi. ol A«r . Wuhinflor 

Nkw H*%««^"'"' •»» '• M a Soc. N«l. HiH.. Rmtun. 

Nrw Jkk >nk M. CkApnun. Am. Mm. Nat. HUtory, New Yc»rk City. 

Nkw jKkM >. >outnrrn V\ timer Stonr \ ' T-.v Natural Science*. Philadelphia. Pa 
New Mrxuu.— Dr. A. K. FtAher. Biol ry. I>rpt. o( Acr.. WaAhioKton, D. (' 

n — |>r. A. K. Ki*hcr, U\ 
n — K. H.-l-laton. Hobaf 

(). c; l.ibby. \ .». 

Ir-.i. T. (i. PearK.t v«y. New York City. 

ClHio.—Prol. Lynd* Jones, Oberlia CoUegr. (itiertin. Ohio, 
lu. .....W4.— pr. A. K, Fbher, Bioloiciral S.-fw ijmi ..f Vgr., Waahinrion 

W. L. Finley. Milwaukee. Ore. 
~\. KaAtem. — Witmer Stone, Ara-i s.u 'x irn. . n I'hiladelphij. « a 
*. Weatem.— W. K. Hyde Todd. (*arnricic Mu*runi. F*in»burgh. Pa. 
'away, Boi 1466. Providence, R. I. 
•n Mii«eum, Charirklon. S. (*. 
•lie. Tenn. 

\AA. 

Utam.— I vM K. Jooca, !»alt Lake City. Utah. 

VttHoKi I •. H. Perkins. Burlinfton. Vi. 

ViiciNiA.— Dr. W. C. Rives. 170 Rhode lUand Avenue, Washlogtoa, D. C. 
Wa^ Samuel F. Rathbum. Seattle. Wash. 

\Vi \ l>r. W. C. Rives. 170a Rhode Island Avenue. Washington. D. C. 

WtscuKMK. -II. L. Ward, Public Museum, Milwaukee. Wb. 

CANADA 

Alskkta.— (;. F. Dippie. Calgary. Alta. 

Barma CoacMau.— Fraads Kcrmode. Provincial Museum, Mctori.^ 

M ^v - Kmest Thoapsos Seton, Greenwich, Conn. 

No-. -Ilarr>- Plcn, Provincial Museum. Halifax. N. S. 

-JaoMa IL Fleming. 267 Ruabolme Road, Toroni' 

-W. E. SasBden, Londoa, Ont. 
t^aakc— W. U. Mooriey. Hatley, Qttcbcc. 

MFJCICO 

. ,-ImMI, Biolocical ^o'*^'-^' !>'-'>• »' \f>r \V3kKm(«l<iti I I ( 

C. B. Cory, Fldd MoMam. Chicago. III. 

GREAT BRITAIN 
Clinton G. Abbott, Conservation Comwlssion, Albany. N. Y. 



I 



Bird-Lore's Twenty-first Christmas Census 



THE highest number of spedet reomled in this census, in the northern 
and middle Atlantic Sutes, is 38 at Montauk, Long Island, and Cape 
May, N. J.; in the south, 58 at Plant City, Fla., and in the MiiaiiHppi 
WnHty, 35 at Kansas City; and on the Pacific Coast, SanU Barbara with 96 
has no cloae oonq)etitor. 

The unusually open seascm, no doubt, accounts for a number of sporadic 
records of birds far north of their usual winter range, such as the Phoebe, 
Catlnrd, and Palm Warbler. 

The early date at which the census goes to press leaves little opportunity 
for sutistical study of it We may note, however, that the 'comeback' anti- 
cipated for the Golden-crowned Km^t exceeds our expectations. In the 1919 
census, 26 of the 138 lists for states east of the Mi8sis8q)pt reported i to 11 
indi^-iduab oi this spedes, with a total of 85. This year (1920), 41 of 134 lists 
record i to 37 nidtviduab with a total of 278. 

On the other hand, the scarcity of birds in pbures is less general than was 
anticipated. The average total sptdes for Massachusetts b 14, versus 16 in 
1919; whereas in New York it is 17, and in New Jersey it is 20, in both 1919 
and 1920. In Ohio, however, there has been an increase of from an average of 
16 in 1919 to 18 in 1920. — ^J. T. Nichols. 

Cambridge, Bnntand , — Dec. la. Snowing; temp. aS*. Moorhen, 3; Lapwing, »$-, 
Gremt Spotted Woodpecker, i; Green Woodpecker, i; Rook, 50; Starling, 75; House 
Sparrow, too; Pied Wagtail, 4; Grey Wagtail, a; Wren, 10; Tree Creeper, a; NatluUdi 
t ; Great TitmouM. 4; Blue Titmouse, i ; Redbreast, to; Hedge Sparrow, 1 ; Song Tbnah, 
15, Blackbird. 8. Total. t8 spccka, jtj iadividttals.— AtraKO C. RaonaLO. 

CaaroM, Albarta (to DrM Meat Laka). Dec s;; 1 to 5 r.M. dear; 8 in. snow; 
«<^t «in'!. Iifht; average temp ja* above. Two miles on foot. Shaq»>lailad Graase, 
tr. 1 io%r>% . Ruffed Grouse, i (Red tail); Blue Jay. a; Downy Woodpecker, i; Smom 
dakc, >o, Krtl(MU. 30; Black-cappcd Chickadee, a. Total, 7 tpcdcs, about jt individaab. 
-Fa ASK L. Faalxy. 

WotfvilU^ H«(f« Seetia.— Dec >?; 9 A.11. to 1 fM. CUar, ground bare and fraoca; 
no wind. htmp. aj*. Ei^t aUka. Area, wooded ridge above town, Greeawidi to aseadow 
lands adiaccat to the Conivallb River aad retara. Berriag Gull. 8; Black Duck, too 
(appfosiaMtely); Canada Ruffed Grouse, a; Crow, 7; Black<apped Chickadee, t. 
Total, s specie*, approiiroatdy 1 19 individuals.— R. W. Terrs. 

Quebec, P. Q. (Bergervtti^ Sla. Wtff, Cif B — g s> Iri4gek SBerr).— Dec. a6; 
9 30 4 M to 3 30 F.M. Clear; il ia. saow; wind west. Moderate; teap. ~ta* at start, 
- 4* at rrtuia. Fif teca mike on foot. Canada Ruffed Grouse, 1 ; Doway Woodpecker, t; 
Pine Grosbeak. 1; Wkite-wiaged CroesbOl, to. Total, 4 spedes, 14 iadividuala.-- 
Haibison F. Lawts. 

Otuwa, Oat. (to Ball, Qae b ec, Faliy Laka, Tatraaavfllo aad ralata).— Dec S4i 
t.SS r M. to dark, s>5 r.M. Clear; 5 in. saow, of wbick >« in. wns freosa cnat; wiad 
»r»t. ts adias; temp. 17* at start, tj* at rctara. The heavy crast oa the «mw made 
walkiag dUkate aad aoby; observing ceaditieas coaeeqaeatly very bad. SirasC car 
J miles, oa foot 5 mflss totsi • ariles. Obseiieii tagilher. Doeray Woodpecker (?), 
I , PurpJe Fiacb. a; PIbo SsUa (?). a: Tree Spairov, j; Bsowa deeper, j; 

(J) 



Bird - Lore 



Nvthaldi, »i rfikfcrln. 4. Toul, 8 ip«d«, 19 iaiUviduaU.— Hovu Lunm umI 
FtAMK C. HBrncnoT. 

BowBABvlto, Oat— D«c ty; t.is to 6 r.M. Clo«d]r; s ia. of mw>w; wiad ■ o t t l w Mt , 
vtry tigkt; leap. •«* to je*. Twelve alio* o« loot. (Cooper }) lUwk, 1 ; Downy Wood- 
podwr, i; PUdMr, 1 ; HonMd Lark ((mil trtcks la sdow IdntUM m Iwto i i t it to the 
HoTMd Lark by tbo lo«g Uad IoohmU), 6; Crow, j; Snowiakc, too; Joaoo, 10; Soag 
SpMTow, s; CMckadot, 50. TolaL 9 ipwkt, about 1 77 ladividuaU. Other ipcdee Men 
Ui tbe last lea days: Haniag Gull, Boflehcad, Hairy Woodpecker. Blue Jay. GoUfiacb. 
Browa Creeper, Goldea*€rowacd Kiaglct.— Maitlaiio G. Goinio. 

Loadoa, Oal. (trldallir af). Dec. a6; 8.jo a.m. to ts.jo r.M. Sky overcast; a or j la. 
ol HMw oa groaad; briek east wiad; tenp. 13* at etart, <9* at ftaish. Coai b iaed list o( 
foar parties lo ye riag adjaceat territory. Amcricaa Ifergaascr, a; Goidea ey e, t; Rcd- 
■bouldered Hawk, 1; Great Homed Owl, 1; KingJeber, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, y, 
Doway Woodpecker, 8; Blue jay, 8; Crow, 11; Saow Boatiag (dock beard flyinf over, 
aotMea;aafld>eraakaowTi); Tree Sparrow. 27; Junco. 7>; Soag Sparrow. il,4 

(two pain); Browa Creeper, a; White-brcaated Nuthatch, j; Blaci(-cap|x ice. 

>6; Goid ea go wae d Ui^lct, aj. Total 18 specie*, aot individuala (plu» boow Bunt- 
ii^).— W. E. SAt;in>KBs, C. G. Watsom, T T) r*TTii.<..v T F r^.wiiTan.ii \f 
S. Dau (kicll wraith Omitholofical Oub 

LaaaiaglM to Poiol PelaOt Oat. — Dec. 24,g.;oA.Mt>i4rii < kiuu.^ , k>*'ui><i "»f^, 
wiadstroaf, west; tea^>. about 15*. Homed Grebe.4; Herring Gull (about) 90; American 
Mergaaacr, 10; Ducks (aaideatihed), 20; Bob- white, la; Marsh Hawk. 3; Rcd-sbooldered 
Hawk, I : Downy Woodpecker. 1 ; Crow, (about) 44; Bronsed Grarklr. i : Ve«per$vparrow, 
i;TreeSparrow, (about) 180; J unco, I a; Song Sparrow, 8; Card -ng. 

sj; Browa Creeper, j; Goldca-crowncd Kinglet, 34; Robin, a. 47 > 

individuals. The following have also been seea recently: Screech Owl (heard). Bald 
Eagle, Flicker. Goldfinch, aad Chickadee.— Eau W. Calvkbt. 

Anprlor, OnL— Dec 25; 9.ao A.11. to 4.30 r.n. Fine aad dear; 4 in. of snow with s 
hard Icy crust; wiad aortbwest,aioderale;ten4>.— 5* at start, —a* at return. Tweoty-6ve 
arfles oa foot. Obs er v er s separate. Aascricaa Golden^jre, 1; Canadian kuflrd Groutc, 
15; Hairy Woodpec k er, 3; Doway Woodpr- • \nicricaa Crow, as; White- winged 

Croesbill, 46; AaMficaa Goldfiach, t; Sao» • 37; Soag Sparrow, 1 (unusual in 

winter); Browa Creeper, t6; White-breasted Notiiatch, 7; Red-breasted Nuthatch, $; 
Black-capped Chickadee, 39; Golden-crowned Kinglet, 5. TotaL 14 spedes, sos in- 
dividuals. Seen reccatly (Dec 19), Blue Jay, 3. — Liotioai GoaitLXT and CaAatas 
MacNahaea. 

Walwfla, MahM.— Dec. 14; 9 a.il to 4 pm. Clear; a to 3 in. of snow on ground; 
wiad, aorthwest, strong to awderate; toap. a6* at 9 a.m.. ao* at 4 r.M. American Mer- 
ganser, s; Black Duck, s; AaMsicaa Golden-eye, 3; Canadian Ruffed Grouse, 7; Crow, i ; 
RedpoO, 8; Nofthem Shrike, a; Browa Creeper, 4; White-breast 
capped Chickadee, aa. Total, to spedca, 5s iadividuab.— Eo» a . 

XaMMknak, Malaa (la Pmoaa BanA aad back). — Dec. 24; 9 a.m. lo 4 r.a. cic«i . 
thia snow aad ice ia woods, aoae in open couatry; wind west, strong and gusty; temp. 
$0*. NIae aiiles oa foot. Observers together. Homed Grebe, 3 (probably aiaay more 
aot seea); Looa, t ; Great Black-backed Gull, la; Herring GuU. 90; Golden-eye, s (prob- 
ably AaMticaa); OUl Squaw, 35; Ataericaa Scoter, t; White- winged Scoter, 1; CMninon 
Crow. 40; HoraedLark, 1. Obeervation of the flock of Old Squaws and Sec er>- 

diikult and uaeatlsfectory; ao doubt asore were preseat thaa could be p« n 

tified. TotaL to species, about 189 ladividnals. Dec a3, iock of 6 or 7 R <^' 

southof bete aad withia sight of the oceaa.—STsaLnio Dow aad Edwakd i >\ 

Bruaswiek, Maiaa (Mafnolt taj, MMijiiissili^ Park).— Dec a6, 9 a.m. to 4.30 
r M. Fair. wind. iMMthwcst; t ia. of snow with Icy crust; temp, to* at sUrt. ao* at return. 




Bird-Lore's Twcnty-flrst Christmts Census ; 

tccn mile* on foot. Herriag Gull. 158; Canada Ruffed Grouse, a; Downy Wood* 
, 1; Crow. M>: Chirkadrr, 4. Total, $ tpcdc*, about tSs iadivldttab.— WiSTOM 
I. 

Ooffttown, N. H. (to Summit Uncanooauc Mta. via SblrUy HDl and retura). — 

I>ri >6;ii A.M. to 4.30 r.M. Cloudy, ground bare in open, crusty MOW and ice in woods; 

win<l Muth, ver> lixht; temp. i$* at start, ij* at return. Eight miles on foot. Ruffed 

■'- ; Iiowny Woodpecker, 1 ; Tree Sparrow, 50; Slate-colored Junco, 30; Chickadee, 

rownrd Kinglet, 6. Total, 6 spedes, about 96 individuab.— Maubicc E. 

. ft. R< — Dec 95; 8 A.M. to I a M. Clear; no snow; brisk west wind; temp, a a* 

Woodpecker, j; Starling, 4; (ioldfinch, 4 (one flock); Junco, 8 (one flock); 

1; Northern Shrike, 2, Chickadee, 5 (one flock). Total, 7 spcdca, a; 

Dec. a6. Golden-crowned Kinglet, 1 ; Hairy Woodpecker, i; White-breasted 

. ;-. and Tree Sparrows, la. — Gcobge G. BLANCUAtn 

WcUs River, Vt. (from Wells Rhrer on first raage of hills back to the Connactkiit 

Rhrv toward Newbury, retaming 00 bank of rhrer). — Dec. 28; q a.m. to 3 r.u. Flurries 

>i »oo«r alirmated with sunshine; 10 in. snow on ground; light northwest wind; temp, aa* 

" at close. 10 miles on foot. Merganser, 8; Golden-eye, 6; Ruffed Grouse, t; 

•odpecker, a; Northern Pileated Woodpecker, 1; Blue Jay, 4; Crow, 4; 

i (two flocks '; Slate-colored Junco, 3; Chickadee, 10 (two flocks); Golden- 

■.inglci, 3. Total, 11 spedes, 81 individuals. — Wendell P. Smitb. 

Hcnnmgton, Vt.— Dec a6; 8 a.m. to ia.30 r.u. Sky covered all over with a thin 

: of iluuUs, ground bare; wind north, light; temp. 8* at start, 18* at return. Six- 

milr walk. Ruffed Grouse, g; Downy Woodpecker, i; Homed Lark, 3; Blue Jay, 6; 

( r.iw, 11; Starling. 50-!-; Pine Siskin, 16; Tree Sparrow, 75-1-; Northern Shrike, 1; 

( iu> kadee, 8. Total, 10 species, i8o-f- individuals. The absence of Nuthatches is very 

.inu»ual.— Dt and Mks l.< (retius H. Rost. 

Newbury, Mass. I>ci. ji>, 1.45 to 4.15 p.m. Cloudy; grotmd bare; wind southeast, 
;>. ao* at start, 18* at return. Herring Gull, t; Old Squaw, a; Ruffed 
ker, t; American Crow, (about) 400; Chickadee, 3. Total, 6 specks, 
about) 408 individuals. — Hbnky Ciktis Abl. 

Irttti Maaa. (to Marblekead If eck and nton).— Dec a6; 10.30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Clear; 

-c; wind west, light; temp. 13*. Observers together. Partly by trolley car. 

i > < .r.he. 3; Horned (irebe, 6; Loon, i ; Black GuiUenot, a; Black-backed GuU, 1; 

Hrrtii .- (. ii: 400-f (est.); Cormorant. 3; Red-breasted MetgaMer, jq; Golden-eye, 61; 

r. 5; Ring-necked Pheasant* a; Flicker, 7; Crow, 6; Snowflake, 10; 

Robin, i. Total, 17 spedes. 551+ individuals.— EoMtmo and 

i.tuiAs K. BatMUu 

Lynn, Msaa. (Lyaa Baacifc, atoond Little Nabant and If ahant and back).— Dec 14; 

^; 30 A.M. to « P.M. Cloudy, dearing toward noon; grouad bare; wiad iotttliweet; teaq». 

r* ,1 .i.rt ..« ^ return. Nine miles on ^oot. Observers togeiber. HoUmbU's Grebe, 

!>c, •; Dovekie. t; Black-backed Gull, 3; Herring Gull, 1,000 or aMire; 

I , Golden-e>'e. i$; BufBcbead, 61 ; Old Squaw, 10; American 

Sroter. 8; Homed Lark, 7; Crow, 10; Starling, (about) 100; 

I »tai. : i o individuals. Dovckle tees very Mar shore; probably 

dri* rri ,r ihtredw— Gaacs K. EauJi aad Ouobns Eammjl 

AraoM ArboraCm aad vidBlly).— Dec. «4; to A.11. 

mi>. 40* at start. 33* at return. Obeervert togeiber. 

^; Ring n . 5; Sparrow Hawk, i; Hairy Woodpe ck er, 1; 

(■-. • V A IV..W ft5;StaiUng.4;Slal»<«loredjMna>.7' 

I UagleC, It. ToUl, it ipedaii 174 
inaividuais. — Obobob Ma ana CnAviDLaB Bl 



6 Bird - Lore 

l^omtninr, Mmi (to LofwaB tad teck).— D«c i$; 8 a.m. to 6.jo p.u. Clear; 
gravad twrc; wiad Bo«tli«rc»l« blowing • gdc; temp. i8* at ftart, 5* at retors. Herring 
GdB, to: Downy Woodpocker. 3; Bine Jay, 5; Crow, ts; Goldftnch. 20; Trae Sparrow, ao; 
Jmmo, as; Myrtla WnrUar, i; WUlo>bc«nMed Natlutdl* $; Chifkadee. 1. Total, 10 
ipadM, los ladhridonb. — Bdwim Rtrassu, Dav». 

n»Mt Mam^ — Dae. s8: a.m. to a p.m. Partly doody; j nd north- 

w«C•Ugbt;t«■^».Ja*nM•to( the time. Five milca on foot. Bob I Grotue, 

7; Downy Woodpecker, y, FUdiar. a; Blue Jay. ij:Crow, ia;Starliair Ptnch, t; 

Tree Sparrow, ai; Slale-colored Junco, 45; NortJicm Shrike, 1; 1.. reaper, a; 

BUck<apped Chickadee, tj; Goldeo-crowaed Kinglet, 6; Robin, 1. Total, is tpede*. 
ISO iadlvidnala.— Mm. Hauukt U. Goods, Hasiv G. HioaKt and MaMUtv B. 

TOWVSSMD. 

Woaloa, Unas. — Dec a6; 9.4s a.h. to la m. and 1 to 4 r.M. F«: ' 

wind; tea^i. it* to aj*. •Ovcrcaat in r.M. All 00 foot. Ruffed Gru . 
Phaannnt, j; Hairy Woodpecker, a; Downy Woodpecker, t; Blue J*y, 
WUto>lkioated Sparrow, 1 ; Tree Sparrow, a a ; Junco. 24 ; i>ong Sp-i rrn « i 
1; Brown Creeper, t;White-brcaated Nuthatch, a; Black-cappc c. 17; Golden- 

downed Kinglet, 9; Robin, t. Total, t6 tpedc*, 586 individual A ...kcn F. Eatom. 

8MrtkMl9laa« MaM. — Dec a6; 8.jo A.M., $ houra. Clear; ground bare; in momiog 
■o wiad* later li^t west wind; temp. 40* at start. Ruffed Grouse, 3 ; Downy Woodpecker, 
S; Bine Jay, y, Tree Sparrow, 117 + : Slate<olorcd Junco, 15; Black-capped Chickadee, 
t8; Robin, a. Total* 7 qiedes, i6j individuals. Dec ao: American Crow, 5. Dec aa: 
Starling* as.— Bbssb M. Gbavu. 

n^fnfct, Man. (vMaily oC Mt Ton Ra^o).— Dec 2$; 7 aji. to 1 p.m. Clear, 
giovad andiely tnt from snow; Connecticut River and large ponds open; wind west- 
novtiiwaat, absent at start but increasing as day wore on, which raised the dust from 
plowed fidds as well as roadways and Uew acrosa the valley in clouds; temp. 19* at 
start, a7* at return. Eight to 10 miles on foot. Two observers together. Joined by third 
at end of trip. Ring-necked Pheasant, 1 ; Ruffed Grouse, 6; Goshawk, 1 ; Hairy Wood- 
pecker, t; Downy Woodpecker, i ; Blue Jay, 1 ; Crow, 8; Starling, 10; Tree Sparrow, 4; 
Jnaoo, It; Northern Shrike, a; Brown Creeper, i; White-breasted Nuthatch. 1 ; Chick- 
adee, 14; Golden-crowned Kinglet 5. Total, is spedcs, 69 iadividuals. Sparrow Hawk 
and Giant Horned Owl observed Dec xj, the latter at South Deerfield.— AnrauB. 
llnoBU, Aaeom C. Baoo and Johm L. Baoo. 

WWaaalawB, Maaa.— Dec 34; 8 to ti a.m. Partly cloudy with snow flurries; 
groaad bare escept on hiUs; strong northwest wind; temp. a8* at start and end. About 
S arika covered; altitude 600 to i,aoo feet; town, rural and woodland country. Ruffed 
GfOVM, 4; Downy Woodpecker, 1; Crow, j; Starling, 6; Junco, 14: Brown Creeper, a; 
Whita-braaated Nothatch* 1 ; Black-capped Chickadee, ao. Total, 8 spedca, $> iadivid- 
nala. A scardty of birds has been noted here all the month.— Wm. J. Caktwuobt. 

Waiahaa^ Maaa. — Dec as:7.4S a.m. toia.isP.M.. a.is 104.1$ p.m. Clear, becoming 
dondy; gnmnd bare; wind northwest, at first light, gradually freshening; Ump. 10* 
at start. Approtimatdy 5 nsilca on foot (between points by autonMibQe). Observers 
together. Horaed Grebe, 8; Black-backed Gull, 1; Herring Gull, ij6; Ked-breastcd 
Merganser, 8; Black Dock, 8$; Anserican Golden-eye, 140; Old Squaw, a; White- winged 
Scoter, 7; Canada Goose, 7 ; Red-tailed Hawk, 1 ; Belted Kingfisher, 1 ; Downy Woodpecker 
t; Nortbcra Flk^er, 6; Horaed Lari^ 8; Prairie Homed Lark, a; Blue Jay, 4; Crow. $$; 
Stadiag, is; Maadowlark, 9; Goldfinch, 1; Tree Sparrow, a; Slate<alored Junco. 17; 
Soag Spnifow, 11; Swamp Sparrow, j; Myrtle Warbler, 40; Chickadee, ai. Total, as 
spades, 633 faidividttals.— L. T. Ltrruc, C. A. Ronaim and W. L. Roaaois. 

Cohasset, Maaa.— Dec asi 9 A.M. to 4 9M. Clear; no snow; bdak north wind; Ump. 
ji* St stATt. iS* at return. Distance covered 10 arflai Oa foot seashnrr salt marshes. 



i Bird-Lore's Twenry-flrst ChristmM Cenmt 7 

A woods tad fsradiic CMMtry. Tkree wocten hootod toffetkcr. BotboU'sOrdto, a; 
t NortlMni Diver, 5; Grco4 BUck-b«ckcd Gull, i; Herring Gall, $00+; Red- 
ied llMfSBAer, 1; Old Squaw, t, White- winged Scoter. 6; Hawk (probably Roi^- 
d)t It Flicker, i; Crow, lo; Junco, 64; Tree Sparrow, i; Song Sparrow, 1; Brows 
i^rccpcr, 5; WUto-breasted Nuthatch, 1; Chickadee, 14; Golden-crowned lUn^t, 16. 
I otal, 17 apeck*, 619+ iadhriduab. — L. B. Furaut and Ml aad Mu. Cbaelu L. 

WllITTtE. 

MsHM oi Mtt , Mom.— Dec 95; lo.jo A.11. to la.jo r.u. Clear; bare grouBd; wind 

northwcatt heavy; temp. 14* at start, ^o* at return. Six niles on foot. Obacnrcf* 

toerihrr. Horned Grebe, 6; Herring Gull. 5; Old Squaw, 7; Scoter, 50+; Downy Wood- 

• c-r, 4; Blue Jay, 9; Crow, 8; Starling, 6; Meadowlark, t8; Crocabfll, a; 

. :ir Siskin, t ; Tree Sparrow, 1 ; Junco, 6; Song Sparrow, 4; Myrtle Warmer, 

- < I den-crowned Kinglet, 9; Robin, 3. Total, sotpedea. 906 individoab. 

Mr ATiii Mis. J. K. NoKTON Shaw. 

raMwvon, Masa. (Seeotkot Rock rogkm).— Dec. 96; 12 m. to 3 p.m. Clear; ground 

Tip. 34*. Four miles on foot. Herring Gull, 33; Old Squaw, 11; 

I) Crow. 8; Starling, 40; Goldfinch. 30; Junco, 10; Song Sparrow, 1 3; 

Si Golden-crowned Kinglet, 3. Total, 1 1 spedes, 151 iadividuala.— Mabkl 

Hew Bedford and Dartmooth, Maaa. — Dec. 36; 1 1 a.m. to 4.45 p.m. Clear until about 

■■ o'clock then lUgbtly ha<y; wind slight, north at start to southeast to south; temp. i3*. 

\bout 8 miles on foot. Observers separate. Sharp-Shinned Hawk, t ; Hairy Woodpecker, 

■ wny Woodpecker, i; Blue Jay. 3; Crow, 15; Suriing, 400 -f-; Tree Sparrow, 35; 

,64; Soog Sparrow, 36; Myrtle Warbler, 4; Brown Creeper, 7; Chickadee, 35; 

KolMn, I. ToUl. ij spedea, 593+ individuals.— Aucb Tekby and Eorm F. Walkks. 

Proridenco, East Plovidoaeo and Johnaoo, R. L— Dec. 35; all day. Clear; ground 

: northwest, strong; temp. 30*. Herring Gull, 35; Scaup, 100; Bob-white, 5; 

> LKjdpecker, 3; Flicker, 4; Blue Jay. 1; Crow, 10; Starling, 30o; Goldfinch, 7; 

parrow, 6; Junco, 50; Song Sparrow, 3; Brown Creeper, a; Myrtle Warbler, i>i 

...■:'■ hrrasted Nuthatch, 3; Chickadee, 60. Total. 16 species, 499 individuals.— Jobm 

\\ kt -MLL. 

Warwick, R. L — Dec. 35; to A.M. to 3 P.M. Clear; ground bare; wind northwest. 

"p. »A* at Marl. »»• at return. Nine miles on foot. Herring Gull, 300; Scaup, 

w, 8; Myrtle Warbler, 16; Chickadee, 9- Total, 7 species. 

■'■ VTBAWAV 

South WiMlaor, Con. (baoido CooBOCtkvt River and lo tho •waapt ami wmidlwd 

parallel tharoto).— Dec. 36; 10 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Partly cloudy; s-mUe nortlMMt wind; 

trmp 8* to 19*. Observers together all day. Herring Gull. 1; Merganser, 10; Mallard 

I » > k . 3; Black Dock. 50+ ; Sharp-shiaaod Hawk, 1 ; Red-shouldered Hawk. 3; Sparrow 

II I .^k. a: Scrsech Owl, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 6; Downy Woodpecker, s; Blue Jay, 3; 

ng, to; Tree Sparrow, 150-f i Song Sparrow, 8; Swamp Sparrow, 1; 

A hite-breasted Nuthatch, $. Total, tS specks. 3,363+ Individuals. 

>>odpc<.kcr, 3 seen earlier in week; Coldaa cfowed Kla^ala, Joacoas, Barrod 

n Dec. 35; great scarcity of Chickadees la thk vidalty.— C. W. Vnsar aad 

Ko I t.ajswoiD. 

Hartfftrd, Ceiui.— Dec. 35; 10 a.m. to 1 j.jo P.M. Clear; grotiad bars; stroag aortb- 

»' - . temp. 30* at start, s8* at return. Barred Owl, a; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; 

V V^oodpccker, 3; Blue Jay. 14: Crow, 14; Starting. 37; AaMrioaa Ooldiarti, is; 

sparrow, 37; Slate-colored Junco, 57; White- brrA»ied Nalkalcli, j; CUdtadee, sj. 

! tai. II »pecie*, 313 individuals.— Cupfoan M. Cask. 

West Haitford, Coaa.— Dec. a$i 7.J0 a.m. to s r.M. Ckar; gioaad bare; very?stfoag 
northwest wind; leaq>. 94* •! start aad fiakh, oaly two d tgr ees MglMf at aooa. Stom a 



Bird -Lore 



B«wk, t; iMwd Owl, i; tcwich Owl, is Baby Woadpeeko'. i : 
Dowsy Woodpeditr, f ; R*d-hwdi< W«odpcdiar. i; Blue Jajr, 5; Crow, j,ooo 
700; Soag Sparrow, t; Brows CiMper, t; Nutlutcii, ij. ToUl, ta tpcdc 
j,7»8 iMttvldtuI*. Doc. >6: PUcoted Woodpecker. 1; Robia, 1.— Eowix H. 

MMrf, Cms. (MCtfMMlOffa flft). 8 a.m. to >.jo r.M. Nearly dear; ground iwrny 
c wyaiad by a now-iarry la the aigbt; wiad (mh; teaip. aj* at »tart, a6* at return. 
FWa Ie6 arfleioa foot, tlMa about 10 arflei by aulo, with R. W. Ford, Mopping at various 
placw to look for birdft, a Botthera Shrike bdag the oolyadditkmal bird foaad. Tbckky 
rn«alBnl aaaaly dear, bat the wiad becaow h%h, acarly a gale by aooa. Hairy Wood- 
pecker, 1; Doway Woodpecker, t; Crow, 8; StaiUag. (about) joo; Goldfoch, 6; Tree 
Sparrow, la; Soag Sparrow, t; Northcra Shrike (inuBature), 1; White-bfcastcd Nut- 
hatch, j; Chickadee, a. Total. 10 spedet. siS iadividuab. The day before a Brown 
Creeper aad a Sparrow Hawk had been teen in town, and the writer has seen or heard 
BhM Jays alawet every momiag 00 the way to the oficc. but, for the fint time in our 
eaparle ac e , wc failed to iad then today.— Fbaitk Bsubx and R. W. Foao. 

New Loadoo. Cooa. (Aera road ta UgktkoMa aad hack bf iaiaad raad).— Dec a8 
ia.40 to 4.30 r.M. Clear; grouad partly cove r ed with taow; wind aorthwcet, light 
tamp. 40* at »tart. j6* at return. Seven aad oae-half Bdlce oa foot. Herriag Gull, 188 
Riag'billed Gull. 7; Great BUck-backcd Gull. 1; Kittiwakc, t; Scaup Duck, 50 (eet.) 
Crow, 5 ; Juaco, 6; Tree Sparrow, 1 ; Myrtle WarMcr, $. Tf>tal. 9 tpcdea. 164 iadividaal*. 
— FaAMcxs lliirxB Gbavu. 

lleridaa, Caoa.— Dec. tsi 9-31^ a.»* ^ ta.jo vjl aad i.jo to 3 wm. Clear; ao mow; 
4 ia. of ice oa lake*; wiad, aorthweet, vary atraag; taap. i$*. Aboat 4>arila walk, open 
coaatry aad oae aoaU eectioa of woodlaad aad brush. Shar p >hlwn< d Hawk, t : Red- 
tailed Hawk, 1 ; Downy Woodpecker. 1 ; Northfrn Fh 
StaiUag, 19; Tree Sparrow, 8; Brown C rcepcr, 1 , U 

adee, j; Goldea-crowaed Kiaglet. a; Robia, j (oae a partial aibtno, with white ; 
back, wiag coverts aad tail). Total, ij species, ia7 individuals. T>rr 24 b Ki 
bird.— Lbstkb W. Sarni. 

lyrtald, Caaa. (BMcraft Saactaaiy aad FaMald Baach 
suasct. Fair; grouad bare; temp. 1 8* to j8*. Herring Gull, 7$; ^ 
S; Black Duck, 9; Leaser Scaup, ja; American GoldcBHC)rc, 7; uid bquaw. ^o. \\ mir 
wiaged Scoter, 40; Surf Scoter, 8; Black- cr ow n e d Night Heroa, 6; C<Mf»er'« Hawk, t ; 
Sparrow Hawk, 1 ; Doway Woodpecker, j; Homed Lark, 5; Blue Jay 
6; Starliag, 40; MeadowUrk. a; White-throated Sparrow, 6; Tree Spa 
Soag Sparrow, 10; Myrtle Warbler, 5; Browa Creeper, i; White-breastr n, :, 

Goldca-crowBcd Kiaglet. 4. Total, as species, JJ3 iadividuab.— Fbamb No .- n 

fflaMaM, Coaa. — Dec. a4; 9.ao am. to i.io r.M. aad a.is to 4.45 p.m. Par* 
grouad bare; wiad west, heavy; temp. 44* at start. j6* at return. Fourteen raiU^ «•• ■<>.>( 
Horaed Grebe, t; Great Black-backed Gull. 1; Herrina Gull. 400: Scau.i Duck, tt, 
Goldea-eyc, 4; Old Squaw. 2; Mliite- winged Scot ' .irrow Hawk, 1 ; 

Doway Woodpec k er, a; Blue Jay. 1 1 ; Crow, 5, . Tree Sparrow, 

aj; Siate-colofad Junoo, 4; Soag Sparrow, j; Myrtle Warbler, n. White-breasted 
Nothatdi, t; Chickadee, $. Total, ao spedes, sao iadividuab. A Catbird seen Dec. iq 
coald aot be found today. Moat sosall land-birds are scarce thb wiatcr, aad Chickadees 
aaaaaaliyBo. — Abstas A. SAtmoKas. 

IHtoa, Caaa — Dec. 14; 7.J0 a.m. to la.jo p.m. Cloudy to fair; grouad bare; wind 
aorthweat; temp. 3s* at start, 40* oa retura. Five miles on foot. Ruffed Grouse, i ; 
Klagishcr, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Crow, 15; Goldfiach, 6; Tree Sparrow, 6; Junco, 
37; Myrtle Warbler. 7; Winter Wren, 1; ChirkaiW, 7; Bluebird, 3. Total, 11 species, 
8s iatfvidaalt. The Kiagftsher was seea fljriag over the open waters of the reservoir at 
Wfltoa with 6X ghusea.— Stdbbv K. BcaKaa. 



Bird-Lore*8 Tweory-flrst Chrisrmu CeoMM 



W 

^H Watarford, R. T.— Dec t%\ 9 a.m. to u m, i.jo to 4.J0 r.M. Oear; 4 In. o( mow; 
^H wind Dorthwrst to we»t, ttronf uid cold; temp. 3a* (js* at noon), jt* at 6aUh. Herring 
^HCull. 4; Marth Hawk, i; Sparrow Hawk, t; Downy Woodpecker, a; Crow. 14; Red- 
^^^ioged BUckbird, 7 (male); Tree Sparrow, 350+; Song Sparrow, 10+ i Chickadee. 4. 
I^^Total. Q tpeiirs, 2QJ+ individtiab. — Edcas Bsokll. 

Albany, N. T. (wwl ol cllj).— Dec. tb\ 7.30 a.m. to t.30 P.M. Clear at start, beooai> 
iag doudy later; frovnd bare; wind west, liicht; temp. 1* at start. 16* at return. Eifbt 
miles on foot. Obaervcrs together. Ruffed Grouse, y. Downy Woodpecker. 5; Blue Jay, 
.; (row . c T Starling. 175; Tree Sparrow. 50; Brown Creeper, a; White-breaated Nut- 
hkt h ,. c haludee, at. Total, q species, 518 individuals. Six Bluebirds seen Dec. 19; 
. > ng Sparrows Dec as. — Dn. Joskph S. Lawksnce and Clakkncb HotroMTOM. 

FortPUin,If.T.— Dcca7;9A.M.to la.jOP.M.; a to 6 p.m. Cloudy, with intermittent 
»oow«ou«lUfrom theaoutheast; 4 in.snow; wind southeast, light; temp, ao'atstart, jo*at 
rrturn K k vAlle>-s. Oak Hill (Urge, heavily wooded tract), open fielda, fcBoe- 

'■■»> > ' -wy>ath and vicinity of Mohawk River. About ta inilca on akUa. 

d Grouse, t ; Ring-necked Pheasant. 1 ; Rough-legged 
'>wny Woodpecker, 5; American Crow. 4: Starling, I ; 
Ku«t> \U\> ktiird. 30 (one dock); American Goldfinch. 6; Tree Sparrow, 36; Slate-cotored 
Jwn><> .■>, Sung Sparrow, 3; Northern Shrike, t; Black -capped Chickadee, 5. Total, 
14 y\H' tr«. 140 iodi%-iduals. Blackbirds were recorded within H mile of occurrence in 
sane locality on Dec. aS, 1919. — Dovolas Aykes, Jb. and Asratn ScBinx (age, la 
years). 

Canajoharia, N. T. (to Ftet Plain and back by different roada).— Dec. a6; 9 a.m. to 
i r M Cloudy; no snow; wind east, liKht; temp. -4* at start, -t-8* at return. Seven 
miles on foot. Through two woods. Observer* together. Hairy Woodpecker, 1 ; Downy 
Woodpecker, a; Crow. 15; Junco. 1; Tree Sparrows, (flock of about as, and tcattaring 
[>Airt and individuals); Brown Creeper, 3; (Chickadee ?). Total, 7 specka, (about) 
48 individuals.— Ellcm Vaccmam and Vilktta C. Kamb. 

Marcallaa, If. T. — Dec 34; 10.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. Partly cloudy; no snow except in 
widrly tcattered patches; ice on poob and ponds; fairiy strong west wind; temp. 3a* 
.it ^urt, 34* at finish. Twelve mile* on foot through woods, along roads, and in two cedar 
ArtMirvitc)swaaps. Ruffed Grouse. 3; Ring-necked Pheasant, i; Long aaiedOwl (?). 1; 
t row. is; Tree Sparrow, 4; White-breasted Nuthatch, a; Chickadee, to. Total. 7 
kpeciea, j6 individuala. Song Sparrow wa* seen on Dec aj near a cedar swamp. Few 
Wood pe ckers seen this winter. — Nsn. Uotaaaat. 

SynoNO, If. T. — Dec a6; 9.30 a.m. to 4.13 p.m. Clear; a in. snow on groimd; 
wind no r tk ea st, light; temp 6* at start, 19* on return. Seven mile* on foot, north of 
<ity near Onondaga Lake. Obaervers together. Homed Grebe, a; Herring Gull, »$; 
American Mrrganser, 8; American Golden-eye, $; Ring-nedwd Phaasent, 1; kiarsk 
lUwk. I. llAiry Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woo<^ker, 8; Rod^^dHad W o odp ock ar, 1 
row. 1 a; Goldfinck, 30; Tree Sparrow, too; Song Sparrow, t ; Nortkarn Skiika, 
Creeper. 1 ; Whitc»breaated Nutkatch. 4; Ckickadee. 1 a. Total. 1 7 spadaa, *I4 
tndtvtdnala.— Paor. T. L. Hamkik«om, Fbamk Punmoa, and NrmB M. Samjn, 
(Onondaga County Bird dub). 

Gonatra, If . T. ( to Jnaina, Border Otf •voif tad lak* ilMra la Dtwi«)w— Dae 
.r. H . V to 4 r M (loudy; Ugkt breaaaa; taa^>. 3a* to 40*. Obaanrat* aporkteg la 
irrrtinni llullKcU'sGrebe, i; Horsad Grcbc,8; Herring Gntl. 36; Rad' br aaa ted 
.Virrgantcr, 3; Black Dock, 6; Radkaad. i4<oeo; Caavaaback, 300; GfantorSoui^ t,ooo: 
AaMfican Gol d en aye. 400: Bvibkond, 6; Old Sqnaw, 7; Great Bl«t Baran, 1; Ring* 
necked Pkeasant, 17; Mar«h {» Hawk, 1; SkaquMniid Bawk. i; Sparrow Bawk, t; 
Short-eared Owl, 1; Screech Owl. t; Hairy Woodptckar, t: Downy Woodpecker. «; 
Mi< krr I ; Ciow, aso; Red-wii«ad Blackbird. 1; Maadowterk, i; Redpoll, 4; AiMrlcan 



lo Bird • Lore 

GoUiadi, 6; PIm IhUa, 4: Saovfakc, 1; IVm Spuiov, 77; Jmco, 11; 8oag 8|wr> 
row. 4; BivwB CrMptr. 6; White.hwMfd Nvtkstck, 4; CMffcaHot, 4*: BhitMrd, j. 
Total, js ipodM, (obout) i7.>i7 iadMdwIs. Ob Doc 19, i Rvffod CrouM, 1 Robia, aMl 
JO Mottmiag Dovco wcr« reported.— E. T. EMMom. Mkt. H. H. HftMOtsaov, B. H. 
Eaton. RicsAto M. Cujom aad GiLaetr Bbkwsb. 

Rocbootar, N. T. (Hlgyaad Park and vkiolty, Port of Rocbeatar to Iroodaqoott Bay). 
l>rc. 14; 7. JO A.M. to 5 r.M. Fair witb hww florrka; ao toow oa grouad cio«|rt a Ugbt 
•iftiag bcre aod tbcre; •lad. aoutbcaat tS adlca par boor; taap. tS* to 54.* HafiriBg Gall, 
joe; Rtt Wllrd Gull. »oo; Mcnaaaer, 1 ; Scaup Dock, *; Scotar, $-, KMaaaat, 8; Doamy 
Woodpa cb ar, t; Crow, 9; Broaaed Gracklc, 1 ; Tree Sparrow, to; Slate-colored Jaaoo, ad; 
Soaf Sparrow, »; Cadar Waxwiac. 50; Migraat {} Eo.] Shrikr. 1; White-braaatad 
Ntttbaldi, 1; Cbkkadae, 6; Robia, t. Total, 17 ipedca. 63a iadividuaU. Tbe Yellow- 
bcllird Sapaucker baa beta aoird by u« all fall up to tbc prtacat aad was tcca by G. W. 
Babriager oa Dec. 94. — Wm. L. G. EoaoM, R. E. Hoascr and F. RrrrcB SamwAY 

Bochaatar, If. T. (Saa Braaia, Dvraad-Eactman Park, Sanunarrflla, Hifblasd 
ParfiaBdCobb*aHIOaadvieiaitiaa).— Dec. 16; 7.JOA.11. to jv.m. Cloudyijio. of bbow; 
•troaf toatbcast wind; taaap. o* at atart, jo* at fiaUb. Ten milea 00 foot. Obeervera 
tefalbar. Hcrrins Gull. 400+ ; Ring-billed Gull. 800+ ; Bonapart - '>; Mergaaacr, 

19; Bttflebaad, 1; White-winged Scoter, t; Markb Hawk, t, 1 oodpeckcr, 1; 

Doway Woodpackar, j; Crow, 14; Bronaed Crackle, t; Goldfinch, 1; Irvc Sparrow, 4; 
Slala<olorad Joaco, 1 1 ; Cedar Waxwing, t6; Migrant [? Eo.) Sbrike, 1 ; Brown Creeper, 
6; Wbite-breastcd Nuthatch. 1; Black-capped Chickadee. 6; Ring-necked Pbcasaat, t6. 
Total. M tpecica, i,jao4- individuala. — GoaooN II. Mkaoc and R. M. Cmass. 

BaSala, If. T. (Iflagara Rirar ahavaa).— Dec. «s: 9->o a.m. to a.jo r.a. Sky over- 
cast, witb taow-iarrict in morninR. but clear later on; ground lightly covered witb freah 
taow; wiad Ugbt, araat in morning aod east in afternoon; temp. >a* at ttart, i%* at 
retura. Obaarrera togetber. Herring Gull, (about) 150; Ring-billed < ut) 

50; Boaaparte** GttU, 70; Red-breasted Ifergaaier. 35; Mallard, j (drakea> , k. 

(about) I4S; GMtn-tyt, (about) as; Bufllebead, t; Ring-necked Pbcaiant. 1 
Woodpecker, t; Crow, 4; Chickadee, j; Golden-crowned Kinglet. 8. Total, 13 .. 
(about) 700 individuals. Mr. Savage noted a Glaucous Gull here earlier in tbe month. 
Red-beaded Woodpeckers are wintering locally near Hamburg. — Jamss '^■'■■-^^■ 
TaoMAS L. Boinunt. 

BaB, R. T. (aaat aad soutb of Hall). — Dec. a6; 8 a.m. to 4 r.M. Very cijudy . 3 >n 
aaow; south wiad, brisk; temp. 10* at start, a8* at finish. Distance ta miles on foot. 
Herring Gull, 1 ; Pbcaaant, aa; Barred Owl, 1 ; Blue Jay, a; Crow, 100; Hairy Woodpecker, 
4; Downy Woo dp eck er , 4; Red-beaded Woodpecker, t ; Tree Sparrow, 1 1 ; Brown Creeper, 
a; Ntttbatcb, 16; Cbiduulee, 34- Total, is qwdca, 198 individuals.— H. A. Sotmua- 

LAMO. 

maakaek, Datchaas Co., R. T.— Dec. as; 10 a.m. to 4 r.M. Clear; grovad bare; 
wiad aortb, asodcrate; temp. a6*. Four miles, from Rbincbeck soutb to cove on Hudson 
River and back. Herring Gull, 18; American Merganser, i(niale); Mute Swan, as 
(liberated birds which ha%c been bfccdiag wild for several jrears); Riag-necked Pheasant, 
1; Red-tailed Hawk, a; RougMagged Hawk, i; Barred Owl. t; Hairy Woodpecker, 4; 
Downy Woodpecker. 6; Blue Jay, 4; Crow. 55; Surlir. >ldfincb, 

is; Tree Sparrow, 5; Junco, 10; Cedar Waxwing, tS; N'. lar grove 

on river bank); Wbita-brcaated Nutbatcb, j; Black<apped Cbickader, 50 (actual 
count); Goldcn-crowBcd Kinglet, 4. Total, at species, joe individoala.— MAtmtsit S. 
Caoaar. 

Taakata, R. T. — 10.05 a.m. to 4.15 rji. Qoudy; ground bare; temp. at*. Covered 
vallay of sauU creek about 4 mike in Icngtb. Herrittg Gull, 3; Shark-abianed Hawk, a; 
Deway, $; Blue Jay, 1 ; Crow, 8; Starling, 40; Wbita>tbroated Sparrow. 1 j; Tree Sparrow, 



^ 



Bird-Lore*t Twenty-llret Christmas Cmum ii 



«aco, j: Sottii Sparrow, so; Robin, i ; Bluebird, y. ToUl, i a •pccict, 1 14 iadividvab. 
— -CsAft. W. Mkhkitt and Wm. Matthkws. 

If vw York Citj (SioMMoo Str««t Mibfwaf ttaUm to Clu«i Potet, Catlto HM, aad 
WMt Pannii.— Dec. as; a to 4-45 I'M. Clear; grovBd bare; vfanl Dorthwcrt, brisk; 
trmp. tc" At start. a9* at return. Unidentified diviag bird, i; Herriaf Gull, j.000 
(ntimatcd , Skarp-ahinned Hawk, t ; Starling, 8j; Tree Sparrow, 6 (iock); Song Sparrow, 
I Total. 6 »pecie*. (about) j.oq !*. — Gcoicc K. Hix. 

Htm Tovk Citj (Van Cortlan . . Brocu Park, and CtaMO Poiaf).— Dec. 34; 

S.4S A.M. to 5 r.M. Partly cloudy; grounti bare; wind west, brisk; temp. 36*. About 14 
miles on foot. Herring (iuU, i.aoo; Scaup Duck (sp. ?), aoo; Black-crowned Nigkt 
Heron. 7S (>» tl>« ^ Agassis colony); Red- tailed Hawk, a; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
Downy Woodpecker. 6; Blue Jay. j; American Crow, at; Starling, 456; Red-wiafcd 
>iU' k.t.ird. I (male); Wbite-throated Sparrow, 48; Tree Sparrow, 114; Field Sparrow, t; 
Siate-colored Junco, 88; Song Sparrow, 25; Fox Sparrow, 1; Brown Creeper, 6; Bhick- 
capped Ckicfcader, a; Goldn-crowned Kinglet, flock of 5 in Bronx Park. Total, igspacka, 
L. NstsoN Ni< Hoi>. Kdwasd G. Nichols and Philip H. Nklsom. 

:*f* I ...V V ..y (Vm CofftlHadt Park;.— Dec. a6; g.jo a.m. to $ r.M. Cloudy; ligbt 
bferac; temp. 15 to ao*. Herring Gull, a; Sparrow Hawk. 1; Hairy Woodpecker, i; 
DowBy Woodpecker, a; Crow, 5; Starling, 16; Crackle, i; Wbite-throated Sparrow, aj; 
Trc« Sparrow, jy, Junco. 4; Song Sparrow, »»-, White- breasted Nuthatch, a. Total, 
I a spedes. 11 a individuals. On the soth both Wilson's Snipe and Fox Sparrow were 
sacs by Mr. Eisenmann. Thb ytu thare sacnu to be an extreme rarity of Ckkkadeca. — 
.\lvah C Blssib and Ek.kne Kisesuans. 

Maw York City (Van Cortlandt Park). -Dec. S4; 1.30 p.m. to 5 r.M Ooudy; ex- 
(rrmrly cold; temp, js* to ao*. Herring Gull, 3; Hawks (unidentified). 4: Sparrow Hawk. 
I. lUiry Woodpecker, a; Downy Woodpecker, 1; Crow, 1; Starling, a; White-throated 
Sparrow, 10; Tree Sparrow, as; Junco, a; Song Sparrow, a; Brown Creeper. 1; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, a. Total, 1 j spedes, 47 Individuals. Parts of the lake were covered 
with >iinch of ice. — Biological Field Club or DaWrrr CuarroN Hioa School, 
AtVAH C. Bsaais. FrttUtmt. 

Dttu^tMom^ L. L, R. T. — Dec. a6, 9 a.u lod a.jo to 4 r M. Partly cloudy; 

ground bare; wind north, light; trmp. 19* at &Uit, j8* at return. Seven miles on foot. 
Observers together. Herring Gull, las; about 800 wild Ducks on Little Neck Bay, at 
lea*t 200 of which were Scaupa, and at least the same number of which were GoldcH-«)ca; 
Hlaik trowacd Night Hcroa, 10 (a small wintering colony); Sparrow Hawk, t; Baited 
Kiafiakcr, 4; Doway Woodpecker, 4; Crow, jo; Fish Crow, jo (tka voioca of both 
^Mciea of Crows wctv ktard many times, but the relative numbers of «ack asea were 
estioMtrd). Suriing, aio; Whita- throated Sparrow, aa; Tree Sparrow, is; Slate<olored 
Junr • voog Sparrow, 34; Swaaip Sparrow, 4; Chickadee. 6. Total, 16 spadca. 
u> iMiivldHala.— Mb. aad Mis. G. Cltob Fishbb and Pabioa A. Wiisv. 

Hempstead, If. T.— Dec. 14; A.11. to 3.30 r.M. Uadcdded; teasp. abovt 40*. 
lirrrinK (;ull, 11; Shaip^(<UMd Hawk, 1; Horned Lark, 404*: Crew, 6«; Starliag. »•; 
White- throated Sparrow, y. Tree Sparrow, 30; Slate<olo(cd Jhmoo, |6-4>» Soag Spaifov, 
ij. Brown Creeper, 9; Chickadee, t. Robin, a Total, la spedsa. 3004* faidhrUMla.— 
TNKoiKiSK <; RoKNKaa. 

Loi« Beach, L. L, If . T.— De*.. .-. 1 30 r.M. Clear to clo«dy; wfad Mrlk- 

east, moderste; temp, it* lo t$*. II ^tie, 9; Graat Bkdt-backad GhH, ts; 

Hartteg Gull, t.soo-h; Kii«-bUled ' ' *• -inser. a (+tockol is?); 

Scavp Duck (sp), t8; 0M3q«a» >rd Lark, S4; Crow, 70; 

SCaittaf, to, Meadowlark, 3; 8«ow liuniiog. 4. < • Ttaa Spanw, 1; 

8e«g Sparrow, a; Myrtle Warbler, 3. Total, t? s vidHah.— I»wabo 



la Bird -Lore 



L. L, H. T.— Dec. t;; 6.40 A.11. to ia.j7 '•». doudy, bcAvy driaak; 
•tfMig mat wiad; groiuid putly wow- ud k»<ovci«d; map. jo*. Obtcnran tofMlMr. 
Bkck>lMckcd G«ll, ioo4- ; Hctriac CvB, j.oeo-t- ; Rad-brcaatod lltrgaaMr, $0; Souip, Si 
Bafldkcad. i;OldSqMw. 1; Wbite-wi«g*d Scoter. 4; Marah H«wk. 1; HonMdLariu j; 
Ci«w, a; Suriiag, 7S-I-; McadowUrk. 8; tLmty BUckbird. 1; SnoidUkc, loo'f • Soag 
Sparrow, 4. Toul, 15 speck*, j^jS-f ladividoab.— H. «nd R. FsiKOMAjnt. 

iMgBMCll, L. L, If. T.— Dec }6; 10 A.11. lo 4.15 p.m. Cloudy; grooad bare; wted 
■ortlMMt; titmp. jo* to 40*; Mirf cmim. Holbatll's Grebe, 4; Homed Grebe, ti ; Looo. a; 
Rod-lkrootcd Looo. t ; Bhck-bodtcd Gull, ts-i- (aevoral la Urge dock ol Hatiiac Galb); 
Herriag Gull. 1,500; RiafbOlod GuU, t (ftiae. color ot Icgt. ud wiag paUara doarly 
noted, by gtrad light in coaqMtfiaoa with Honiag Guib); Red>brca»tod Mergaaaer. »»; 
BUck Duck, jo; Scaup. 6; Goldea-eye, 5; Old Squaw, 60; Aawrkaa Scoter, a?; Wbite- 
wiaged. Scoter, 3; Saadrriiag. 13; Sparrow Hawk, a; Sbort-eared Owl, 1; Horned Lark, 
iq; Crow, 9$; Startiag. 110; lleadowlark, 7; Ipawicb Sparrow, 11; Soag Sparrow, 1; 
Myrtle Warbler, a. Total. a4 ipccica, 1,900+ individual*.— Matrucs C. Black. 
Jont U. Haaajs. Waloen Peu. smd, and SrtnrvBaAarr M. Pbix. 

Loag Baack, L. L, R. T.— Dec. 34. Partly doody; no aaow or ice; freak to atroog 
aortkwcat wiad, rough sea; temp, at daylight 37*. at funaet 34*; BMajr daadeUoas in 
blooML Homed Grebe, s; Loon, t; Kittiwake, 1 (adult), 00 abore pood; Black-backed 
GaU, Buay; Herring Gull, innumerable tkooaaada; Bonaparte's Gull, t (louaature), 00 
ooeaa abore; Black Duck, many hundreds off shore; Greater Scaup, 1; Old Squaw, 
fairly common; White- winged Scoter, 1 (two Scoters far out appeared to be Surf Sootan); 
Bittern, t, inward BMadows nearer East Rockaway tkaa Long Beach; Saadetliag, t; 
Sparrow Hawk, 3; Horacd Lark, 5; Crow, coauaoa; StarliBg,oaly in the towa; Meadow- 
lark. 10; Ipawick Sparrow. 5; Tree Sparrow, 5; Song Sparrow, a; Myrtle Warbler*, a 
Total, at ipecka.— £. P. Bickkkix. 

Aarilyvfla, L. L, H . T.— Dec at; 9.30 a.m. to svaaet. Ckar, becoiing overcast; 
grooad bare; wiad light northerly, changing to moderate caaterly; leap, about ao*. 
rfaiag to 30*. Obaervers togetber uatil a p.m. Herring Gull, ao; Sparrow Hawk, 3; 
Doway Woodpecker, a; Amcricaa Crow, 30; Starling, 150; White- throated S|>arrow. 15; 
Tree Sparrow. 60; Field Sparrow, 3; Junco. 8; Song Sparrow, 15; Fox Sparrow, t. 
Myrtle Warbler, aoo; Brown Creeper, a; Chickadee, 1 a. Total, 14 spedca, 55a individual*. 
— WaLTKa GaAMGCB, Litdlow Guscom and J. T. Nicaou. 

Oriaat, L. L, N. T. — Dec isi all day. Clear; ground bare; fresh to strong northwest 
wiad; leaip. aa* at start, ao* at return. Homed Grebe, 1; Loot, a; Herrinir Gull. 130; 
Rad-breaatad Metgaaaer, 50; Mallard, 1; Black Duck, lo; Green-win; 1; 

Greater Scaup Duck, aoo; Buflebcad, ao; Old Squaw. 100; Wbitr-wiagr< 75, 

Surf Scoter, 10; Great Blur Heron. 4; Black-crowned Night Heron, a; Sparrow Hawk, 1 , 
Scaeeck Owl, t ; Mourning Dove. 1 ; Downy Woodpecker. 1 ; Flicker, a; Homed Lark. 3i; 
Crow, 40; Stailiag, 6; Meadowlark. 35; Goldfiacb, 1; Snow Bunting. a8; Tree Sparrow, 
8; Junco. 6; Soag Sparrow, 8; Mjrrtk Warbler. 40; Catbird, t ; Brown Creeper, 5; Chick- 
adee. 1 1 ; Robin, a. Total, ss cpocka, 867 iadividuab. Although a mild and open season, 
both water- and bnd-bird*. with few esocptiona, were rarer than in any ceoaua tbe writer 
kaa takca.— Roy Latsam. 

SoadMM aad Paeoak, H. T. — Dec a8; 1 1 a.m. to 5 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind, 
stroag Bortkwcat; luap. ss* at start, 30* at retum. Hernng Gull, ao; Red-breasted 
Margaaaer, t; Black Duck, 3; Old Squaw, 1; White-winged ScoUr. 5; Surf Scoter. 3; 
Rcd-aboukkrcd Hawk, 1; Doway Woo(^»eckcr, a; Flicker. 1; Blue )n^ > < "<» 
45; Tree Sparrow. 9$; Juaoo, 4; Soag Sparrow, 3; Towhee, 1; c 
Myrtk Warbler. 6; Ckickadea. 8; Galdea<rowacd Kiaglet. 1; Ruhv .r. .: t.-.-. , 
let, 1; Robia.6. Total, at apecka, 13a iadlvidttala.— Mas. Fkakk D ^wir>i m.l k< 



I 




Bird-Lore*8 Twenty-flrst Christmas Ceotus 13 

Mootaak to ICooUuk Point, L. I., If. T.— Jan. 1 ; daylight until dnrk. Cknr; frotttd 
, all pond* and crrrk* open; wind toutb, very light; temp. a8* to j6*. Ot wr v w 
thcr. Hulb<Hi'» (irrlHr. i ; Horned Grebe 4; Load, 150; Black GuiUcaot, a; Dovekk, 
; Great Blark-l»«(kr<l (^uli, >o; Herring Gull, 500; Bonaparte'* Gull, 4; Ametkan M«r> 
ganscr, 1 (main; Ked-brcaated Mergaaier, to; Black Duck, $0; Goldcs-«)re, 50; Bafla- 
hrad I (huntcr'» gaae-bag); Old Squaw, too; King Eider, 1; Ancrkaa Scoter. 30; 
itad Scoter, 115; Surf Scoter, 15; Ruddy Duck, 3; Brant, 1 7 ; Sparrow Hawk, 1; 
' oodpackcr, 1; Arkansas Kingbird. 1 ; Homed Lark, 18; Crow, 16; Starling. 50; 
Xlcadowtark, 9; Snowflake. 7; Ipswich Sparrow. 1; Tree Sparrow, 17; Song Sparrow, 5; 
Trr^ Swallow, is; Myrtle Warbler, lao; Catbird, s; Brown Thrasher, i; Brown Creeper, 
;. ( hi. ;.jdee, 6; Robin. 2. Total, j8 spedcs, 1,373 individuals. Both Guillemots were 
><t II Miiriin 50 jrards, diving and flying. Red feet of both seen. King Eider, a feauUc, 
')'v<fN'<!. at lebure, sitting on a rock and asleep on the water within 100 feeL Tlw 
kinicbird was on the north beach catching injects in the pilca of seaweed. It was exceed- 
ingly tame, was approached within 50 feet on numerous occasions, and flitted up tlie 
beach just ahead of us for nearly a mile, thus under observation for half an hour. Every 
poasiblc detail of coloration noted, including the outer tail-feathers, thus positively 
rliminatinK (aAtin's Kingbird. Griscom familiar with the species in life, and all three 
with thr (iiiillrroot. The Catbirds and Thrasher were together in a thick patch of bay- 
l>rrr;rv in.] iriars. wall scen by Crosby and Griscom. Jan. a: llooming Dove, i. — 
.Malnskll .>. CiosBT. Db. E. R. r. Janvmk, and Liulow Guscom. 

Stataa Island, If. T.(lf oravian Cemetary, Graat KilU and PiiuuM Bay).— Dec. a6; 
8 A.M. to 4 r.M. Partly cloudy; wind northerly; temp, is"- Kle>-en miles on foot. Ob- 
tcrvers tofcrthcr. Homed Grebe, 3; Loon. 1 ; Great Black-backed Gull, 15; Herring Gull, 
500 kint; Killed Gull, 6; Bonaparte's Gull. 8; Scaup Duck, 3; Golden-eye, 10; Buflehead, 
>. I M V4UAW. 6; Scoter, 6; White-winged Scoter. 1; Sparrow Hawk, a; Prairie Homed 
I.ark. 3; Blue Jay. a; Crow, 15; Starling. 400; Goldfinch. 6; White- throated Sparrow, 1; 
Tree Sparrow. 1; Field Sparrow, 1; Junco, ao; Song Sparrow, 3; Cardinal. 1; Orange- 
crowned Warbler, 1; (YcUow?) Palm Warbler, 1; Chickadee. 30; Robin. 1. Total, a8 
kpectcs. 1 ,07 a -(- individuals. Both Orange-crowned and (Yellow?) Palm Wnrblara ob- 
served at riAkc range, the Orange-cTOwned studied at leisure; no white ejre-rinff. — 
GroRce I r and Lkstki L. Walsh (Brooklyn Bird-Lovers' Club). 

Hackc! N. J. (part of the vaDaj batwata Backactslowa and Watarioo).— 

I >< >4; 8.10 to 10.45 A.M. and t. 30 to 3 r.M. Partly cloudy; ground bare; wind west, 
t< iT>i> ss' at surt. Duck (unidentified), a; Rufled Grouse, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 1; 
< r>.w. s; Goldfiacli, 1; Tree Sparrow. 13; Junto, 4: Song Sparrow, a; Chickadee, 14. 
l"t*\. 9 species. 43 individuab. Mourning Dovca seen Dec. 11; Sapaucker. T>i-r -■ — 
M Mv I'laasoK Allsn. 

Englewood Sagloa, If. J. (Ovaipack Marabea and Phalpa aaiata).--I>rt . 
« w I.. 4 10 r.M. dottdy; wind aortb, slight, temp. ,\t' llrrring Gull, 40: II 

Hairy Woodpecker. 3: I>owny Woodpecker. 6. ! i;Crow. m ^<ai:;:» 

»gad Blackbird, 1 : White- throated Sparrow, \ .rrow. 7, sUt. . ..i..c«tl 

Jiin.o. 17; Song Sparrow, ay, Browa Ciaapar. 4; Wu^u i.r. . i<.| Nuthatch. 1; Black- 
I .i|i)K-d Chirkadr*, A; Gnldm-< rfiiftn<-<i lk!n(rl«>l. 1 I ; .! • . ir*. 140 iniiis iiiuala.— 

Ii> UN \llli ] kl \.. 

Rutherford, N. J. \to Greai t*vi%it.'. - i><^. <u, « <« w i-> . jw r m i»»vi..,> ov«r« 
. 4.1 t).. %now, but little wlad; laap. aj* at start. About tt mile* by foot. Obs a wa w 
IferHng Gull, t; Doway Woodpecker, a; Blue Jay, a; Crow, 16; Slaillaf. 
:rd Sparrow. 10; Tree Sparrow, 75; Junco, ft; Song Sparrow, 30; Myrtla 
U ^!UUit iMM Urge flock and several scattarod ladividuab), 33; WbHa- br sa sU ' 
>>4i.h. I. Total, ti spadn. (aboat) seo iBdlvMaals.—0. Davis Ksw aad Roi.- 
BANroH. 



14 Bird - Lore 

RkhMd, R. J. (V«l«y toad fram Albtoa PtaM to OrMt If occh, thMM to 
Md Rood aad CUIloa Av«0o«). I>rc. 15; 9 a.m. to la m. Clc«r; srouad l»are; wind 
wr«i lixht; teoip. s6* at $un. 34' at rrturn. Downy Woodpecker, 1 ; Blue Jay, t; Crow, 
Ung, comomm; Goldfimh. .); White- throated Sparrow, $; Tree Sparrow, j; Juaco. 
«v. .^wof Sparrow, x; White- brraalcd Nuthauh, t; Chickadee, 4; Robfai, 1. Total, 11 
^tedca, 49 iadividuab, esdudiBg the Starliaga, of which there waa a great flock of prob- 
ably tlufc to four hoodred. — Loins S. Komlkr. 

Bnacfc Brook PMfc, Mofrio CoaaJ, and Third River, If. J.— Dec 16; ^.^o to 10.30 
A.M., and J to 5 P.M.; Cloudy; ground bare; raw sort -ung to li^t; temp. 

18* to 3a*, Branch Brook Park; temp. 3$* to >>*• ^i' '>*' **^ nlong Third 

River, a wide brook with two large ponds, running through open woods, marahy in 
placet; back acroaa open country. Downy Woodpecker, a; Flicker, t; Starling, aj; 
White- throated Sparrow, 50; Tree Sparrow, 4; Junco, 1; Song Sparrow, a; Fox Sparrow, 
a; Brown Creeper, s; alto the following [? Orange-crowned Warbler — Eo.) which I am 
at a loat to identify' Length about 5 inches or Icat; crown dark grey; back olive-green, 
brighter on rump; underpartt pale gray, strongly washed with pale yellow on tides and 
belly; bill small, thin, and pointed, no sign of head-stripes, wing-bars, or eye-ring. 
Watched at dote range (about 1 5 feet) for about ten minutes with a good glass. — on a 
■wdiuaFalied dm when first teen, but afterwards always on bathes. I saw it Dec. 1$ 
aad a6, each day accompanied by a Brown Creepers and a Downy Woodpecker. Its 
■M>vcmcnts were very active, taking it quickly from bush to bush. Total, 10 species. 
91 individuals.— Ravmokd F. Hai7UIM»bek. 

Mo a k ta m u t If. J. (Bomham Puk, SpoodwoU Park, akmg the Whippaay River, 
Bvorgrooo C— ao to ry).— Dec. as; 7 to 8.30 a.m.. 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Clear at start, partly 
overcast later; ground bare; wind west to ti 
30* at return. About 10 milet on foot. K 

Woodpecker, 5; Blue Jay. 1 ; Crow j8; Starling, 6; Goldbn* •'Mt. 

6; Tree Sparrow, 158; Fldd Sparrow, 8; Junco, 6s; Son,, l. t; 

Piae Warbler, i; Brown Creeper, a; White-breatted Nuthatch. 14; Chickadee, 6; 
Goldca-crowned Kinglet, ao. Total, 18 tpcdet, (about) j66 individualt. The Pine 
Warbler wat teen through fidd glasaet, three timet at raaget of about 10 yards; the 
dusky back aad yellowith breast were distiactly noted.— R. C. Caskkv. 

Mfkfh, If. J. (ahoro Nowaik Bay to Mllbva).— Dec. a6; 7.4s a.ic. to 5.90 p.m. 
Cloudy; wiod variable between ' ' and east; temp. 18* at start. a8* >- 

About IS Billet on foot. Herring .00 (conservative); Black Duck, 5. 

eye ?) Duck, j; Riag-aecked Pheasant, i; Marsh Hawk, a; Red-shouldered H«wk. 2, 
Sparrow Hawk, 1; Short-cared Owl (fresh pdleU found on ice Idt from Dec. 25 high 
tides; qwdet icca same locality Dec. 11 aad 18); Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Downy Woo<i- 
pecfcer, 5; Homed Lark, ij; Blue Jay, s; Americaa Crow, 16; Starliag, 4 m< -■< --Alark, 
6; White-throated Sparrow, 40; Tree Sparrow, ijs; Field Sparrow, i •n-d 

Joaco, 41; Soag Sparrow, 37; Fox Sparrow, 1; Cardinal, a; Titlark, 3; \Sitiwr \\ rm, t. 
Browa Creeper, 6; White-brcastrd .N'uthatch, 6; Tufted Titmouse. 1; Blaik-cApf>cd 
Chickadoe, 6; GoMea-crowaed Kiaglet, 1. Total, 39 spedes, (about) i.S4$ in' 
Two largB flocks of watcr-Urdt, probably chiefly Gulls, but. judging from u> 
tainiag tome Canada Geeae too far out la Newark Bay for potitive identification aaii 
aot iaduded in cooat. Titlarks dotdy approached on «alt mea<Iovi an<I *een <I!^ 
tiactly throofh good glata — CMABtis A. Ubmkb. 

SealchPlalas,R.J.(toWaahk«lMVallay).— Dr. . ,> -^ 

grooad bare; partly froaeo, little wiad; tewap. at start, ao*. Ring-nrck< t , 1 . 

Loac<cared Owl, t ; Downy Woodpedur, 1 ; Flicker, t ; Americaa Crow, 1 ; VV nur i nroatrd 
Spanow, a; Tree Sparrow, 3 (flock); FkM Sparrow, 1 ; Joaco, 50 (flodc) ; Soag Sparrow, 4 . 
Cardiaal, 6 (three pairs); Catbird, 1; WhUo- h w aat od Nnthatch, a (toftlhar); Black- 



Bird-Lore's Twenry-Arst ChristmAS CeilMit 15 

apfwd Chickadee. 4; Goldes-crowiied Kinglet, 1; Hen&it Tbrash, 1; Blaebird* 4 (flocii. 
rtvinn o\cfi ToUl, 17 »|»*cic». 84 in«iividu«I« -W. DeW. Millci. 

WMtlleld, If. J. (aloac foot of Watcbunc Mountains to Scotch Plaint nd tack).— 
i »cc. «s: 7.30 A.M. to 4 r.M. Fair (bright tun); no mow; very gentle breescs; temp., 
--' ;t*. return, 14*. About 8 miles on foot. Red-thouldered Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
. Woodpecker, j; Blue Jay. 4: Crow, 11; Starling, (flock of about 40); American 
.trrow, j; Slate>colored Junco, 15; Song Sparrow, 3; Brown Creeper, 
ithatch, i; Black-capped Chickadee, li American Robin, 7 (appar- 
.ui in a twamp); Bluebird 6. Total, 15 tptdt^ (about) loj iadividuaU. 
. r. 
New Bmnswkk, If. J.— Dec. ^4; 805 a.m. to i.io r.u., 1.45 to 3.45 p.u. Partly 
.ii.<\ L-round bare; wind west, moderate; temp. 34* to 39*. Herring Gull, 1; Ring- 
t; Sora Rail, 1; Killdecr, 9; Ring-necked Pheasant, 1; Cooper's Hawk, 1; 
M--rk, >; Red-shoulderrd Hawk, 3; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Downy Wood- 
Jay, I a; Crow, 67; Fi«h Crow, 2; Stariing, 53; Meadowlark, la; Gold- 
1 lie throated Sparrow, 13; Tree Sparrow, aa; Junco, 133; Song Sparrow, ao; 
! w. 1: Cardinal. 5; Brown Creeper, 3; White-breasted Nuthatch, 4; Tufted 

I. Total, a6 species, 369 individuals. The Sora took flight from 
t, and flew (apparently feebly) to a nearby bunch of cat-tails. The 
•^^ on the back, siae and color ! the bird. Red-winged Blackbirds were 

. 1 until Dec. 18, and Purple Gra il Dec. ao.— Stcaet T. DANroBTH. 

Princeton, N. J. (along Stony Brook from bridge on LawroncoriUe road to Dfaibl* 
Bridget). — Dec. a8; tt a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Clear; sprinkling of snow; wind westerly; temp. 
,4° to 38*. Observers within calling distance. Mourning Dove, 5; Broad-winged (?) 
li Mcked by Crows from above); Pigeon Hawk. 1; Downy 

cr, 3; Blue Jay, a; Crow, 1,500; Starling, aoo; Goldflnch, 

,>*ttiim, &, Tree Sparrow, 10; Slate-colored Junco, 150; Song Spar* 

.Migrant Shrike, 1 ; White-breasted .\uthatch. 1 ; Tufted Tltmo<ilc,4 

' Mng in a spring); Chickadee, 12; Goi(len-crowne<i Kinglet, t; Bluebird, ao (one 

X broken leR). Total, ao species, (about) 1.937 individuals. (The Shrike was 

Mcd for four minutes while eating a piece of a bird at a distance of about 15 feet in 

<p of a tree that grew below the bank on which I stood. He was in bright sunlight, 

I had an entirely uBobatructcd view though I had no field-glasses with me. I BOlod 

V that he was well uadcr 10 inches in length and that the upper and UDdcr 

• almost uniformly gray.— T. v. D.).— Hamilton GnsoM and Tssmm vam 

PrtaMloa, If. J. (to Rocky Hill, Dutch If eck, and viciaily).— Dec 14: a.m. to 4 f.m. 

( lr«r, ground bare; wind west to northwest, fresh; temp. 34* st start. 36* at return. 

I hirtv mile* by motor and on foot, llouming I>ove, t; Marsh Hawk, a; Sharp-shlnncd 

Mini t Kr.i t«ilcd Hawk, a; Rod-ahottUercd Hawk. I : Sparrow Hawk. 5; Screech Owl. t; 

1 ><. « ny Woodpecker, t ; Blue Jay. $; Crow, aoj; Stariing. 46; Meadowlark, 33 C|o in on* 

t*o< Il .: Treo Sparrow, a6; Junco, as; Song Sparrow, a; Cardinal, s; Brown CfMpar, ti 

!hatch, a; Robin, a; Bluebird, t. Total, ao ipactea, (atant) 564 

throated Sparrows. Chic k ad wi . and Red^bfunatad NuttatdMt 

thru unusual absence.— HtKBV I.amb Eno. 

v. J. (10 PInlnnboro and Rocky BiU aad tack, IM U m i Rhrar, C a nng to 

Uke.andaredcedargroTO).~I>ec. »4, 1$o am. to sss m- Partly dondjr; rhrar and 

I-. ' ..')... utilcfroteo; wind northwest, brisk; temp, about tit* throttgkont 

1 . 4 (after dark) by autobus. Herring Gull, t < >ericaa 

Ki4.iioodedMerganMrr, t (maleadult):Re4-tall«dHa»4. . ,.».,*«al«i); 

1, t ; Sair-wbet Owl. 1 ; Great Homed Owl. a (koodnf at dnak); Bakf 

<a, y. Downy Woodpackar, 6; Red-b«adad Woodpac k ar, i; PVckar, 1; Blna 



i6 Bird • Lore 

Jaj t, AsMffkaa Crow, its; FUi Crow, a; SurUag, 37; MoulowUrk, (flock) 4: Gold- 

flack, a; White- throAted Sparrow, g; Trae Sparrow, t6; Pidd Sparrow. 5; Junco, loS; 

Soag Sparrow, ji; Towbcc, 1 ^nuUcK wdl m«b; Cardinal, 6; Winter Wren, 1; Brown 

CfMpcr, j; Whita>braa»Ud ^ > uftcdTii, 15: Caroi< 

uo a awl Kinglet, a (toceth< tuth, i; Robin, (flo • 

(abovt) 4je faidivkliiab. The Kabjr<iowaa were ttwtted with fix, gliMfn iairijr ck»r; 

e)ro>rfa«* of holh and crown-patch ol one noted. — CSAUJts H. Rookm. 

Atlaatic City, 11. J.— Dec. a. Rain no»t ol the day; wind aoutheaat; temp. 5** at 
fttart, 46* at rcium. Inland waterway from Little Beach bland (U. S. Coast Guard 
Sution ISO) to Atlantic City. Surted at Little Beach 6^15 a.m., wallied up the beach 
along the aeaaborr to Great Bay. returned through alder buthca. and meadow*. Ix-ft 
Little Bcadi In boat, and returned to .Mlantic City 3.30 r.M. Going through Brigaotinr 
Inlet, Inland Waterway, and Abtecoo Inlet. Homed Grebe, 3; Black-backed Gull, :. 
Herring Gull, (about) >oo; Bonaparte Gull, to; Red-breasted Merganser, 1; BUtk 
Duck, is; Scaup Duck, 1; Old Squaw, 5; Scoter (American), a; White-winged Scoter. 
Surf Scoter, soo Scoters in allr Brant, thousands; Clapper Rail, (heard); Sanderling (?i. 
lo; Marsh Hawk. 1; Sharp-shinned Hawk (this was shot by one of our party); Homed 
Lvrk (?). as; Seaside Sparrow, s; Song Sparrow, 1 ; Myrtle Warbler, >5. Total, at species, 
(about) 807 individuals not counting Brants. This the firtt time I have ever seen a 
Bonaparte Gull, but I am ^ hoc Gulls were Bonaparte because of their small 

siae, their temlike flight, a. ;oc. the markings. — FaAMvuN P Cook. 

Moont B0II7, II. J.— I)c<. io, 9 A.M. to s r.M. Clou' 
tempai*atstart.3a*atretum. About 10 miles on foot. B<-' 

Marsh Hawk, 1; Red-tailed Hawk, a; Long-eared Owl, t; IUir>' Wf»odpecker, 1; Downy 
Woodpecker. 7; Ydlow-bdlied Sapsucker. 1; Homed Lark. 10; Blue Tav 2. Crow, 
(approximate) to.eoo (roost); Starling, ts: Meadowlark, la; White-thr- -row, 

3S; Tree Sparrow, ao; Field Sparrow, a; Junco, 50; Song Sparrow, 8; ' - rown 

Creeper, 6; White-breasted Nuthatch. 1; Tufted Titmouse, a; Car •-, t; 

Goldica-crowned Kinglet. 3; Hermit Thrush, i; Bluebird, t. Total lut) 

10.193 individuab. Dec. 9$: Goldfinch and Screech Owl Sr%*o% 

Cape May, If . J. — Dec. 36:0.30 a.m. to 5.50 p.m. ' 32* 

at start. 4s* at rrtum. Obser^'ers together most of th> i ; ; 

Red-throated Loon, 1 (Culver and Roland); Herring Gull, 

Bonaparte Gull, la; Merganser, a; Pintail, 1; Scoter. 14; \\.... 

Great Blue Heron, 4: Kildeer, a; Turkey Vulture, ts; Marsh Hawk, a; Rr< . wk. 

t; Sparrow Hawk, t; Short-eared Owl, 1; Kingfisher. 1; Horr- ' ' -' ;oo. 

Starling, iy, Meadowlark. 30; Goldfinch. 1 ; Savannah Sparrow. : row, 

1; White-throated Sparrow, 10; Tree Sparrow. 8; Field " 
Sparrow, a; Myrtle Warbler, 100; Palm Warbler, 3; Long ■ 

Titmouse. 1; Carolina Chickadee. 8; Cnildcn-crowned Kinglet, 3. 1. 

Robin, 5. Total. 38 spedes, 534 indi%'iduab. — Delos E. CrtvEt. < \m> 

and jvuAK K. PoTTKa. 

B th l f wa (Iflfln tg M Uq r Co.), Pn.— Dec. 3$; 9 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare, 
wind, strong northwest; temp. a8*. Red-shouldered Hawk, a; Sparrow Hawk, 4; Downy 
Woodpecker, 3; Crow, 17; Starling, 7S: Meadowlark. 14; Goldfi- ' W^ - '"^ ..iic«l 

Sparrow, 3; Tree Sparrow, ii; Field Sparrow, t; Junco, 45; s imp 

Sparrow, t; Brown Creeper. 1; Golden crowned Kinglet, a. Tuul. 14 HMxica, us 
individuab. — Cupffoao H. pAxoatJUt. 

Ttlferd, Pa.— Dec. tsi 9iS a.m. to 1 p.m Cir. ' bare; wir vr«t, 

temp. a7* at start. 30* at retum. Cooper's Hawk, 1; K iIawk,i;Si ii.iwk. 

1; Downy Woodpecker, t; Flicker, t; Blue Jay, 1; Crow, ao; curling, 4; Tree bparrow, 
Ji SlateK»lored Junoo, iSi Song Sparrow, at; Brown t'r^i^r , r..i:>i 1 > •pedes. 99 



I 



Bird-Lore's Twenry-flrst Chrismitt Census 17 

iadividoab. On Dec $6. j White>brem«tcd Mutlutchc* and 6 Goldca-oowaed KiaglcU 
were noted. Bcfin ' mju week MeadowUrks aad Urge iock* of Amerkaa 

Pipit* were obeen < \ Bottuwics. 

CktstMl m tad White Manh«Pa.— Dec. |6; 10.4s a.m. to j r.M. Cloudy; xrouod 
■ac0»ef ed end Iwea ; wind, rest, light; temp. 25*. Five milee on foot. Turkey Vulture, t ; 
Hawk (not identified). >; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker. 4; Flicker, j; 
Crow, (about) joo; Starling, (about) aoo; Goldfincb. i; Junco,9; Song Sparrow, (i in 
•ong). 10; Cardinal, 6; Winter Wren, >; Brown Creeper, a; White-breasted NutJutch, 1; 
' •'-* Titmoose, 4. Total, 15 »pede*, (about) 548 Individuala.— Gboeob Lkak. 

inlphia. Pa. (dtf Um to Port W nnh i^tDa nd ratwo, akcc Cwihiini Creak 
10 rairmooBt Park).— Dec. a8; 10 a.m. to 5 r.M. Clear; tprinkllag of taow; wind north- 
wot, temp, ji* at ttart, 30* at return. Fifteen mile* on foot. Movrniac Dove, i; 
Red-ahoulderedHawk, i;Hawk. 1 (HtherRed-Utled or Red-«hoaldered); Sparrow Hawk, 
a; American Crow, 5; Starling, 100; Meadowlark, 35; Whito- throated Sparrow, la; 
Tree Sparrow, ao; Slate-colored Junco, 35; Song Sparrow, j; Cardinal, 6; Whitn-brenatad 
Nuthatch, I. Total, la species, aia individuals. Mourning Dove identifif^ » <-l<i«e 
range. Winter visitant Chickadees late in arriving. — Wiluam M. Htmnit 

Phiadaipyn, Pn. (Oak Laa* and Winaabickon Vallay).— Dec. 3$: S-Jo am t.> i.jo 
P.M. Clear; no mow; wind northwest; temp. a6* to 34*. Fifteen miles <» foot. Rough- 
legged Hawk (American), i; Downy Woodpecker, a; Flicker, i; Crow, t$; Aacficaa 
Goldfinch, I ; Starling. 50; Carolina Wren, i (scrutinized with good glass at dMtmr of 
10 irr\ . Tree Sparrow, 55; Song Sparrow, 10; Junco, 150; Golden-crowned Kinglet, ao. 
TotAl. It species, a6i individuals. — W. A. SQUiExa. 

Reading, Pa.— Dec as; 7.15 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Clear; ground bare; wind west, light; 
ump. 33* at start. Observers together. Sparrow Hawk, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 7; 
Flicker, i; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 30; Starling, ao; Purple Finch, 18; Goldfinch, 7; White- 
throated Sparrow, t8; Tree Sparrow, las; Junco, 175; Song Sparrow, 2$; Cardinal, 7; 
Carolina Wren, 1; Winter Wren, 3; Brown Creeper, 1; White-breasted Nuthatch, 6; 
Chickadee, 6; Goldcn-oowned Kinglet, j; Robin. 1; Bluebird, a. Total, at 
469 individual*. — Ms. and If as. G. Henby Mcmckl. 

Weat Chanlw, Pla. — Dec. 3$; 7.30 a.m. to a p.m. Clear; ground bare and fr 
light west wind; temp, at start a3*, on return 3a*. Seven miles on foot. Oba er var * 
together. Movming Dove, i; Turkey Vulture, 3; Marsh Hawk. 1; Red-tailed Hawk, «; 
Red-«hoaldered Hawk, t; Broad- winged Hawk, 3: Sparrow Hawk, 1; Screech Owl, t; 
Downy Woodpecker, 7; Flicker, 3; Crow, 595; Surling, 101 ; Tree Sparrow, s6; Slato- 
rnlnrrd Junrn. ^77; Song Sparrow, 14; Cardinal, 8; Winter Wren, i; Brown Craepar, 7; 
Whitr l>rr.l^t'■! Nuthatch, s; Golden-crowned Kinglet, a. Total, ao spedca, 1,159 
individuals.— C. E. Emimosb and EnwtN S. SMrni. 

Ufits. Pa. 'northers Ifcartar Cooatjr, Mpftr vallay «i tkn Eammm CfMk)«>- 
I>r P.M. Clottdy; grovad bare; wind cast, lii^t; temp, aa* at start, 

}ty iirse, 97 mile* on foot; obacrvcr* in two parties over two-third* 

of the way. Bob-white, 13; Ruffed Grouse, t; Turkey Vulture, j; Manh Hawk, 1; 
Cooper's Hawk, t; Red-tailed Hawk, 4: Red-ahouldercd Hawk. 1; Sparrow Hawk, 1; 
s< readi Owl. t; Downy Woodpecker, 19; Northcra FUcker. s; Blue Jay. t; Crow, leo; 
StarUag. iS; McMiowlark, is; Pvrpla Gmcfck, 7; Goldfinch, to; Tree Sparrow, 93; 
SUta^alorcd Joaco, 490; Soag Sparrow, 68; C a rdia al. j; Brown Craepar. a; Wkita- 
breasted Nuthatch. 11; Ckkfcndot, 7: OoldtB cfonrand Kiaglct. i; BlaabM. s* Total. 
a« species, (about) 890 ladtvidaala. A8 fc 9 rt -aa i 9dOwloa Dae 14. Tka aatMnl iptdai 
are BlueMfd, Grackla, 8kort-«afMl Owl. Maiali Hawk aad C^opw*t Bavk. Tk9 laal 
four. comaMa la Octobar aad early Noiraaiber. have aever before ba«i raeordad la a 
( hri.tmAs Cea*w ia aortbem Laacaalar Caaaty.— HcaaanT R. Baca. AaaAsaii 
lUca Mttxta and WitUAM Daaa. 



i8 Bird - Lore 



Co., Pm.— I>«c. «7; 9 to II A.M., I to J.JO p.m. Cloudy la 
cImu i« af tcHMOo^ ground rovrrcd with uiow; wind nortliwot, shifting to MNithwMt, tiMtt 
to nortli, Mtk; triBp>. >4* at Mart, jo* at return. Tea to la mile* on foot. Obtermn 
«wli«d la pain in forcaooo, all together in aftrmooo. Ruffed GrouM, : *•— i^ ,. 
Hairy Woodpe ck er, i ; Doway Woodpecker. 8; Blue Jay, i ; American Crow, k, 

i; G«ldfach,9:TrMSparrow. IOC -o: Song Sparrow, i; Cedar >\ 2; 

Browa Creeper, J ; Whita-hcca*tr<i a. 6; Black-capped Chickadee tl. 

IS tpcdea, ttt iadividaali.— Mat. F. L. Matku. Mat. O. J. Van Wimku, Ma 
Gitxrrra and Jiiaa Maanu IfclfoaaAW. 

Tovtu Pa. (aloi« tha WanwrtiHiii Rivar).— Dec. aSi 8 a.m. to t a m. Partly doady; 
I in. MMWi wind north, Mroag; trmp. 19* at ttart, a9* at return. River entirely free fron 
ice. Four mllca oa foot. Aowriran Merganser, j; Black Duck, a; Sparrow Hawk, a; 
Doway Woodpecker, j; American Crow, 1.500; Starting, 8; Meailowlark. 16; Gold&ach, 
4; Wkite-lluoated Sparrow, a; Tree Sparrow, js; Slate-colored Jaaco, $6; Song Sparrow, 
1 1 ; Cardinal, a; Carolina Wrca, 1 ; Wiater Wren, i '<«per. a; Tufted TltaMMaa, 

i; Bbck-cappcd Chickadee, 5; Goldea-crowned > ^. ToUl, 19 tpedet, 1,617 

individaab.— OiAmLXt S. Weissb. 

nilrti|>. Pia. (FMaal HOa to Daar Craak)<— Dec a6; 8 a.m. to 5 r.M. Cloudy; 
gnNUMl bare; wind toutheaft, very liffht; trmp. a9* at »tart, j4* at return. Fifteen milea 
oa fool, 8 ndlea by trolley. Obeervrr* together mott of the time. Ruffed Grouse, t; 
Screech Owl, a; Hairy Woodpecker, j; Downy Woodpecker, 7; Flicker, j; American 
Crow, a; Cowbird, t; Tree Sparrow. 88; Junco, 10; Song Sparrow, a6; Cardinal, 9; 
Brown Creeper, t; White bremted \uth«trh, s; Tufted Titmouic. o; Black-capped 

Chickadee,?. < 

bwialcriagon 

vious dales, but we could not find tbem today. Several Redwings were reported to be in 

a swamp adjoining that where the Cowbird was seen, but we could not flush them. A 

Robin and two Bronicd Crackles were observed abo recently. — R. H. Stabl, H. H. 

EtuoTT, P. F. SKtaoLO and J. L. JoKta. 

Orova City, Pa. — Dec. a?; 9.J0 aji. to a.jo r.M. Very cloudy and dark; slow driulc; 
I in. of snow on froaca ground, melting rapidly; wind west, llg1>' 
j6* al roCura. Eight adla oa fool. Ruffed Grouse, a; Red^^houi 
Woodpecker, 4; Downy Woodpecker, to; Flicker, a; Blue J !Uu»ih, 10, Ticc 

Sparrow, 60; Junco, ao; Song Sparrow, 7; Cardinal, t; \\l < d Nuthatch, la; 

Black-capped Chkkadoe, so; Goldea-crowaed Klaglrt. 20; Robin. 1. Toul. 15 specie*, 

(about) Sa4 ladivldaala. Doc. 94, Brown Prrenrr. Chrwink. an<{ Tiiftr^l Titmou^r wrrr 

Ustad.— Nbvim NicaotaoK. 

■■avQfftl^Pa. — Dec a6;9 to !• 't m . • i.> ^ r «. > ..>.><i> . k 
laallag a boors; wfasd aorthcast, light; temp. a8*. Eight mil< 
togtiher. Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 5; Flicker, i [■■ <>ut oi 

hollow tree); Crow, a; Tree Sparrow, a4; Junco, ja; Song Sparmw »!, 10; 

Winter Wren, i; Brown Creeper, j; White- breasted Nuthatch, ; 2. 

Total. It species, oj iadlvidoals. — Tbomas L. McCoxkeu., !.«> nd 

L. F. Savacb. 

CkMifaaka Baach, Md. — Dec a6; 10 a.m. to 4.J0 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind 
•oatheast, li^t; temp. jj*. Five miles on foot. Homed Grebe, y. Herring Gull, 8; 
Goldca-eye, 1; BuAchead, 11 ; Old Squaw, 5; Scoter, a; White- winged Scoter, 85; Surf 
SooCcr, S9; KlOdecr, a; Turkey Vulture, ja; Belted Kingfisher, t ; Doway Woodpadk*. j; 
Flicker, t; Blue Jay, 1; Crow, »$; Fish Crow. 155; Starling. 900; Red-wiaged Blackbird, 
171; hlcadowlark. 4; Goldfinch, 6; White- throated Sparrow, 15; Tree Sparrow, t6; 
jBaoo,siiSoegSparrow,9; Swamp Sparrow, a; Towhec, 1; Cardinal,4; Myr' 
1; llockiagbird, 1; Carolina Wren. 1; Long-billed Marsh Wren. 1; Brown ' 



Bird-Lore's Twenty-first Christmu Census 19 



Tufted TMMHM. 6: CmoUm Chickadee, j; Hmnit Thntdb, 1; Robia. 10. ToUl, |6 
»ped«», 1.558 ir '* !«.— Ml. aod Mm. JotMru KrmxoGS. Ji. 

SmmkkUj. ) 95; a.m. to 13.30 r.u. dear; light northwest wind, iacna** 

About 7 mile* covered tboroagUy. OUcnrcn together. Rof cd 

iKxker, a; Downy Woodpecker, 4; Tree Sparrow, 13; Juaco, 64; 

»oag Sparrow, it; Cardinal, 8; Carolina Wren, 3; Tufted HtmoiMe, y. Chickadee, 6; 

Golden-crjwncd Kinglet, 1. Total, ii »pccic», lit individuab. — HtviBn f| rtfwi«rv 

DtucKts BuRGKi and Frank A. HKcvaa. 

MofiaatowB, W. Va. 'Stata PaiSM).— Dec. 14; 8.30 a.m. to 1. 30 r m. aou 3 tu 3 
r.m. Slightly Jou<i.\ . Mitxt lii;ht;terap. a6*at»tart, 34*atretum. Thirteen miles on foot. 
Cooper's Hawk, t; Ked&houldered Hawk, 3; Sparrow Hawk, i ; Screech Owl, i; Downy 
Woodpecker, 7; American Crow, 6; Vesper Spartuw. 1: ("hipping Sparrow. 31; Slatc- 
• "l.rr.* junco, 79; Soog Sparrow, 33; Cardinal. 35; Car n. 2; Tufted Titmouse, 

t:. i i.ukadee. 3; Bluebird. 7. Total, 15 species, 12c .aU.— .\. J. Damhiak. 

Parkersburg, W. Va.— Dec. 37: i to 5 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; light w«et wind; 
trmp. 40*. Five miles on foot. Obscr\'ers together. Sparrow Hawk, i ; Downy Wood- 
;•<■. ker, 1 ; Crow. 15; Song Sparrow, q; Cardinal. 3; Carolina Wren. 1 ; Tufted Titmowe, 3; 
( hukadre. 7. Total, 8 species. 30 individuals.— Miss Bkktba E. Wbitk, Mjm Lainu 
li M > 'BE. Miss GKiTBt-Dt Mceiwein and Waltek Donaghbo. 

Charleston, W. Va. (Sovtii Sido lUlla aad ratiaaa).— Dec. 36; 9.30 a.m. to a p.m. 
ilrav \ - . '.V lifht south winds; ground bare; snow flurries; temp. 30* at start, 35* at 
rrt ke on foot; same territory as covered in previous years. Obecrvcrs 

i«jf ' tc, ii (two coveys); Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy Woodpecker, it; 

Yellow- t>ctlird Sapsocker, 3; Crow, i ; Goldfinch, 1 ; Tree Sparrow, 10; Field Sparrow, 18; 
Junco, 107, Song Sparrow, 81; Towhee, 19; Cardinal. 73; Carolina Wren. 45; House 
Wren, 1, Winter Wren, 1; Uliite-breasted Nuthatch. 5; Tufted Titmouse, 14; Bladk- 
rapped Chickadee. 30. Bluebird, 7. Total, 19 species, 470 individuab.— I. H. JonmoH, 
Ki Lit CaAWPoeo and Mary Bells Johnstom. 

Lewiaburg, W. Va.~Dcc. 35; 9.30 a.m. to s p.m. Clear in evening; ground bare; 
wind wni. light; trmp. 14* at start. 31* at return. Tea miles 00 foot aad on boceebock. 
Ruffed Grouse, 1; Turkey Vulture, 15; Red-tailed Hawk, s; Sparrow Hawk, a; Hairy 
Woodpecker, a; Downy Woodpecker, 5: Red-bellied Woodpecker. 3; nicker, 5: Blue Jay, 
.0, (row. 1,000 (est.); Goldfinch. 9; Tree Sparrow, 168; Slato-colored Jmmo, tfo; 
SoDK ^i>arrow, I a; Cardinal, 16; Mockingbird, 1; Carolina Wren. 1; Wbita-bieaatad 
NuthAtch, 13; Tufted Titflsousc, t8; Black-capped Chickadee. 1; Bluebird. 19. Total. 
:i kpe^ies, i.$i3 individuab. — CsAS. O. Uaicdlsv. 

Mount VeriMNT to Dyke, Va.— Dec. 19; 8.35 a.m. to $.as 9,u. Clear; ground bare; 
wind w>uthwr«i lirht trmp. 3a*atstart, 38*at fiakb. Twelve aUes on foot. Obeenren 
togrihrr llrrrihK ('uU. 5; Riag-UDcd Gull, 1; Americaa Miirgeniif. 15; Hooded Iter- 
K^txwr. I ^ \tnwicaa Goldca-eye, S90; Buflkbead. li Kflldeer, 6; Ifowvbf Dova, 13; 
Turkr> \ wiiure, 37; Marsh Hawk, a; Bald Eagle, i; ElngHeber, ti Doway Woodpeckar. 
s; Vrllow bellied Sapsucker, 1; RcdbeUad Woodpecker, 1; Flicker, t; BonMd Lark 
(»u>-' ■' •<> - Jay,8;AmericaaCrow, ii;FlsbCrow.3;StarUM*iij;Mead-.«lark, 
5. V Sparrow, 3a; Tree Sparrow. 4; Field Sparrow, to; Slalo-coland 

Jur », 5; Cbewiak, t; Caidiaal, 7; Myrtle WarUer,«; MockkiiMH. 

s.< nier Wr«n, 3; Bfowa Creeper, 3; WUta-braaelad NvtWldi, 3' 

Tui hkkadae, 10; GoldeB-ciowMd Ktatbt, to; Raby- 

<ro. h. y, BlueMid, II. Total. 41 epecka, Hj tod Wda a h 

a one or two WOeoa'e Ssipe tMt* kMid, b«t Ml 
i.K. E. A. Pissts aad PaaacM HasMt. 

l*uUski, Va.— Doc •$; i to 6 wm. dear; grouad bare; llgbt ««l wlad; t«ii^ jT 
at »urt. 33* at retwa. 8a««a ■!!« oa foot. Woodcock, 1; KJMeor, ti Bab.whlt«. t4 



JO Bir J • Lore 

MounUac I>ovc, 6; Torkcy Vuliurr. 90; BUck Vulturr. y, Rcd-uiird II ilairy 

Woodpecker. 1; Rcvl-haMicd Woodprrkrr. 1; trow, la; McailowUrk. < ••rrd 

Jmko, j>; Song Sporrow, 8; Cardinal. 4; Motkintbird. }; Wbitc-bmutr< ti, 8; 

TWtodTllwottte, »; BUck-capp«^' *»•••»'•'•" '. ^••'' •>« '•''.i~ •« 
O. C Brswkb. 

Spaftaakwic 8. C (Batll>hr«>. i>r< jj, 7 jo « m i<> 1 ; jo r m « 
very «ct; tone fog with • odMiag rain froa 1 1.30; wimi north. About .) 
MovniiiV Dove, 1; Mar»h Hawk, i; Soutbem Downy Woodpecker. 1, K< 
Woodpo c kor. 1; Flicker, t; Blue Jay. 18; American Crow, i; MraHowlark. 
Graciik, a; Wliite>tliroatcd Sparrow, jo; FIdd Sparrow, aj; ^ 
Soag Sparrow. 8; Towbcc, 7i Cardiaal. 7; Mocktegbird. t; I ^ 

Cracpar, 1; Tulted Tilmouac. a; Carolina Chickadee, 7; Golden-crowned Kinglet, t$; 
Rvbjr-crowMBd Kinglet, 1$; Hermit Thninh. ' m.-Kir.i . r,.t,i , ...^.,^. ..r 
individoab. — Gabmkl Camxon. 

SaaUMrtOO, 8. C. — Dec. as; 10 a.m. to 1 r.H. iirar.irmp cr 1. iur»:iN 

Vulture. 1; Yellowbelliod Sapaucker. t, Pharbe, a; Blue Jay. ; irk. >(; Ku»iv 

Blackbird. 1 ; Goldfinch, 6; Vesper Sparrow, 6; Savannah Spaxru» , 
Sparrow, 15; Chipping Sparrow, 1; Field Sparrow, 6; Junco. 30; Son. 
eyed Towbee. j; Cardinal, a; Loggerhead Shrike, t ; Myrtle Warbler, it, tine \\ arbirr, 7. 
Palm Warbler, 1; Ancrican Pipit, ao; Mockingbird, t; Brown Thraaher. i; Carolina 
Wren, a; Brown-headed Nuthatch. 6; Golden-crowned Kinglet, >; Ruby>crowned Kinglri. 
4; Hermit Thrufth. 1; Bluebird. 6. Total, jo tpecics, 166 itodi\-iduals. — E. S. DiNGLtc. 

Aik«a,8.C. — Dec. ai; io.joa.m. to a.jor.M. Overcast, with occasional light »hower»; 
calm; temp, at return 65*. About 3 rnikt 00 foot along a wooded creek and adjoininit 
fields. Observers together. Killdeer, 18; Bob-white, 30 (a covey«t; Mourning Dove, 4, 
Turkey Buuard, 15; Marsh Hawk. > >i '< k. i; 

Sparrow Hawk, a; Southern Hairy U r. i; 

Rcd-cockaded Woodpecker, a; Pileatetl V\ood|)ecker, 2; Red- headed \'' r, 3 

(in town); Red-bellied Woodpecker. 1; Flicker. 12, Phwbe, 5; Blue Jay. .. 45. 

Mcadowlark, i8;Gold&nch, to; Vesper Sparrow, 9; Heoslow'* Sparrow, a; White- throated 
Sparrow, aso; Chipping Sparrow, 43; Field Sparrow. 59; Carolina Junco. 300; Song 
Sparrow, 156; Swamp Sparrow, ^i; Fox Sparrow, $; Towhee (both Red, and WhiU- 
r>i ' ' irdinal, 18; Cedar Wazwing. 60; Loggerhead Shrike, 7; Mjrrtle Warbler. 4s; 

Pu. <(. Yellow Palm Warbler, a; Mockingbird, 6; Brown Thrasher, ?; Carolina 

Wren. Wren, a; Brown Creeper, a; White-breasted Ni:' ' >wn- 

beaded < it; Tufted Titmouse. 8; CaroUna Chickadee, i>. vned 

Kiaglct, 11; kvbjr-crowacd Kinglet, 38; Hermit Thrush. So; Robin, 300 ss 

Total. $0 species, (about) 1.736 individuals.— MAaioK J. Pkllew and Loi - .1 jeo. 

Ptaat City, Fla.— Dec. as; S a4I. to 6 p.m. Bright and clear; light northeast wind; 
temp. 40* to 60*. Trip made by auto from Plant City to HiUsboro River. 1 mile north 
ol Ciyatal Spitegs, Fla., about seven hours spent looking for birds along the bank of 
the misboco River, and return by auto. Total distan ^ v. 14 miles. Ankinga, 1; 

Aacrkaa Bittern. 1; Ward'» Heron. 6; American £«■- "ty Hmrn, n: Loubiana 

Bcroa* $; Little Blue Heron. $0; ('reen Heron, 1; BU«.k-«.rownr<' lieroo. 5; 

Ycllow<rowned Night Heron, a; King Rail, 1; Woodcock. 4; KiUdr< ida Bob- 

white, 9; Mourning Dove, 1 1 ; Ground Dove, 4; Turkey Vulture, 1 1 ; biack \ ulturc, so; 
Marsh Hawk, 1; Sharp-shinned Hawk, t; Red-shouldered HA«k }■ Sparrow Hawk, 1; 
0^»rey, 1 ; Florida Barred Owl, 4; Florida Screech Owl, 1 ; 1 .fisher, 6; Southern 

Downy Woodpecker, a; Pileatcd Woodpecker, 3; Red-beUir<i »<x>ii|n^ker. a; Flicker, til 
Ph«Bbe, 13: Florida Blue Jay, lo; Fish Crow, 4; Florida Red-winged Blackbird, 73; 
Florida Mcadowlark. 16; American Goldfinch, si (approx.); Vesper 13; 

FIdd Sparrow, 1; White-eyed Towhee, 2; Florida Cardinal, to; Loggcrhe- 15, 



I 



Bird-Lore's Twenty-first Christinas Centtis 

Blur hcAdcd Virrt>. i; Black sad white Warbler, q; Myrtle Warbler. 5; Yellow. throated 

Warbler. 6; Palm Warbler, tj. Yellow Palm Warbler. iS; Oven-bird, i; Fkwida YHlow- 

throat. 1; Mm kintbiid, 19; Bruwn Thraaher. 1; Florida Wren, 4: Houae Wrcs. 7; 

I .:ftr<l Tiim«>u«r s. RubyKfowned Kinglet, 14; Blue-gray Goatratther, 50; Rf»bin. 1. 

* I t^l. 58 »pccie». 5S7 iadividuak- H*-v' T f.«.. n ,«.»k...v. 

• \K E. Bavkaro. 

t*gnaacoia^ Fla. - Dec. 2$; 9 A.M. to I J. 30 f.U. WnincT < irar anti loui, grounu ciear 

of HMiw and ice; wind ;o mile*, from Dorthcaat. Walk along thorc* ol bay and tbtongli 

1 )mIv .!' i> pine xrowth. Pied-billed Grebe, j; Loon, j; Herring Gull, 60; 

K • . ' 1 Laushinx ('.ull, 1; Bonaparte GuU, t; Florida Conaorant, 1; Rcd- 

. !- i; llonmingDove, s^Turkey Yulture, 3;Kingfiaber, j; 

y • -■ ■ \ ■■'.' ker, s; Whip-poor-will, i; Phtrbe. 4; Bine Jay. 10; 

throated Sparrow, 10; Swamp Sparrow, 1 ; Cardinal, 2; Towhce, 12; 

' Myrtle Warbler, (about) 135; Pine Warbler, 6; Palm Warbler, y, 

I. >: Titlark, 6; Mockingbird, 6; Catbird, i; Carolina Wrrn, 1; 

u<i Titmouse, 1; Brown-headed Nuthatch. 4; Ruby-crowned King- 

~h. I : bluebird, 9. Total, 37 ipe ci ca, 334 individuals.— Fa Asrts M. 

w ■ . 

Miami. Fl J .>; 9 AJL tO II M. (in dty limits), > to 6 r.M. (at Miami beach). 

I i'v < - . «ind southeast; temp. 76* at start, ;8* at return. Herring (<ull. 50, 
kui^ hi i< i.ull, 30; Bonaparte Gull, 30; Royal Tern. 15; Florida Cormorant, i; 
Brown f'riitan. 100; Sea Duck (?), 300+ ; Black -crowned Night Heron. 10; Seai- 
(talmatf^i Sandpiper. 5. Spotted Sandpiper, 4; Sanderling, 50; Killdccr, loo-f ; Florida 
>{")• -v f.iic. 65 (4 covi y»>; Mourning Dovca, 150; Ground Dove. 45; Turkey Yulture. 50; 
ItU. k. \ ;!(.ir.-. ij; Red-shouldered Hawk, 4; Sparrow Hawk, >o; Osprey, 4; Kingfisher. 

> > -f ■■■ -r> Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker, 1; Red-headed Woodpecker. 1 ; 
k..! >.'! ■! u ...-1- . , . r Mm ker. 11; Whip-poor-will, 5 (heard se>-eral); Ruby- 

tt! .1 ' M .r . • <<1 Flycatcher, 1; Phorbc, 15; Florida Blue Jay, 10; 

\\<^-\-.^:.r.i. i < iso-H. Red-eyed Towhee. 3; Florida Cardinal. 15; 

I" 1 x^ri< a! ^'nke, 39; Blue-headed Yirco, 8; Worm-entinf Warbler. I 

'4 it); Yellow-throated Warbler. 3; Pine Warbler, so-h; Palm and 
........ , ...... ,; <...krs. 300-f ; Prairie Warbler, 10; Florida Yellow-throat, to; Mocking- 
bird. 100. Calbird. 150; House Wren, 150; Blue-gray Gnatcatchcr. 48. Total, 49 specie*. 
J u: - HMii.idaab. Dec. 31, Florida Wrrn. 3; Brown Thrasher, 1; Brow n h and ed 
N.tt.'. ' Ulwter Wren. 1; Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 5; Oveobtrd. 3; Red-cnckidad 

Wuodpc< iiCAB Bu»tu.. 

Detrr. enslmB sabafto aad B«IU laU Park).— Dec. 34; 8 am. to 3 ru. 

( )• >t now; wind w«M, briak; temp. 34*- Herring Gull. 75; Greater ScM^p, 14; 

y- ■ >mV 4 Hairy Woodnnkpr. 8; Downy Woodpecker, 4i Prairie Homed 

sparrow, I Slate-colored J uaco. it; Soag Sparrow. 3; 

.; .>iie-breartc«i .- ■ " Goldaa-crowned Kinglet, 15. Total. 

vldttab.— Kaltm Bi 

Detroit. Midi. tBala Ua aatf rlvw troaij. l>ec. t7;Sto t3 A.11.. a t04r.11. Cleari 

ao wind; 4 in of new-fallen snow; tamp, jo* to 38*. Herriaf Gull, aa; lUac-biUed G«D. 

1 .' . Merganser. 8. Rcd-bfcaated Mctfaaacf, 4: BnOakoad, la; Coldea^ye. so; Bafffaw'* 

<.«ldc»-eye. to; Coopcr'a Hawk. 1; Scnack Owl. a; HonMd Owl, 1; Hairy Waadpecfcer. 

> Downy Woodpadtcr. •; Crow, i; Brmm Ciacpcr, a; WUta-bmalad NadmUk, it. 

• .•.Idea-crowoed Kinglet, a. Total, 16 apedea, 14! ladiridaaia.— Etta S. Wnrnw. 

Ana Arbor. If ick.— Dec. a«i 9 A4I. to 4.J0 f.u. Cloady; wowiag all day; a ia. af 

•'i<-«. 'viod r4«t. licht; trmp. a«* to 30*. Ohawvan lafttlMr. Bob-whlU. a; Manli 

II <»k. I mair . I .inK r^rr.i Owl. 1 (two have boM MM npwiadiy ia the saaw evatsraaa 

■r several weeks); Hairy Woadpeckar, 4: Dowajr Waad^edMe, j; mdMr. i; 



99 Bird • Lore 

BItM J«y, 4; Crow, t; Trac Sparrow, js; Jvaco, 4S; Soac flfionow, 1 ; Cardinal, 8; Brown 
Ctrnfm, 1; WMto-bwMtwl Nutluitch, $; Cldckad" t..u1, 15 ^Mcka, ijp la- 

'JoMStTH Va» Tv»b aad Claodb Vak : 
Wis. — Doc 9j; • A.M. to 5^5 r.11. Swaihiai aad partly doadlf; 6 ia. of 
r; brisk west wiadi tcoq*. 8* to -t*. ElghlaM mDm 00 foot; msnlws, Adds and 
woods aloBC three lakes. Bdtcd Kiaffbker, 1; Hairy Woodpocker, j; Doway Wood- 
pecker, s; Blue j*^ *" <"•<«, 14; Goldfiack, I ;TrM Sparrow, $3; Slato<oloradJimco,jj; 
Browa Creeper, - reacted Nutbatck, 4; CUckadcc, 20. Total, 11 specks, 150 

iadividaab. Tbc bcucQ Kingishsr was sees aloag aa vafrooca spriag ma at a iHstaace 
o( JO feet.— S. Pact. Jombs. 

Bartfaad, Wis.— Dec. 97; 8 a.m. to 4 fM- CIsar; 7 la. of saow; stnMg aorthwcst 
wiad; tcflM>. 4*, at start aad at return o*. Pedooaeler registered 1 1 odles. Aloog wooded 
lake-^koies aad coaalry roads. Hairy Woodpecker, j; Doway Woodpe c k e r, $; Blae Jay, 
S; Crow, 7; Pviplc Fiach, t; Plae SUkin, 150+ (1 flock); Tree Sparrow, 8; Stata^colorcd 
Juaco, 18; Brown Creeper, y, WUte-breasted Nutkatch. 5; Chickadee, 8; Golden- 
C lowne d Ringlet. 4. Total, t> spedes, S17 iadividaab. liajlrtt have beea rather com- 
BMa ia ihU IwAlity for Kveral weeks.— Sosts L. SniOHDS. 

Laaderdale Lakes sear BtkhoTB, ins.— Dec. >6;o>oto ti.20 a.ii., i.rotoj.aor.M. 
Cloudy; 4 ia. of saow; wiad southeast, light; temp. r6* at start, 30* at return. About 
8 adke on foot. Observer* together. Wilson's Snipe, i; Marsh Hawk, t ; Hair 
pecker, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 5; American Crow, so; Tree Sparrow, too ... 
Slate^coloced Juaco, so; Song Sparrow, t ; BrowB Creeper, t ; Wkite-breastad Nathatch, 5 i 
Black<apped Chickadee. 5. Total, 1 1 spedes. 160 individuals. A Northern Shrike was 
observed Dec. 34 and two Goldfinches Dec. ».— Li;la DintBAB and RoaaaT DtmaAB, 

J« 

Minneapolis, Ulna.— Dec tt; • am. to is.jo r.H. Cloudy; snowing Ui^tly; 6 in. 
snow; wind northwest, osodentte; Ump. ai* at start, as* *> return. About 8 miles 00 
foot aloag the east beak of the Mississippi River and nearby fields aad woods. Scteech 
Owl (seen at $ r.u.), 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 8; Downy Woodpecker, 4 .6, 

RedpoO. t; White-breasted Nuthatch, 10; Black-capped Chickadee, j. i, i 

Total, 8 species, 33 individuals. The Bluebird b aa uausual wiater record for Minnesota. 
As thb bird has beea seen every day for about two weeks, there b no doubt as to itt 
idcntifkatioa.— LAwasMcs Zatsmr. 

I r.M. Fair; 8 ia. of snow; wiad w est , medium; temp. —8* to o*. DUtan '-<lf s 

adks; obse r v er s together. Hairy Woodpecker, i ; Blue Jay, a; Tree Sparr 
Creeper, 3; Wkit»>bf«asted Nuthatch, 4; Chickadee, 1. Total, 6 species, 1 ; 
BtTBTON THAYsa and CnAaiss Paiixirs. 

ToongMowa, Okio.— Dec. »$; 8 A.11. to 5 r.M. Partly doudy; ground bare; temp. 
i>* to aa*; li|^t soutbwcat wind. Distance walked, about 13 mUea. Bob^wUla, 13; 
Rcd-taUcd Hawk, a ; Sparrow Hawk. 1 ; Barred Owl, a; Screech Owl, i ; Belted Kfa^isher. 
t ; Hairy Woodpecker, 14; Downy Woodpecker. s>; Red-bellied Woodpecker. 4; Flicker, 
a; Blue Jay. a4; Crow, 3; Meadowlark, 9; Goldfinch, 1; Tree Sparrow, 295; SUte-colored 
JunoOk98; Song Sparrow, 18; Cardinal, 34; Winter Wren, 5; Brown Creeper, ta; White- 
breasted Nuthatch, 7a; Tufted Titmouse, 53; Black<apped Chickadee, tu; Golden- 
crowned Un^eC, 37; Robin, t. Total, as spedea, 88a Indlviduala.— Gso. L. FoaoToe. 
C. A. Lksdv, Evam C. Dnasau., H. W. Wsookebbb, aad Wilus H. Wabmkb. 

PskMsHBa, OUa. — Dec a6; 4 hours. Cloady; sbow flurries; brisk southwest wind; 
temp. aS* to 3a*. Birds very scarce and difficult to locate. Six-mile walk aad return. 
Herring Gull. »$'> Bonaparte Gull, 300-i-; Merganser, a; BUck Duck, a; Kingfisher, i; 
Red-ehouldercd Hawk, i; Doway Woodpecker, a; Blue Jay, 4; Red- winged Blackbird 
(/•rtfif), t; Bfonaed Grackle, >; 9mom Bunting, 1; Tree Sparrow, ts; Skt*<eioted 



I 




Bird- Lore's Twenrv-flrtt Christmu Census »x 

_.,.„. «„,._...„,„„,,,.™,.. „_ 

J684- iBdividuai* -K. A. liooUTTUt. 

l ii>«Bo ml (CtevalMid) Okto.— Dec as; 8.15 a.m. to 4jo p.k. Ckmdy till 10 o'clock. 
thtm dear; do mmw csc«pC ia tiabcr ud »hadcd parte of river vmOey; MMitliwctt wind, 
^milr vdodty at start, f>aile vdodty at rrtura; teaa|>. 15* at start. 31* at rrtum. 
About 14 ■flat «■ foot aloag tlMtc o( Lake Kric wtU ol Rocky River, abo up Rocky 
River VaBcy. Bcniaf Gull, 99; Bonaparte (?) Gall laccorapaayiaf sketch of wiag 
pattern b dlagMMk of tkb spcde*.— Ed), ros; Pintail. 6; Red-bead, j; Caavasback (?) 
>S (a flock* flying low over lake); American Golden-eye, j; Bob- white, 1 ; Red-ehoiddefcd 
Hawk, 1; Sparrow Hawk, 1; Downy Woodpecker. 5; Blue Jay. 10; Pioe Groabeak, t; 
(kildflnch, 6; Tree Sparrow, ay. Slate-colored Junco, 13; Song Sparrow, 1; Cardinal, a; 
Brown Creeper, y. White-breasted .S'uthatch, 7; Tufted Titnwuse. 2, Chickadee, 1. 
Total, it spades, J48 iadividaab. The l*ine Groabeak was »tudicd with 6X giaaae* at 
40 feet: Robin aiae, stocky build, tlightly forked or FIncb-like taiL roae colored Wad, 
Sreaat and raap. slate-colored belly and lanrr. ^tronc bill. Golden-crowned Kinglet, a 
il>ec. ji) -H. E. Dvxa. 

Obarlin and vidnltj, Ohio.— Dec. 37; 8 a. a. ;^ .,43 • » v ...>..., . ^ .u. snow; wind 
«nt, slixbt, incrcadng to strong; temp. j6* at start, jo* at return. The area indoded 
: miics north. 5 miles nst, a miles south, and aH mik* west. Obeervers separate. Bob- 
white, 18: Sparrow Hawk. 4; Screech Owl, t ; Belted Kiagflsber, t; Hairy Woodpecker, 6; 
Downy Wood) Red-bellied Woodpecker, t; Flicker, a; Blue Jay, 10; Crow, 1; 

Mcadowlark, 4 h. 1 ; Tree Sparrow, 96; Junco. 6; Song Sparrow, 4; Cardinal, 15; 

WUto-becnsled Nuthatch, 17; Tufted Tit, 16; Chickadee, 8. Total, ig species, aaj 
intfvidanb. — HAaou> C. Jumis. Roland WALkni and S Ch^klu Kkxdek.ii rCartfi- 
nal Omitbological Qub). 

Akrea, OlUn. — Dec. 25; 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.m. c<v.i, ^m.m ~>-i, very light, ua.,.. n*, 
rising to si*. Northwest 6 miles and return. Kiagflsber, t; Downy Woodpecker, j; 
.\flBerican Crow, 7; Tree Sparrow, 74; Song Sparrow, 6; Junco. 40; Cardinal, 4: Brown 
Creeper, 1; White- breasted Nuthatch, 4; Tufted Titmouse, 5; Chickadee, la. Total. 11 
•pedes, 157 individuals.— Paul A. Wklu. 

Hnroo, OlUaw— Dec. at; 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Cloudy and snowing lightly; wind south, 
!!Kht trmp. at start ji*. Obee r v er s together in p.m., H. G. Morse alone in a.m. Along 
K.tkr Krie beach and tbrovgb wood*. Homed Grebe, 1; Herring GuU, 5; Bonaparte 
Lull, 5. Mergaaaer, i; Old Squaw, a; Sparrow Hawk, t; Hairy Woodpecker, 1; Downy 
U..W4.... V" «: Northern Flicker, 1 ; Pbsbe, t ; Blue Jay. 1 ; Crow, i; BronacdGracklc,?; 
67; Soag Sparrow, a; Cardinal, 4; Whiter breasted Nuthatch, 1; Tufted 
iicm<>,;»r r, ( hir j t a daf , 4 ; Golden-crowned Kinglet, i . Total, to spcdee, 117 individnab. 
The Pharbe waa watched from a few feet away with good glsiim and had tiM MfM ud 
pumping laU dmmctaibtic of tbe spedaa. Both rear and frant view vara Wd. Semaad 
to be leadtag on tbe wave waah of the beach.— H. G. Mobsb, H. Gnacs MoMSaad W. 
E- Laoransss. 

Cmttm, OUn.— Dec aj; 8 a.m. to 4 jo p.m. Cloudy, ground Ugblly envwad vhh 
mom; wiad. very light; tea^ ji* to 46* Tea miles on foot. Obe ww i tagetber. 
Sorrow Hawk, i; Downy Woodpecker, s; Blue Jay, a; Rcd-wiagrd Btnckhbd, t; Tree 
Sparrow, 150; Slata^olorcd Junco, 100; ^Mtnc Sparrow, 7: Canttaal. 17; White>br*asled 
Nuthatch, j: Tufted Tfimonae. 6. Total, to apadaa, ns ladividMb.— May S. Damn 
and Maav KiKO. 

CMIta, Ofei*.— Dec 15; 8 A.11. to 4.J0 ».«. Oenr: ground baia; «M wal, Hgiil; 
temp. 16* to M*- Elevan-mib walk. Bwl sbnuldmad Hawk, a; 9punm Hawk, t; 
iUwk. I (upper paru slale cainwd; ipedaa —ihnimtaad); Hakjr Wmtfrnkm, *; 
l>owny Woodpecker. 8; Goldflnch, t; Tv«« Sparraw, tto; Ma t e cela t e d |«Bca. if: 
N»ng Sparrow, 34; Cardiaal. la; Whil^bfaaatad Nuthatch. s> Tafted THmouar, a; 



94 Bird - Lore 

Black •Opprd CkitkAJcr. c ToIaI ii %ftrcir<t. m in<I!v!<luAl* Kuvi wrt II 



CXh, Ohio. - t>v^ o . V ■. - ... . r - ...^ 

I«flq>. At tUrt iS*. oo rvturn 24'- Ten miles by aui' rrt 

tflgeClMr aoM of Ibr lim Rinff-ncck< .^k, 

>:R«d-«ho«ldemlHa».^ rk.4;H«> -^xl- 

pecbcr. 8; Rrd-he^kd Woodpcaci, t. Kcd-bdliwl \Vuo.i i. Blue 

jay, Si Crow, n; KagUab Suriiag. 15; MeadovUrk, s; I ""^'^- 75 ; 

Soag Sparrow, so; Cardinal, 16; Crdar Waxwinic. 5; Whitr lirrutrd ^ 6; 

Tufted Tttmouac, 10; Chickadee, 5; Robin, i; Hlucbtrd, io. TuUl, a at 

individoala. The Surlinjr* were found in a thicket where therr waa aa of 

dogwood berries and Kum-berrie*. The)* flew to the top of nearby trees at < ■« h, 

aad their peculiar notes led us to make a» thorough an investigation of ' 'ity 

aspossiUe. Weuscdapairof ibeik ' ' » rred Austrian army biao« ' >nd 

Mr W<tH<>%- had previou^y rumI' juaintaace while attendi: ni- 

tv B. M' • ■IKY am! 

■ i. — Ucc. : P.M. Part <rc and froacn; 

wiad from the west and vcr)- light; temp. 14* moraing, 15° aooa, and a' evcaiag. 
Distaacc traveled, 5 miles. Country hilly, overgrown with second growth saplinc and 
haacl brush aad briers. Sparrow Hawk, a; Screech Owl, 1; Hairy Woodp< 
Downy Woodpecker, 5; Red-bellied Woodpecker, 5; Flicker, to; Crow, j; T-— - 
jo; Juaco, 15; Soag Sfiarrow, 1; Cardinal, 4; Uliite-brcasted Nuthatch, t it- 

BMMiac, 15; Chickadee. 15; Bluebird, 6. Total, 15 species, n ' ' lals.— h 1 >uiTtt. 

f^Mfort, Ohio.— Dec. 45; 1. 10 to 5.20 p.m. Haxy >. ■<! bare; moderate 

bffvcae from south and southwmt ; temp, jt* at start, jj* at 6ni*h. Walked about 5 miles 
(radios of a miles east, south, and west of town). Birds laore numerntn on east slopes. 
Red-tailed Hawk. 1; Hair>' Woodpecker, 1; Downy Woodpecker. 5; ' 1 Wood- 

pecker. 1; Crow. 4; Tree Sparrow. 49; Song Sparrow, ij; Junco. 16, '. ... • males. 

6 feamles; Carolina Wren, i; White-breasted Nuthatch, t; Tufted Titmo >• k 

adee, s; Bluebird, J, (gave (A<«ry<Jw«ry flight call). Total, 14 species, 114 tii<ii>iii».>ii> 
LoKKMo S. GaerN. 

Hamiltoa, Ohio. -Dec. Js; M.jo A.M. to 12.30 P.M.. i.jo to 4.30 r.M. r •ly. 

ground bare; wind southeast, light; temp. 14* at start. 36* at return. Fon- on 

foot through opca fields and witod (Mtchcs aad 3 a^lca along river. ^ 14. 

Bob-white, d covey); King6«her, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, t, Down 10. 

Red-bellied Woodpecker, ;; Flicker, i2;Crow, 14; Tree Sparrow, jto-t irrow,(>; 

junco, 17a; Scmg Sparrow. 9; Swamp Sparrow, ja; Cardinal, tt; li: t^cper, 7. 

White- breasted Nuthatch, ao; Red-breasted NuthaUh, j; Tufted Titmouse, 40; Chick- 
adee, 6a; Ruby-crowacd Kinglet, a. Total, ao spedca, 950 individuals.- ^ — ' *' " 
•Atm. 

Z«aia,Ohlo.— Dec. a4; 8. A.M. to 3.30 P.M. Clear; ground bare; wiadsot t. 

temp, a a* to jo*. Nine milca on foot. Merganser, t ; Mallard, 1 a; Ring-aer > ni . 

j: Sparrow Hawk. 1; Bdted Kingfisher, 1; Hair)- Woodpecker, t; Dowb> ' cr. 

0: Rcd*bcilicd Woodpecker, j; Flicker, 7; Crow, aj; Tree Sparrow, 8; S<in. ■ h, 

Cardiaal, it; Brown Creeper, j; White-breasted Nuthatch, 3; Tu' 12. 

CtddUltitt, b; <.•.!'<'«. r..i«^n^.l Kin.*!-' • T"'«l • *( •■•^< irt. it, ir kS 

AxKcmtT. 

OolHBhw, Ohio. — i/C( ;(>, o tu 1 1 jo \ u., 1730 104.30 p m. -m. 

day, ao «M>« oa grooad up to 6 A.M., aH ia. by evening; moderate w : -mK 

tosovtbcast; temp. aS*. 7 a.m.; 33*. 4.30 p.m. < 

miles by automobile. Bob-white.g; Mourning Do ..aL. 

I, Hairy Woodpecker, 4; Doway Woodpecker, la; l-iickrr. ij, iiuructi Lmtk, n Prairie 



J 




Bird-Lorc*s Twenty-Rrst Christmas Census i$ 

i.ark. ;oo T^t , iiiur }*)', 4; i row. 4. \!> !•! ■■vlirk, n. '• '• 

>w, 1; Junro, 6S;S<ilif Sparrow. 10; Cardinml v ):• .-> Crrrprr, 1 
tch, 11: Tufted Htmoutc, >o; BUtk ..;]..! • ;. k it" 
^KInflH. r ToUl, i> apccic** 434 iiMlividtuK ii.vvi.;. > Ixuv 

t.. Bob Black. Kocai Black, aiMl Wabbkn Pubtkk. in \ w Fk v-i. 

j-mn TaoMAs. in p.m. 

Fort WftjTM, lad.— Dec. 16; 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Cloudy; t ia. of taow; now-flurrks at 

■ ntrr^ .u ..in.) ii^ht, MMitbout; teaM>. 36*. Four mile* alonf river bank and vkinity. 

Mouraiaf Dove, 1; Manh Hawk. 1; Hairy Woodpecker, i; Downy 

t.rr. 5 . r lukrr. 1 ; Blue Jay. 8; Crow, 4; Rusty Blackbird, 1 ; Bronscd Grackk, 1 ; 

h. i; Tree Sparrow. 128; Slate-colored Junco, sg; Song Sparrow, 10; Caidiaal, 

) Creeper. 1 ; Whitc-breaatcd N ' t ; Tufted Titmouse, 8; Black-capped 

< . 12; Robin. I. Total, ipspcti hviduaU.— CSAaun A. Stockbkiocb, 

\ A KiNGWALT. A. K. Mebl, Henky W. bKppKB and Wm. Simlkk. 

Lafay«tta,lBd. — Dec. 25:9 a.m. to t p.m. Partly cloudy; sround bare; wind tout hrA»t. 
raw, liKht; temp. 16* at start, 19* at finish. Seven miles on foot, through Happ> 
and along Tecunsch Trail north. Observers together. Sparrow Hawk, t ; Down> V. .^^ 
pecker, it; Blue Jay, 4; American Crow, 9; American Goldfinch, 9; Tree Sparrow. 55; 
Junco, 80: Song Sparrow, 4; Cardinal, 14; Brown Creeper. 3; Tufted Titaowc. ta; 
( hirkadre. 1 . Total. 1 i spcdcs, aoj individuals. — M . L. Fihheb and Paul ArmiMBKAO. 
Roachdale, Ind.— Dec. 25; 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Partly cloudy; ground practically bare; 
wind »oulhr.a«t. Ii^'ht; temp. 14* to 18* Kight miles on foot. Duck (sp. ?), 1; Mourning 
lutvr, 10, ShAr;> shinned Hawk. 1; Red-tailed Hawk, 1; Downy Woodpecker, 6; Red- 
fx-lliH \Vood|>.« ktr, j; Flicker. 6; Blue Jay. j; .\merican Crow, 30; Mcadowlark, 1; 
Trrr >|>arrow, 40; Slate-colored Junco, 1 ; Song Sparrow, 5; Cardinal. 3; Brown Creeper. 
i. White-breasted Nuthatch. 3; Tufted Titmouse, 8 M*- >• .ipped Chickadee, ao. 
Total. 18 species. 145 individuab. — Ward J. Rice. 

81. Maianid, lad. — 8 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. noudy;nosn()w,not wtady;tea>p. alx> 
Six mfles iMwscback, 3 miles on foot ; another trip j adles oa fool. Coaatry > 
thr.. l>ottom«. through lantc woods, and acroas high naeadows. Killdccr. 3, 

it' i> . .Mourning I>ove. t; Krd-tailed Hawk, (?) i; Sparrow Hawk, r. Barred 

< >i* i I Mairy Woodpecker. 6; Downy Woodpecker. 3; Flicker, 34; Blue Jay. 3: Crow, 6; 
.Mr«(i<i«ilark. 46 (1 fkkck): Goldfinch. 8; Tree Sparrow, 11; Slate-colored Junco, tat; 
So«g Sparrow. 2, Towhee, t; Cardinal. 7; Carolina Wren, 1; Winter Wren. 1; Brown 
Crrrprr. i; Tuftrti Titmouse. 4; Chickadee. 8; Bluebird, 5. Total. 94 spodea, U^ 
tn<it\i<iu4U (1 vt HE Lf)MAX. M. D. 

KokoaMilad.— Dec. 96; 8.45 a.m. to j.15 p.m. Cloady;sao«edallday; 3ia.af aaav; 
Mittth wind, light ; temp. 29* at sUrt. a* at return. Two adlce of river bank aad vidaity ; 
m woods <Nibkyd«. Bob- white, 9(1 covey); Sparrow II trredOv!.!: 

•odpeckcr, 1; Doeray Woodpecker. 3; Flicker. 4. Vt*> <rd Lark. 3; 

Hiur Jay, 4: Crow, 3; Tret Sparrow. 45; Junco. 40; Soag Sparrow. 14; CardlaBl, f; 
Hruwn I'nrtM-t t White-bmatad Nuthatch. 3. Tufird Tlimoute, u. Total- i'> »0rcie». 
(about) I tak.— RtraasLL Ht^BBwar. 

Ckleago. 1;; i>rr 74; le A.M. to 3 P.M. Thrrt > .... .nowcdaligii. •,...,..., . 

irmp. about <o" Vurth alona the Deslaiae* Ri%rr tr.tn Oak Park tu lr%-iag Park 
Boalevard. thrn r44t to. , necked Pheaaant. 50. NUf*}) lUwk. 1, W^ity \\\hh\ 

pecker, 5; Downy \V.M«; .. American Crow. \ Nmrd. an «...|.tiiii. h S Ffrr 

Sparrow, too. SUte-colored J tta«^ 9S; Song Sparrow 1 ..« s:..rr..« ■ < 4r.tMi4i 1. 
Brown Cree|ier, 1; Wbila-breaatcd Natbalch, t . Bla< k . at.|«<l < <>» l^«<l<« • - 1 ■( a! . « 
spedca. ta6 ladhriduala.— Gabohbb Batbs. 

WaaiMfBa, VL— la 1 5 a.m. to 3. 1 5 p.m. Cloudy ,.\im.al saoer; alad •salhwr%t « . r x 
light; temp. 30* at Stan, i»* at return. Tea aUke oa foot. Ubserven tafeUNrf. Ilcrriag 



t6 Bird - Lore 

Gdl« t7; AaMtkaa McfgMMr. »t; H«ir> U uudf>c«kcr. i ; Dowvy Woodpecker, t; Crow, 
ico; AawtcM CoMHch, i$; Tree SpMVow, lo; S lt f< olo r »d Juncoi^ 40; UMofal** 
SpMfov. 1; Nortker* Shrike. 1; Chickadee, a. Total, 11 ipecka, »$t individoth. The 
Uacola'a Sparrow was ooUoct«L— Pabkbb BtAiB aad SrcniKN S. Gasooav. Ja. 

Favt Bjvwt, DL— Dec. >«; S.jo to 11. jo a.m., la.is to j.50 v.m. Cloady and hjuy. 
J ia. of HMw; calm la A.11., light aorth wiod la r.ai.; temp. 30* to js*. Twelve miles on 
foot. AaMficaB Morpaarr, Rod-breasted Mrrcamer. and American Golilen-«yc, soo; 
Bob-white, It (1 oovojr): Roogh-lciged Hawk, t; Great Homed Owl. t. Hairy Wood- 
padter, 7; DowBy Woodpecker. >j; Red-bdUcd Woodpr< • UomedLark, is; 

Bloe Jay, 6; Crow, is: Tree Sparrow, 45; Slato-colorr^ . ruwa Creeper, t; 

WUta-braaatcd Nuthatch. 9; Tufted TItaMttse. a; Bbck-capped Chichailaa, jo^ Total, 
it apodca, (about) 750 individuah.— John J. ScsArsa. 

Wladwop, Iowa (Piareo farm and vicinity, aloog Bvfbdo Croak to Sfoota Foad aad 
ralara). — Dec. aj; 1 a a. to 4 r.u. Clear; ground covered with 2 to 4 inchaa of ice- 
cacraatod aaow. making walking hard and very noisy; trees and bushes covarad with 
frooMi slaet; creek froaen quite solidly with occasional open places; wiad northwest. 
stiaag: taaip. 10* at start aad also at return. About j adlca oa foot. Bob- white, y. 
If oandaf Dove, a (these birds, which I have never before seen here in winter, arc suy- 
lag aaar a cora-fodder stack back of our bara); Aascrican Kough-lcggrd Hawk, t; 
Batted tJathhtt, 1 (tkis bird b sUying in this vicinity, for it has been heard 'ratlUag' 
at iatarvab for several Bwnths); Hairy Woodpecker. 1 ; American Crow.a mamasoth flock. 
which I estimated at joo. was teen in a cornfield — I counted 181 Crows at other 
in my tramp; Tree Sparrow, 14; Slate-colored Junco, 1; Brown Creeper, 1; V...... 

beeastcd Nuthatch, 6; Tufted Titmouse. 1; Black-capped Chickadee, 8. Total, la 
spadaa, (about) sao individuals. A Barred Owl was seca here Doc i j.— Faao J. Piaaca. 

Bimaiprf, Iowa. (Gradit lalaad Park, Daraapott, aad aloi« M iaaiaaippi River aad 
DackGraok). — Dec. a6;Q a.m. to 11.50 p.m.. a. 15 to 4.30 p.m. C3p y most 

of MMiraiag: 4 ia. of aaow; ice in creek and river almost fnncn ov , north- 

wast, iaocaaiat during day; temp. a6* at »tart, a* at return. Kigbt miles on foot. 
Looa, 1; Herring Gull, a3; American and Red-breasted Mergansers, 50 + ; A m er ican 
Goldea-eye. 1; Cooper's (?) Hawk. 1 ; Rough-legged (?) Hawk, 1; Hairy Woodpecker, 4 ; 
Doway Woodpecker, a6; Red-bellied Woodpecker, $; Northern Flicker. 1; Blue Jay, 9; 
Crow, a6; Red-winged Blackbird, 14; White- throated Sparrow. 1 (with flock of Tree 
Sparrows); Tree Sparrows, jas-i-; Junco. aj; Song Sparrow, 4: Cardinal, 8; Brown 
Creeper, 11; White-twaasted Nuthatch, la; Tufted Titmouse. 15; Chickadee, ao. Total, 
a3 spocka, $81 -f- individuals. Saw a flock of 16 birda fljriag over which I took to be 
Prairie Horaed Larks.— Ht'co H. ScaaoDaa. 

8iaax City, kwa.— Dec. a6; Riverside Park and return; 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.; six 
■flea oa foot; one obaerv e r. Perry Creek Road and return; a to s '-m.; five aiiles 
oa foot; two observe r s. Momingaide; 9 a.m. to 3 P.M.; one observer. Clear; deep snow . 
ataaag aorthwast wiad; temp.. 9 a.m.. 15*. 3 p.m., 8*. Cooper's Hawk. 1 ; Screech Owl, 1. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Downy Woodpecker. 6; Northern Flicker, 1 ; Blue Jay. 6; American 
Crow, 5; i^urple Finch, 3 (1 in nmture male plumage): Tree Sparrow. colored 

Juaoo, a; Soag Sparrow. 1 ; Cardinal. 6; Brown Creeper. 1 ; Uliite-brea ttch, 3; 

Black-capped Chickadee, 33. Total. 15 spodea, no individuals.— A. h. Allkk, W. J. 
HATWAao. V. C. Bo«fBaTKKL and Mas. FaAJiK MAaaaALt. 

■■rdilowB, Ky. (waot, ooatk« aad ■oathiial of lowa).— Dec. a4: 8.15 a.m. to 3.30 
P.M. Cloady at start, after 1 1 o'dock partly dear; ground bare, hard at ttart, thawing 
about aooa; wind southwest, light: temp, so* at start. a6* at return. About 1 a miles on 
fooC Docks, as (t flock, flying high); Wilson's Snipe, 1; KiUdeer. 10; Sparrow Hawk, i 
Bdted Kiagfiaher, 1 ; Hairy Woodpecker, 3; Doway Woodpecker, 17; Red-bellied Wocxi 
packer, 8; Flicker, 5; Prairie Homed Lark, 9; Crow, 56; Tree Sparrow, to; Field Sparrow, 




Bird- Lore's Twenry-flrst Chrittnimt Census 

Satr-colorcd Juaoo. 435; Song S|Mrrow, 49; Towhcc. 1 1 ; C«nUnai. 51 ; Cedar W'«x- 

-Mrr 9; Palm Wvblcr. 1; Mockingbird. 4; Carolina Wren. 8; 

r WrvB. 3; White-brtMted Nuthatdi, i, Tufted Tttmoitac, ;). 

1; Goldca-croimed Kiaglei, j; Bluebird* 29. ToUl, ag tiwck*, 

Tbe Palm Warbler Mca at doee range a* it took wing; gree*- 

nimp and white tip* to outer tail featbers plainly teen. On Dec. >j, tbree of 

these Warbler* were teen at tbe tame place, and were ftttidied at a ditance of about 

I ::> (ret for a period of ten ■iniitw. Bca idei the cbaracterittic auirking*. tbe contianal 

tilting of the tail and a dittinguisbable chip, identified these UnU.— Bbn. J. BUMCOB. 

Bowling Graao, Ky. (Soiith't Woods, and aloog Big Barrw Rirar and JtmUags 

Creek . Dn 14; 7 a.m. iu 4 r u. Thick, cloudy until noon, broken clouds after noon; 

Kfouoil tiarr. lixhi northwr»( wind, temp. 2$' to 35*. About 15 miles on foot. Observers 

toicrihrr MalUnl. : :;i: I>ovc. lo; Black Vulture, ao (all seen near the sUogbtsr- 

h.>ii*4- on jrnnini,'^ > ah Hawk. 1 ; Sharp-shinned Hawk, 1 ; Hairy Woodpcckgr, 

WtMMiiHitker, 25; Kcd-bvllicd Woodpecker, 11; Flicker, 16; Blue Jay, 

4^0 'a soodsixed flock at a roost near town); Meadowlark, 115 

(too IS o«c Sock>; i b. t J (rare this winter); American Goldfinch, 25; Wbite- 

. riiwned Sparrow. 7^. .> ihfoated Sparrow. j6; Tree SpaiTow, 63; Cbi|qiing Spanow, 

lored Juoco, 355; Song Sparrow, 57; Lincoln's Sparrow, 5; Towbee, 14; Card!* 

I J i rdar Waxwing, 5; Myrtle Warbler, 23; Mockingbird, 14; Carolina Wren, 1; 

Kr»i, k s \Vrrn,3; Brown Creeper, 4; White breasted Nuthatch, 1; Tufted Titmouse, 97; 

( ^ruUna Chickadee, 68; Bluebird, 35- Total, a species. 1,552 individuals. Spedca 

A interiag hen seen Dec. 18: Broad- winged Hawk, 1 ; Sparrow Hawk, 1 ; Prairie Hor—d 

I.ark. fktck of 25 to 30. Dec. 25: Killdcer, 1.— L. Y. Lancastki and GoaooM WlLMM. 

9t. Loola, Mo. (Creve C«rar Lake. -Dec. 26; 9.45 a.m. to 3 p.m. Heavy snowatonn: 

ItKht «inii in the north; temp. 30* to 38". Hairy Woodpecker, 10; Downy Woodpecker, 

t. . .< t.cUicd Woodpecker, 3; Flicker, 18; Blue Jay, a; Crow, a; Slate-colored Juaco, a; 

-row, 3; Cardinal, la; Carolina Wren, a; Wbite-breastcd Nuthatch, 4; Tufted 

> Chickadee. 3; Bluebird. 8. Total, 14 spedcs, 94 individuals (in an area of 

I -', -R. J. TauY and E. H. CnatSTiK (St. Louis Bird Club). 

Kansas City, Mo. (balgktB aoctk of InJtfwdfci, mamtk ol Btao Rlvor rtfte, 

CooBHj dab diatriet, Mariboraogh rocloa« l^yar Bhm Valkf , fiisrd Slraal aad aialo 

Um ragiaa, Sklto BoBow and Swopo Park, Upper Enrnk Craak Valif).— Dec. 19; 

Cloudy; sharp north wind. temp, from 23* to tH'. Seven parties la as away difercat 

rrKi»ti« from tbree to eight hours. Bob-white, 17; Marsh Hawk, t; Cooper's Hawk. a. 

Red tailed Hawk. 3; Sparrow Hawk. 2; Short -eared Owl, 3; Screech Owl, a; Belted Kiag- 

fisher, 1; Hairy Wood|Mcker, a8; Downy Woodpecker, 9s: Red-bdlied Woodpecker, ta; 

^' " cd Lark. 5; Blue Jay, 31; Crow. 9a; Red-winged Blackbird. 5; 

.le Finch. 2; (Mildfiarh. 154; I*ine Siskin, a; Harria's Sparrow, 3. 

c>;3, >icl<! ^oag Sparrow, so; Foi 

tnfinal, 14 Browa Creeper, 10; 

7 hatch, 6; lofted Titawwc. I ; "'^Mn, a; Bloehifd. 

V a.a88 iadividaak.— B. F. It ^ kk. Waltsb Ctm- 

siS'.iiAwMiis I I I NuusM,KArMcaiKKHiNK». Wm.C. MfcsAata, Eloom MioiASia. 

M^vv 1 NU» T. C. Saaawiioo. Psur. A. K. SnauMo, Dix TsAcaaiioa. 

t )< • : L. DoKALo TiKPALiand Ha88V HAaais (Barroaghi Nature Qab). 

Marionviiir, Mo. pr, j? ; 8 A.M. to I r.M., and I.JO to s«je ^'M- Clear, I Of • la. 

..I .!>...« >i. A r...rt! ' ! .1. temp, lo* to SO*. Dbuaco co¥Ofed, app foila m t a l y i8 

Bob- while, as; Moaraiiv Dove, 1 1 Cooper's Hawk, t . 
■Ary Woodpecker. 5: Doarajr Woodpecker, so. Rsd 
ned Lark. 100; Bloe jay, is; Crow. 1,000 -f . 
r« Sparrow. t7(. Field Sparrow, ao. Slate- 



aS Bird • Lore 

colofsd Juaco, nMy 500; Soag Sparrofr, 100; Cardinal, $$; I^ogsTrfacad Sfcrlkt, 1; 
MockliNrMfd, 1; Wbite-lMfMtcd Nuilwtrli. s; Tufted TllnMMae. 45; Chick«drr. 60: 
BhMUid, le. Total, $$ fpcck*. i.i«o+ indi\'idud».— Johnmk Ncrr. 

Cmnnft !!•.— Dec. J«: i.is to 4.30 r.M. Snowing; wind Itxht; temp. j. «; .utt. 
17* at rrtum. A 6-milr loop on foot. OtMcrven toKrthrr. Bob-white, jo: Aoacfican 
konsb-lcggcd Hawk (black pbaM-). 1, Hairy Woodpecker, j; Downy Woodpecker, 4; 
Rcd-beoded Woodpecker, j; Red Mlicd Woodpecker, 4; Prairie Homed Lark. 18; 
Ric Vmefican Crow. 8; Meadowlari ' -Jdfinrh. 

50, I -row, joo; Slate-colored Juaco. Mtfrant 

Skrike. i; White-brcaated Nuthatch. 2; Tuited d; iaroii 

Total, ao tpedc*. 579 individual*. Dec. 97: V l>ovr. .1; \; 

Wm. SrtKc-Kt LocAN and Fikwitt RonKm. 

Fny t f rl l ln, Ark. (Math to Whlta Rhr«r, nlau v.^, K-'k aorth of tows,, in. 
ts.jo to 4.50 r.M. Clear. Kfound bare and unfroirn; winil Muthwnt, ktrong; temp; $$*. 
Covered 7 mile* of wood and brufth lands. Wilv ;$; 

Rcd-UUed Hawk, an Sparrow Hawk, t; Do«n> lied 

Woodpecker, y. Blue Ja>, t; Crow, 10: Rcdwinftcd Hla<kl<uil. 1 <:6; 

Purple Flack, 1; Vesper Sparrow, 10; Junco. $0: Sonic Sparrow, ^ 1; 

Towhee, 5; Cardinal, so; Miiprant Shrike, j; .Mockingbird. 3; Carolina V\ r iet\ 

Tftmouae, a; Carolina Chickadee, 8; Bluebird. 14 Total, aj »pecic*, -m- 
T. L. Batu, Raymond Davis, Rom AaacBArr and Auibkt Laxo. 

m— arrk, If. D. (Bay Craek to Bust Craak).— Dec. 25; 1 to 5 r m 4 , ... ... 

mow; wind northwest, liitht. .\bout 1? mile* on foot. Prairie Sharp-tailed (irou«r, 4. 
Northern Hairy Woodpecker. 5; Downy \V v I . n xi\ 

Homed Lark, ao; Maicpir, 35. Brown Crn ; Hi 

individual* -Rusaau. Raio. 

Charlaoo, R. D.— Dec. 3$: S.jo a.m. to 3 m. Partly doudy; ground Miow-covered : 
northwcat wind, bliuardy: temp, at »tart — 1*. Prairie Sharp-tailed (irouse. 10: Homed 
Lark, 40; Macpie, 4; Look ('••irft lyiiilcxtrr Tuial 4 «im-i ii-« n, in<ii\ i<!ii.iK 

.\oaiAN Lab«om. 

TaaktOOt 8« D. — Dec. JS, 7 30 .\ « *<• 4 r m i-an, aimhh 1 n m ■»inn» . nKlii »«Fuiii 

wind, irmp. ^5*. In the field from to.30 A.M. to a.30 r.M.; remainder of time around 
hooM. Distaacc covered during walk about $ miles. Obser\'ers together. Screech Owl. 1 . 
Hairy Woodpecker. ?; I>f>w«y Woodprrkrr, 1?: Hirkrr. 4: Blue Jay. 8; Crow. 10; 
Tree Sparrow, ao: < 04 individual* \ I 

LAaaAaaa, P. J. I. . r . h 

Lmbos, 8. D. ( aad vicialty).— l>ec. as; (0.30 a.m. to 1 ru. Partly cloudy; ta in. 
of aaow OB Icvdr wind touth. light; temp, about 30*. .\bout 6 miles on foot. Downy 
Woodpecker, a; Crow, a8; Tree Sparrow, a; White-breasted Nuthatch, a; Chickadee, $; 
Screech Owl. 1. Total, 6 species, 40 individtuds. Most of these seen at (cediag-station. 
Practically all ground>fecdlaff speciea drivca oat by saow coveriag grooad.— W. B. 

MAIXOtV 

fnmoat, Ifeb. (CMMrtary, Honael's lalaad, and turrouading toaatry .— Drr .-; 
8.30 A.M. to a r.M. Cloudy: 4 in. of Minw (light (lurry of saow); «. -ii> 

35* at start, 4a* at return. Ten miles on foot. Screech Owl, 1 . 1 
Doway Woodpecker, 9; Northern Flicker. 3; Red-«hafted Flicker. 1 ; Blue Jay. 3; Crow, 
19; Pine Siskin, 6; Tree Sparrow, a a : Slate-colored Juaco. t a; Cardinal, 3; Brown Creeper. 
3; White-breasted Nuthatch. 5; Chickadee. tB; Golden-crowned Kinglet. 4; Robin, 1 
Total, 16 species, tab individuab.— Lily Ritxco Btrrrox. 

Coolid|«>KaM. (RivanidalKB).— Dec. tb; ii a.m. to 4 r.M. Overcast: light shift 
ol laow; wiad aorth. BMdiikm; temp, about 10*. Ri' i. i,'oo. 

Greea-wiagcd Teal, Si Ptatail, i; Bob-white, la; Prai' iJove, 1, 



Bird-Lore*s Twenty-first Christmas Census 99 

Mmnh Hawk, i; Go*h«wk. i; Golden l-Ufclc. i; Sparrow Hawk, i; Scrccdi Owl, i; 

It llorni ' < i . , krr. j, Rcd-shaftcd Micker, 8; Horned I^rk. i$o; 

• ' «:; Mradowlark. ft. McdpoU. $; Pine SUkin. j: 

fr '4; LoffcrlMaid Shrike. 1 

Top«ka, Kans.— Dec. 24; 10 a.m. to li.jo p.m.. i to 3.J0 p.m. Clear; ground bare; 
light mi.iK u.!.,i ». m,. g»io jj*. Se>-en mile*. Ob»cr\-erft toftether. Downy Woodpecker, 
5: Yel! -ucker, 1; Red-bellied Woodpecker. 1; Northern Flicker. 1; Blue 

jav : I nrh. 7; LoiigBpur(tp. ?), I ; Harris'* Sparrow, 4; Tree Sparrow. 150; 

J ' "■ ■ : row. 4: Cardinal, i j; Carolina Wren, i ; Brown Creeper, 3; Tufted 

I'lni r : species, 340 individual*. Dec. 13: ScrcccilOwl.— 

Wic:. '.t K \.M. to 5 P.M. Clear; no - ng tottthcaM brecae; 

i<-ri,;' (IviMum Creek south of \\ nd some of intcrven- 

>'>;: < ■■■.f-tT\ 11. Sharp-shinned Hawk. ); (unidentiBed) Hawks, i; 

i' . \\uoii(M.^ t.i: , — .,; Wtmdpecker, 1; Flicker, a; American Crow, 10; 

cb, 1; Harris'^ S|>arrow, 1; Tree Sparrow, joo; Slate-colored Junco, 68; Cardinal. 
1.' wn (r.tijer, 1; Black-capped Chickadee. 13. Total. 13 species, (about) 331 

- <!r. . t li^ i } KOY S.\YI>EK and Fr \.\t |!> MttL£R. 

IConnaB, OUa. — Dec. i6; 8.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Cloudy; ground bare; wind north, 
moderate: temp \o* at 9tart. ^7° at return. Ele^'en miles on foot. Canada (ioose. 13; 
Marsh! il. 1; .\merican Rough-legfied Hawk. 1; Sparrow Hawk, 1; 

Hairy V, . \\oodpecker. 3; Velluw-bellied Sapsucker, 3; Red-bellied 

Woodpecker, 6, I Red-shafted Flicker, j; Blue Jay, 3; Crow, it; Red-winged 

Blackbird, 90; \Vv->^'>< -i^Adowlark. $»; Brewer Blackbird. 10; Goldfinch, 40; Harris's 
Spnrrow, 145; Tree Sparrow, 45; Field Sparrow. 53; Junco, 35; Song Sparrow, 30; Fox 
Spntrow, 3; Arctic Towbec. 4; Cardinal. 63; Whitc-rumped Shrike. 1; Mockingbird, t; 
Caralina Wren. 3; Texas Wren. 3; Tufted Titmouse, ip; IMumbcou> Chickadee, 37; 
Bluebird, 18. Total, 3^ ^(K■tirs and (about) 800 individuals. Maruari.t M. Nice. 
YtlkmtHaam PMfc« Wyo. l>ec. 33; 8.30 a.m. to 4.4s ' m. Clear, snow at north 
bovadary 1 in., at Undine 5 ins.; wind, none; temp. 0° at start. tS* at noon, 1 3* at end. 
Twenty-two milr* on horseback. From north boundary of the park, altitude 5.300 feet. 
' t .'.<(, a r ' i : 'i and east, to Undine Falls, altitude 6.500 feet and return, .\merican 

\I- fK'.»r.^. r 1 M r<l, 85; Green wingcd Teal. 5, .\merican Golden-eye. 8; Wilson's 
^ii;* ■. Ki . 1; Black-billed Magpie, 31; Raven. 3; Clark's Nutcracker, 4. 

"• ■ 501; BU' ■ Tinch, 151; 

I ownscnd' . J. Total. 

« list, such as Urge niiaibcr ot 

and Kiagfahcr, nad prabnbly 

. to thr fat I that the GnnliMr 

. . ... Ummoih Hot Springs, about 5 

and that from this point down the water never frecac* 

.,,,mH ail winter long.— M. P. SaiKKaa, Park Nat«ralist. 

re. 10: 7.45 A.M. to s-<o P.M. Partly cloudy; snow in patcbes: 

>7* (o >J*> Obeenrar* togctbcr. N iaila a a aUas o« fa«t. 

■ In Rase Une Uke, and rrtam bv Noctk l aalda t CMak. 

outliyGn n g m mkM J P b w u a a t. 

tfomlaiK Aoa^padtar. j: 

ker. to; Desert H« ^. i; MMk'bttM Ma^ia, i«e; 

.>- Mountain Jay. 3,. \ cr.i:Br»wrr'. BUdibii<66:(l4«iliiadlqf Iha 

• oat and OBaO siae at a distance o( < .ambd's Sfiarrow. 1 ; Western 

i-irrow. t; Plak-sided Junco, 8; MoaniaiK .^'ok ..|i«rraw. 13; Pl ui b e oMS Vireo. j 



JO Bird - Lore 

idcntUM by tlic gny uppcntarU. wUu UitmI and orbit*! ting and wing ban, ud 
aUv*-ffmy AuUw); LoAgUiM CUckadoc. i; WcMcrn Robin - - T '-• to tpscica 
iSi faidividwk.— Lmus DAHtstt and Tkbooobb F. Bkakd 

BMritefCol*.— I>cc. «a; 9.J0 A.11. to 4.J0 p.m. Cloudy; 8 h ^ind MUtlMMt 

la AM^ vast is r.«.. v«ry Ugbl; Ump. 18* at »urt, 10* at i< i mil«« o« foot 

aloiVlbotkilla, iMMa, MOtttha ol caioM aad plaiaa. Obaarvart tugeiber . 
»; Rii^Mckad Fbiaaaat, 6; Rocky Movotain Hairy Woodpackar, 
Woodpackar. i«: Maipte. 6S; Loi«<rartcd Jay. 88; Wcatani Maadowlark. j; SUte 
oolofod Juaco, 10; Sbttfcldt't Joaoo, jo; Piak-aidad Juaco. 40; Gray-beadad Junm, 10 
Arctic Towbca, t; Mouataio Cbickadae, $; Towaaeod'a Solitaire, lo; WaMam k 
Sock ol about ISO. Total, if tpadaa. (about) 44 J individuaU.— Beat R. GaaaM »•.! 
EoMA JoamoM. 

Da « yar, Gala. — Dae. as> 9-3o ^ > >-3o *•**•. >jo to 5 r.a. Partly cloudy; 4 in- anow. 
viad aoutbwaat la a.m.. aaat ia r.M.; teaip. la* at 8 A.M., »$' at $ r.M. Two hours aioot, 
aad two aad oao-baU boon by motor. RiagHMckad Phaaaaat, j8; Americaa Rough- 
lanad Hawk. 1; Lewis's Woodpackar. i; Oraaga-ahaftad Flicker, 5; Horaad Lark, 36; 
Magpie, I aj; Red-wiogcd Blackbird. 160; House Finch, j; Tree Sparrow, 1 ; Soag Sparrow, 
j; kfoataaa Juaco, 1 o«-«t s.^nu^m ^tiriv^ • T^t^i •♦ «pecies, j6; in(iivi.hi%|f. — 
W. H. BaacTOLo. 

PMSia« Colo* — Dri. .'3, I J.JO to 4 r M \ lotiuy, snowing a little; 8 in oi Know. -■•■■:-'' 

sotitbweat. light; temp. 34* at start, ao* at return. Five aiilesoo foot. California <; 
11; Harris's Woodpecker, i.<> Gilded Flicker. 8; American K PiAon Jay. 0, 

Wniow Goldfinch, ai; Gray-headed Junco, 46; Shunugin low, 5; Oregon 

Towbee, j; Northern Shrike, 1; Oregon Chickadee, a; Towasend » buliuire. a; Western 
Robia, 68. Total, ij *pccies, (about) 176 iadividuals.— BAKXAao Van Dbibn 

Saattla, Waah.— Dec. ao; 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Misty and overcast, rain ia mominff: 
ground bare; slight wind, southeast and east; average tenp. 44*. Parties hunting in 
groapa as indicated; southwest shore Lake Washington, Mrs. C. C. Crickmorc and Dr. 
J. D. Terry; Lake Forest Park, Mrs. T. T. Leman; Burroughs Landing, Misaes L. 
McMoaagle and K. Bryan; Lake Union and Union Bay Shores. C. Richie aad G. W. 
Parker; latcrbay aad Queea Anne Hill. L. DeLong; y lough. F. W. ( 

Uaivanity Canptts. Mrs. S. M. K.nnr nnd Mrs. M.Schi. tod. M. I. and < 

CoiBpCaa. WaateraGrebe, 17; i' cbe. la; HoelbeUsGrctjc, j; PiedbiUed (. 

4; Glaacoaa>wiaged Gull, 1,143. ' ,1 Gull, ja; Herriag Gull. 4a; Westera GulK ; 

Red-breasted Mergaaser, j; Mallard. 60; Greea-wiagcd Teal. aa4; Shovclcr, 99; Pin- 
tail, aa; Caavasback, 5; Scaup Duck. a$4; Buflldiead, 95; Old Squaw, 8; Ruddy Duck. 
19; Northwcat Coast Heron. 4; Coot. 649; Allison's Snipe. a8; Ruffed Grouse, la. 
California QuaiL »»Si Riag-necked Pbaaeaat, 7; Cooper's Hawk, t; Sharp-shiaacd 
Hawk, j; Owl (?). j; Northwest Kiagfbbar. $; Gairdaer's Woodpecker, 1; Harris'* 
Woodpecker, 1; Northwest Flicker, 53; StHler Jay, 39; Western Crow, ait; Northwest 
Radwiag. i; Brewer's Blackbird. $»; Wntrrn Mradowlark, 4; Western Eveaiag Grm 
beak, i; Califoraia Pun>le Fiach, 46; Willow Goldfiach. 1,314; Piae Siakia, t ; 
Shttfeldt's Juaco. 387; Rusty Song Sparrow. 159; Fox Sparrow, 51; Oregoo Towhrc. 
Cadar Waxwing, 196; Anthony's Vireo, 4; Auduboa Warbler, a; Seattle Wren, m. 
Wcatcra Wiatcr Wren. 33; Tule Wrea, 7; Tawny Creeper, 5; Oregon Chickadee. io<). 
Cbaataut'backed Chickadee, 11; Weatcrn Golden -crowaad Kinglet, 79; Raby-crowned 
Kiaglet, 9: Western Robia. 868; Varied Thrush, 46. Total, 57 spedea, 8,s8s iadividuals. 
A aoCable feature ol tbb trip was that the birds were found coagrcgatad ia tmall areas 
with a large part of the field practically deserted.— Skattlb AtmoaoM SociKTy. M.I. 
CoHmw, Prt$i4«mt. 

FiirtlMil, Ora. (Foctkad Baighta, Raad Cqllaga« Mt. Tabor, aad Cahnahia aoagh). 

—Dec. a6; 9.30 a.m to 4.30 p.m. Ileavv rain and fo«; all liav; I>i(ht »outheasterlv wind^, 



I 




Bird-I nrr'»i Twi»nfv-firvr rhrt^ffiiAs Ccosus 31 

a Hcrriaf Gall, 7. CahfurnU 

<• ttc. 3; BllilahMd, I s , Shovcler. 

^ rig-Mck«d PhMMat. s; DeMft 

^I'*"' ' - -cr, »;Stdkr'iJajr,j;(St>w, is; 

CaUfonua Hurpte Ktncii, w; 1 n, »null flock; WUte-crowned SpMTOw, 1; 

r^H<^.crowiMd Sparrow. 3; Oi.„... ^„;ico. 50; Rusty Song Sparrow, 7; TowsMad't 

>&rrow. 1; Oregon Towhrc, q; Orvgon Chickadee. 4; Chestnut-backed Ckkkadcc. 

:ied Tkmsh. 5. Total, 29 spcdc*. 350 tndividuaU.— W. A. EuoT. W. S. Raus, 

R jABsrrr and Ma>y E. Raucb. 

Netarta, TBiaook Co^ Or*.— Dec. 35; 8.30 a.m. to 4 r.M. Cold and rainy; wind 
north, irmp 4«* to 50*. Horned Grebe. 6; Loon, 3; Casain't Auklet, 1; .\ncient Ifur- 
relet, vwinged Gull, 60; Western Gull, 40: Padftc Uttiwake, 1; Brandt's 

Cormor Haird's Connoraat, 3; Scaup Duck, 1; Golden-eye, 18; Bufflehead, to; 

White- winged Scoter. i$; Coot, 5; Black Oyster-catcher, a; Western Red- tail, i; Bald 
Eagle, I ; Beb«< w •nc.f^ther, 1 ; Northwest Flicker, 3; Coaal Jay, a; Raven, 1 ; Pine Siskin 
7s;Junco - ind Oregon), 50; Rusty Song Sparrow, 4; Sooty Fox Sparrow, 6, 

Oregon Townrr. ; , « cstem Winter Wren, j; California Creeper, 1 ; Oregon Chickadee, 4; 
Coast Wren-tit. a; Western GoMen-crowned Kinglet, 8; Sitka Kinglet, i; Alaska Hermit 
Thrush, a; Varied Thmah, a; Western Bluebird, 4. Total 35 tpecietijsj individuals. — 
At^x. Walkek 

Santa Barbara, Calif, (wharf, Estero, iMthflb, Hop* Lak* {frmk water), tid« fkts at 
GoletB}.— Dec J4; 6.30 A.M. to 5 r.M. Clottdy with low fog till 3.30 r.u., after that clear; 
calm; temp. 40* to 60*. Distance of course 30 miles. largely in automobile. Western 
Grebe, 5; Homed Grebe, i; Eared Grebe, 4; Pied-billed Grebe, 4; Loon, a; Parasitic 
Jaager, 1; Glaucous- winged Gull, 1; Western Gull, 600; Herring Gull, t; California 
Gun. 130; Ring-billed Goll, 1$; Short-billed Gull, 8; Heennann's Gull, 7; Bonaparte 
Gull, so; Ro)ral Tern, to; Farallone Cormorant, 30; Brandt Cormorant, la; Baird's 
Connorant, a; California Brown Pelican. 13; Green-winged Teal, i; ChiatiiVM' Teal, j; 
SkovcOcr, 40; Pintail, so; Canvasback. 130; Lesser Scaup, 30; Buflehcnd, a; White- 
wiagad Scoter, loo; Surf Scoter. 75; Ruddy Duck, $0; Great Blue Heron, $1 Anthony's 
Grwa Heron, i; Sora Rail, t; American Coot, ais; WiUon't Snipe, 4; Least Sandpiper, 
10; Sanderling, a$; Western Willet, 1; Black-bellied Plover, s; KUldecr, 3; Snowy 
Plover, i; Spotted Sandpiper, a; California Valley Quail, aas; Mourning Dove, 3; 
Turkey Vulture, g; SlMfp-aUnncd Hawk, 1; Western Red-tail, a; Duck Hawk, 4; 
I'ijceon T? Desert Sparrow Hawk, 8; California Pygmy Owl. 1 (W. L. D); King- 

b*her. . nian Woodpecker. 8; Red-shafted Flicker, ao: .\nna'» Hummer, 13; 

^av * Phabc. 10; Black Phcsbe, 14: California Homed Lark, a; Califomia Jay, ao; 
>>an I>icfo Redwing, a.400; Westem Mcadowlark, 3; Brewer's Blackbird. 300; California 
Pwple Finch, t; Honac Findi, 140; Grccn-backed GoldAnch. 4; Bdding't Sparrow, s; 
Gnaibel'a Sparrow, ace; GoMcn-crowncd Sparrow, 10; Larg»>bined Sparrow, 3; Thurber's 
Jonoo, 50; Rn f o ws cr owned Sparrow, 3; San Di^go Song Sparrow. 40; Monntain Seag 
Sparrow, a (W. L. D.); Lincoln's Sparrow, t ; Vaklas's Foi Sparrow, la; San Diego Tov* 
bee, I a; California Towhce, *o; California Shrike, ta; Dusky Warbler. 6; Townscnd's 
WarUer, j; Andnbon Warbler, aoo; PadAc YcOow-iluoat. $; Pipit, to; WeMeni Mock- 
iagUvd, 4; CaUfanUa Tbraaher, a; Dolled Caten Wna, i; Weelem B«wlck*» Wren. 4; 
Wcelem House Wren. 3; Tale Wren, j; Sierra Creeper. 1 (H. E. P.); Plain Tttaonee, 
8: PalUd Wreotit. a. California Bmb-lil, ta; Rnby-oowned Ki^lM, 40; WeMni 
Onstcatckcr. 4; Hermit Thriish. ta. Waitarn Blnebird. 6. Total. «6 tpadei, $,§q$ tedl* 
viduab. l^ree Egrets were seen daily from Dm t to D«c i i II. C RaimaMoli, H. 
K PAaMSKTfB and Wh. L. Da«so>. 



THE SEASON 
XXlll. October 15 to December IS. 1920 



BoATojK Kk(.i«i%' —The wcAtbcr dur> 
lag the U*t i«o month* has been mild, 
wlik aa abusdant prrdpitaiiun in the 
foroi o( raia aad tnuMicat. wet »now. 
At prcMal. DcrcaUber is. the ground it 
bar* aad tbe gnua cm Lesiagtoa ComoMMi 
M gfaaa* 

SofartblaMaaon.thi ofcooatry 

birds bas baea remark v a doaea 

spades ware foaad during two carrful 
saarcbca over escdleat bird-€ountr>' >n 
Noveaiber and Drcrmber, a ooodition 
indlcatiag thai the bird-population ha* 
beea r ad n ced to it* lowest winter terns. 
The odgratioa of Canada Geese was 
pmodaeat for a few days about the middle 
^ November; during the night of 
November aj->4 especially, the birds 
were heard 'hoakiaf ' as thry pu»hed south- 
ward in a high* blusterinx wind. 

Dr. C. W. Townsend and Mr. C. .\. 
Robbias have kindly sent me the results 
of thdr observations in localities more 
favorable for merting winter birds than 
the €0mmlry abovt Boston — from Ipswich 
aad Wareham rr«' i»end 

reports as comm<- 'rned 

Grebe. Goldea-eye, ami Hl«ik-I*a4krd 
Gull, aad as aboadaat the Herring (iull. 
Klack Duck, and the three Scoter*. 
Ciannets and llouble-crested Cormorants, 
abundant migrants, were >een last on 
November ; *T ' t« im wintering Song 
Sparrows. 

Mr. Rabbin*, rcicrring to the scarcity of 
laadbirds. reoMrkt that he "never saw 
just such conditiooa," but reports the 
arri^-al in good auaUiers of Tree Sparrows 
aad an increase of Goldfiachcs aad Joaoos 
during the second week of December. 

A rumpariaoa of these two reports from 
statioas 60 adlcs apart briapi oat the 
laterastiag iafcreace that Myrtle Warblers 
aM>ved from the northern < 'hem 

shore of Cape Cod to mid N Dr. 

Towaeead, ai Ipswich, noted a Middea 
diariaatioa ia thdr numbers at thb tiaw« 
while Mr. RobfaiM observed a marked 



influx of the birds to the »horcs of Buuard's 
Bay. 

About our hoBKs, oae bird'* voice 
break* the sileace. of early ntoraiag. The 
Starlings sit on high —on tbe roofs of oar 
house*, on church steeples, even oa tbe 
gilded ball at the tip of the flagpole on 
Lesiiigton Common — and at dawn squeak, 
hiss, and whistle. But by imitatiag the 
Cowbird'* whiktir, they son ' 
A hint of ftpring. -Wikim" 
Ijtximgtom, Mmu. 

New York Rkcion. — The weather 
was unusually mild during this period, aad 
up to the middle of December there were 
few nights when the temperature fell 
below frecsiag. There are sonw reports of 
birds liageriag beyoad the dateo 
they ordlaarily depart for the S 
these are not numerous. 

On November 35. a Catbird and a 
Yellow Palm Warbler were ob*er\'ed at 

Long Beach (<-• Jan\Tin. and 

CrosbyK and. on - 12. a Bittern 

at the same loiaiit) J.' •! I.. 

Willianvi^ Thr wrifrr not< 'H «i 

Garden >>cr 7. aati 

was pi< • *treet« nf 

and brought to the Bro- 
alive. December 13 (R. C. .:..-,.. 
Wilson's Snipes are reported from a small 
marsh near Poughkeepsie. December s 
(M. S. Crosby). 

Some bird* which one fblds lingerinK 
late in the fall after other members of thrir 
spedes have moved on to the South seem 
to be of purely casual occurreace at «urh a 
late date. The occurrence of t) 
in November, however, we h<_.._.- 
attribute merdy to chance, although the 
last Catbirds are ordinarily not seen after 
tbe middle of tbe preceding OMMith. 
Probably ia this spedes, after the main 
raigratioo wave has passed there are other 
lesser waves reprcseatiag so few individual* 
that these are ordiaarily overlooked. 
When, this year, a Catbird waa eeen on 



(i«) 




The Season 



XX 



7, the »i.>>. .....oght the bird 

Ulc»l for the H»edes on Lonx 
Rrfrrcace to records, however, 
that b« IumI noted • Catbird on 
7 tome t«- ! years 

and, ttna«d> < irreisa 

record (or acme jrenrt' standing tor Novrm 
ber »i alao, oooakterci a >trafgler o( miicra 
lifm. The apedea vt r>- rarely winters. 

(>n the whole, t e latr (all was marked 
by an unusual tea ity of bird-life, both as 
rrgards land bird and Ducks, coastwise 
.tnd up (hr Hu<lv There have been few 
in«ianir% ..( ih<.M mrthem q»ecics which 
ATc uf unirrtAin <>< t urrence, few or no 
Sukina, almost ro Krd-breasted Nut- 
hatches (a single one of the latter. Decem- 
ber a. Forest Park. Long Island— L. N. 
v;.k..i. Exceptions are a flock of un- 
ci Crossbills in Brooklyn (R. C. 
Nt .fi.;.;. . .1 Vorthcrn "^hrikc balaadng on 
a trlcjjfaj.h win I...:.,; lu.i h, November 
;'. J I S.), and one at West Nyack. 
I»r. rmf.cr II (R. B. Potter). The Purple 
Finch u>''i.ill> regular in small numbers. 
hAA been priLtically absent. Pipits, and 
later Homed Larks, were apparently more 
numerous than usual. A Rough-leggctl 
Hawk at Rhinebcck, December 5. and two 
at ( ruKrr's IslaDd« December u (M. S. 
( r<>«i)\ are worth noUag, as this Hawk 
i« mu< h rarer up the Hudson than over the 
• •>4tiwi«e manJiei near New York City. 
where it teems to have been absent this 



thii 
that. 



\o\ 



1% ^TKiom 
milder fall 



at 



Cape May. N. J., 

.tnd moequitoe prcecot. 

a thuadcfMorm of aiuBmcr- 

mber n, Seesidr 

•\y flying about. 



p twi m io their ttormal ottmber« tlMfe ia 



an entire al>*rn<e ni mi. n m 

bills. Siskin*, and Red(M>il>. 

adee and Red-breasted Nui 

to be among the miaaing also. < 

hand, the Golden crowned Kinglet, which 

has been comparatively uncommon the 

[>ast two years, is again here in numbers 

(14 November a8). Tree Sparrow^ »<•'- 

first noted December 4, rather latr 

Probably the moat interesting feature 01 
the fall has been the great flighu of wild- 
fowl. Ducks and'Gcese have been reported 
to be unusually abundant un Bamcgat 
and Delaware Bays and also along tke 
coast. At Cape May, November 7, long 
lines of Ducks were observed streaming 
down the coast and out into the bay. 
There were hundreds, if not thotwands, of 
Ducks on the wing and they appeared to be 
moatly Scoters. .\t inland points. Black 
Ducks are said to be more abundant than 
last year. Two Wood Ducks were noted at 
Fifth House, N. J., (Jctober ji; one at Mt. 
Holly. N. J (Mr. N. D. W. Pumyea. 
October 24.) A few Canada Geese were 
seen November 7 (13 at Cape May). 
But the great flight occurred the third 
week of the month. November »t (400 
at Cape May); the same day 100 at 
AtUn N. J. (C. K. Roland). In 

all !•■- this was only a •mall por- 

tion u( the birds on the wing and no doubt 
the flight was on at least all along the 
Jefvey coast. 

On November 1 1 , here at Camden, a 
Bam Owl which flew in one of the windows 
of the Temple Building (a moderat' i-^ ' 
oAce- building in the center of ih< 
was captured by the janitor .\< uiuaI 
:n *uch instances, the local |>«per tame out 
an elaborate destrip.iun of the bird: 
I* 'Jersey Devilbird' has a forked 
tongue, like a snake; a fact like a SMMkey; 
feet like a chicken ; f eatkers like a Pkeasnat ; 
wings like an Eacle. It hiaaes like a steam 
radiator." Wonderful to relate, tke 
janitor . after keeping tke Owl aboul a week, 
let tke bird go tkrougk tear of a ine. It 

wnmed kla about kMpfag tke Owl a 
cnpcive. 
Otker observniloM tknt aigkl ke 



14 



Bird - lore 



,c • '1 I r- .■rr t trrai - nuinrti **wi iiuuii<i 

.ira.i . \\h:!r cTowMd SpMTOw, aad two 
GaaacU (?). Urft bink mmw dbtaace 
out tyiag about wtth • lot ol Gulb and 
plaagiaf Into the m« (rom « dto—c e of 
lo to IS tttt with conaidcnblo iplaah (at 
Cape May. November 7); *t tbc laoie 
pofait. November 14, Short-eared Owl and 
two Bam Swallow*; Laughiag Gull near 
Ferry at PUladdphia, November 4; i 
Ixwf-eared Owla, ftnt noted In winter 
rooat November «S. 

Through an overtight, a remarkable 
flight of Hawk* obaerved at Cape May 
October j was omitted from last teaaon't 
report. During a period of about an hour 
the foUowtng Rapt ore* were noted: 
Mar»h Hawk. 1; Sharp-thinned Hawk, to; 
Cooper'* Hawk, 5; Red-tailed Hawk, 1: 
Broad-winiced Hawk, 60; Sparrow Hawk, i; 
Durk Hawk, i; Fish Hawk. 6; Bald F^le. 
t and in addition about 40 Turkey 
Vultures.— JinJAM K. Pottbi, Camden, 
\ J. 

W AMitNoTuN Rboion. — The warm 
weather of September. io>o, about 
Waahingtoo extended its influence well 
into October, and even November was 
mUd. On tome of the warmer days in the 
latter month the birds were active, and 
thcfcfoce oowpicuou* in the outskirts of 
town aa wdl as in the country, but in 
iteither October nor November did birds 
seem to be unusually numerous, either in 
•pndcs or individuals. 

Tbc warm weather, whQe it produced 
thua BO marked Infloeace on the bird-life, 
apparently Indticnd a few birds to linger 
beyond their ofdinary time of departure. 
Thb was evident in the case of tbe Scarlet 
Tanager, wliidi ordinarily leaves us about 
October j, but which this year was seen 
as late as the tsth of that month; the 
Black-poU Warbler, the average date of 
dcpartvrc of wliich b October ta. and the 
very latcrt record October t6, mcs tbis 
year on October to, at, and 15; and the 
YcOow Palm Warbler, the average date of 
departure of wUcb b October 19, which 
remained at least untO Nove m be r 8. 

Three birds were obacrved later in the 



Grebe, by L< 
Va., on Novemr>cf • 
record of which ia N 
Lonbian 



... PlcdbiUed 

nro. near Dyke, 

• Litest previous 

■ '■■<t .). 1884; the 

• . f n near Wash- 



iagtoo,t>' i i'< il< <« oil < >vtober4, 

the latest previous record of which b 
September jo, loig; and the Rough* 
winged Swallow, obscr\-ed along the canal 
near Cabin John Bridge on Se|>tember 1 1, 
as against a previott* latest date of 
September $, 1916. The Rough-winged 
Swallow record should have been indnded 
in our previous report. 

Perhaps the rather unusuatly warm 
weather of October was abo of 

the singing of a Robin 00 • 16, 

heard by E. A. Preble near Cleveland Park, 
although the inducement to sins did not 
seem to extend to other specie*. The Mock- 
ingbird, M f ar a* its son. ncemcd, 
seemed to be entirety »^ ugh its 
calb were heard almost daily in the suburbs 
of Waahingtoo. 

Comparatively few rare birds were 
noted during these two montH> itir mntt 
interesting spedes being the \v <-d 

Scoter, a single adult male o« .«iu< n was 
seen by Ludlow Griscom near Dyke. Va , 
on November 8. Thb record is the sixth 
of thb species for the vicinity of Wash- 
ington, and as a matter of he 
dates of the previous records a r m: 
December, 1842; November, i88o;October, 
14, i88a; April iS, 1891: ■^"'^ '»••"»-' 'H 
1894. 

The Herring Culb h.»\r .ipi.r.ir.-.i m 
their usual number* in thr F'oiomAc River, 
prepared (or their winter sojourn. The 
Ducfca, that for a few ye«r« |>a.«t ha%c l>ccn 
io compjcnons a feature of the winter 
bird-life along the river have begun to 
gather below Washington, particularly 
from Dyke southward. The species thus 
far reported are the Red-breasted Mer- 
gaater, Black Duck. Pintail. Greater 
Scaup, Leaser Scaup, and White-winged 
Scoter, though doubtless other species 
have been present as well. There teems to 
be no reason to suppose that Ducks will 
not be as numerous during the present 
winter as they have in recent years been at 




The SeA:i«>n 



u 



M«IRV 1°. Ubkrholsci, 
V, ttaxkimp^n, D. C. 



Obulun (Ohio) Rkciom. — The out- 
rtanding fcstorc of the tutumn wu the 
•laoct oaiDtcfTupted mild wcatber. There 
were two light (rMt» in eariy October, and 
wme 9ix inches of mow in the second week 
u( November, which melted in three da)'» 
and was followed by mild weather until 
the opcaiBf ol December. At the present 
writing (December 15) the ground is not 
froaea and tlw grsM is still green. 

This mild weather seemed to have no 
effect in holding the mass of the birds in 
ttu< rrgion. Of coarse, many of the water- 
bifil* did remain — are still with us. By 
the middle of October, while the trees 
still retained most of their leaves, the woods 
and fields had amnmed nearly their winter 
:t*\'fi I as far as the bird-life b concerned. 
>ui h birds as the Warblers, Sparrows, 
Swallows, Thrashes, and the like, had 
betaken themseWti southward at their 
Aoustomed times, at best leaving only 
tjt»ual stragglers behind. One may still 
And an occwJonal Towbee, Robin. Grackle, 
Hermit Thrush, and even Catbird by 
diligent search; but thb is not unusuaL 

I'rrhapa the moat rignifkant fact is that 
t hrrr are none of the birds from the north 
which visit us during the more snowy 
winters. The only winter visitants which 
are in their usual numbers ire the Tree 
Sparrows and Jimror 

.\mong the resident birds the Cardinal 
seems to have cottride r ahly decreated in 
nnmbets, for soma nnknowa reason. 
C a r oli n a Wrcaa have not ban fovnd In 
sis years. The Northern PUaated Wood- 
pecker taems to have fbudly entirely 
disappcafsd from the rcgioB. The same is 
trnc of the Ruffed Gnmse. Under the 
protaction of the state law the Bob>whiie 
•cema tn be Inoaadac slowly. The long 
continued sM»« and tetrare srealhar of last 
winter did not seem to hnsan its •«mbers. 
— LvmMi JoitBa, Oier ffa , Okh. 



Kamas Cmr Raoioit.— The 
migraata, especially the Sparrows, 
throvgh this ii|iea with a rash dwtag 



eariy autumn and have not lamed in 
numbers as is u«ual when food Is abundant 
and the season mild and open. A few waves 
were noted during the last half of October, 
notal'ly on the ijd when Sparrows, War- 
blers, Kinglets, and other small species 
were ever>- where, but thirty days later 
there was a most unusual <learth of life in 
the woods and thickets. 

Conflicting reports were received dw* 
ing the early weeks of the cwrcat period 
regarding the numbers of passing Ducks 
and Geese. I..ake- and marsh-hunters 
maintained with enthusiasm that the old- 
time abundance had been noted, and a 
few have been honest wiwigh to praise the 
law that has made this posaJhle, thereby 
admitting their error In oppoaing it so 
stoutly. Contrary to this good news tliere 
comes a report from my most trustworthy 
source of information on the Mlmnari 
River (Wm. Andrews) that with theocep- 
tion of almost unprecedented numbers of 
Green- winged Teal during late October the 
flight has been snhoormal. Conditfcms 
not easy of analysb have operated a 
few times in the past to cause a like deser- 
tion of the big river during the fall migra^ 
tion. Andrews' notes show encouraging 
numbers of Geese of all species during late 
October and early November, but this 
conservativ* n b e er v ar wHI not adadt that 
there has beM the leaat indication of aay 
increase in numbeis over recent years. 

Chief among the spadea noted lau in 
October ware is Leaser Saow Gaan as the 
J4th. and si Banrnd Grebes, 11 WUl*> 
fronted Geasa, s6 Praaklia's Gtdh, jo 
Huichins's Geese, i$ Ring-billed GtOh, 
joo White Pelicans (very late), great 
numbers of large Hawks (sp. ?), and sit 
specim of the coounener Dncks on the 
tsth. 

November opoaad with every ti^laad 
lake and pond black with IfaBnidi, 
Plalails, Kadhaodi (law), 
Sfa^^ Linar ScMpoBd i 
on the river wort temo OndwaO and lm> 
amnee nnabers ol Gi iw a l n g id TeaL 
On the 7th a party of s O ol il i e y were 
seen, and on the loth a ftedt of 14 Bnfla^ 
heads, with a few If efgaasert and Hooded 



36 



Bird -Lore 



Mcffsuncn, wcfv Milcd. Between tbmc 
iklM. J WUle(». a (c« IUlldccf». mmI a tmaU 
iodt of bdatrd VrUow-lcsi were prctcat. 
Dwtet tbb period «lto tfluwaw Bumben 
of Ruaiy BUdtUfda aad Rad-«riBit» wrrr 
pMoiag. It b prc»uaie«l from their i 
ably difcmt noica that the Red^...k> 
wcfe ci tlw large ThirhbUlcd race. Be- 
twcca the nth aad 19th the wcftther was 
fruMring cold with tone mm»w, aad naay 
iocfcs ol migraliaf water-lowi were ooUccd 
daily. Prior to the aist a flock of perhaps 
a thootaad Plataib rcatad for tbrrc cU>-» 
onatand-barBoCfarbclow theciiy. ThU 
dght waa reminiaccnt of other da)**. 

Ktideore fathered from all quarter* in 
ihu inmediale rtfion aod from ca»tcm 
and rcntral Kaoaaa indicate* that the 
Duck* came Mttth thb fall in greatly 
aupncated ntunbcrs. NeedlcM to aay a 
heavy toll was taken by an ever-lncreaaing 
horde of punp-gvancrt.— IIamv Harus. 



K^* 



Cilv lit 



M <MlKK.) RtOiwA. I ii«r 

nv rr. this year, was the mild> 

c»i ever recorded here — more like Srpicm- 
ber weather. The av«agc tcaqicraturc for 
the month was 56^ dcfrcca, 7 dcgnea above 
the normal for the moaih. On the night of 
the Mth a heavy rainstorm was acoom> 
paaied by thunder and lightning, a most 
onnsual pheooaaaMM in mid-falL It is 
not oncommon to have two or three inches 
of MOW in October, and the average date 
of the first 'killing' frost b the 5th. Thi» 
year there luu been no now that lay on 
the ground, and after the 'cold map' on the 
ist, no teoqteratures bdow freesing escqit 
OB the mornings of the 37th and aSth. 
when the mercury fell to + 47 dcgrect for 
a few hours and a little thin ice foruMd on 
shallow water. Roses were in Uoom here 
and there until well after the middle of the 
nmBth. Ob the »glOi, tansarack swaoqM 
were only Just beginning to show ycOow 
ly wiOowe, apple trees, prickly aah, 
oak were almoet as 
time. 

Koveabcr was a dull, gray month with 
raw, cold wind*, iMistly from the north and 
nortliweet. There were only two doudlees 



days aad aiaeCeea day* ercrc whoBy <lark 
aad glooaiy. The lowest temperature was 
+4 degrees oa the nth and the highest 
+ Si degrees oa Ihe s^ The avenge 
was 4- jsi> about aonaal. Oaly one iach 
t »now fell and this did not last. On the 
iolh and I ith all the small lakes fror«- "^ " 
but the larger and deeper ones ren. 
opca and free of ice to Dcceaiber 
11m fbet two weeks of DcceadMT coat 
very mild for the time of year. The 1 
tem|»eralure was -f>i degrees or 
;th. and there was practically no sn> 
the ground in thb vicinity. It will 
l>e seen that the whole fall and the first 
two weeks of December have been «>•• »• 
tionally 'open' with no settled 
weather as yet. 

As stated, the first destructive frost dit' 
not occur until the night of October 27-7 '. 
and to show how mild it had been u|» ii- 
that time, it may be of interest to 
that the following flowers were in bhioi. 
■) the garden of Mrs. F. W. Commons at 
i^ake Minnetonka on the S7th: Cosmo*, 
calendula, petunia, stock, panaiea , aiaaia. 
•cabioea, delphinium, verbena, dahlb. 
Dutchaum's pipe, aad several other varic 
tic*. 

Ob October >i the writer witnessed a 
great flight of Purple .Martins through the 
Minnesota River Valley, ten miles south 
of the city. For an hour before sunset the 
air from near the ground to a great height 
was literally filled with the birds, circling 
and fluttering about in all directioas, but 
maintaining a steady onward course. On 
the iind a Maall osovcment of W 
bdlied Swallows was teen in the 
locality, and many large flocks of < 
were paaaing southward. \ single i<: — 
Heron was seen on this date. On the >6th. 
F. W. Commons saw a Hermit Thrush and 
reported maay Goldca-crowned Kinglets 
in migration. 

October aS and 29 there wer«> many 
Plod-billed Grebes in Lake M 
They were in little parties of t » 
to a dosen or more, feeding alonx the icy 
shorCt whUc out in the open lake they rode 
the waves like flocks of Ducks. On the 
joth, a ^1iite- winged Scoter wa* shot from 



I 

^^bab. One or two hati been killnl thm 
^^bflicrla tbcimoa. Thi* i» an uncomiDoa 
mfe>tick in tiM Mfttrrn part of MIWMtoU. 
\ .lUcd Gttlb were 

il has been ntlier 
more comoMNi tkmu a»iwl this fall. Three 
T four were tcea at Lake )f ianetonka as 
Ate as Decrnber u. A single Turkry 
Muuard was seen on October jt. 
With the freezing of the sloughs and 
'* lakes on Novrmht-r lo-it. the »ur- 
!<-«4inff Ourk> prat ically all Ich this 
• thiik time the usual flight 
and S«au;M had not 
•crurred. only occasional »inall flocks 
tppearing now and then. But it was 
(■ported that on the loth a great south- 
ward moveaaent of Ducks took place, 
paaaiac along the Minnesota River Valley, 
rnoally high in the air. flock succeeding 
ilnrk for hours. .Apparently this mid- 

- flight largely passed by this 
«pite o( the open large lakes, and 

t was not until the first week of December 

hxt Ijrirr iIih L% itf iliv ini? Ducks appeared 

sewhere. ()n De- 

- •-■-•n Uke 

rtonka ti< i«, and 

"Mden-eyes, 

Mefgasaers 

.% ftinall flock of 

Ae MalUrd. and 

< thousands, of 

\... ^ I » safe to say that 

thrrr were thouMmb and thousands of 
I»ti<k« in thb great lake, the number 
tirr«mt by no means equaled the va*t 
oocourse that mtmblH there last year- 
m the flrst half of November, as the Uke 
(rocr nvrr mii< h earlier last year. 

I>own at Heron Lake in the south- 
Tcstcm part of tka state, the lake, which 
)• shallow, froae over in November and 
the great ImmIv ••( |>u<k« left. It then 
•pened again with the milder weather aad 
.rent numbers ol Malteffdi fatbcrad Iktre 
nuad to aiord good s b o o ttt 
(okMIe ol D«M«btr. AU tkb 

- hough Docks were plentiful, and 
• re at times aad la certain phures. 

but the faacral coaaMMS o4 oplaiaas 



The Seftson 



i7 



among hunters and other ohaerver* ha» 
l»rm that, on the whole. Ducks have not 
been nearly as aboadaai thb fall as they 
were last. Varkws supposed causes have 
been offered in explanation— chiefly the 
unusual weather coaditioas. But it is 
probable Chat last year was an accid< 
exceptional season of plenty due t 
lumstaaccs farther west that forced ea»t 
ward large numbers of birds that did not be- 
long to this area, thus causing aa abnormal 
abuadaace in this stale aad adi 
territory. U this assumpdoa b corrt 
two years are not fairly coamarable. 

The open season for Ruffed Grouse this 
year found the birds wonderfully ahun 
dant, and they were killed throughout the 
northern part of the state in great numbers. 
The long preceding dose season had re- 
sulted in their beiag surprblagly tame in 
many places, aad thb amde the slaughter- 
ing of them aa easy amttcr. Oae hunter 
t thsomeendMmraasflseat, thatof 

t r Grouse killed he had beca 

forced to shoot all but three on thegroaad, 
as they would not take wing ! It reamias to 
be seen whether the present plan of 
alternating open and closed seasons will 
suffice to preserve thb graad bird. 

Reports from all over the state seem to 
iadicate that the Prairie Chickea. or 
Pinnated Grouse, b decidedly on the 
increase. If so. It b a pity that it caaaot 
be given a long period of protect ioa la the 
hope that it might b ecoB W rsistablished 
agaia ia numbers really worth while. 
Kven in the soutbaastera part of the state, 
where Prairie Gdckeaa have boaa practi* 
call/ extiact for soaM jrairs past, word has 
conm ol their prmwica la oaa or two 
l-ftfalltltf uadar fimiMtitMS *« HHi*ff g that 
they brad there latt yaar aad will probably 
breed the coarfag yoar. Thb b oaooaiag- 
ing but nothiag short of the aMSt rigid 
aad coaiiaaod proloctloa caa save a bird 
that b so oially kOlod aador awdera 
haatlag coa d i ti oas. 

Thore have bosa ao r^^oita ol wiaior 
vWtaat birds fraai thb lacattly aa yot.— 
TitoMAS S Roasir*. Jfs<^|frof timttmm. 
I mittfuty •>/ i/ieewaH, MtmmMptlit. 



Bird-Ur« 



Dtinm Rbomni.— Whw Um writer 
rrvk«» kb boi« aad laprtHioM oottcann 
iaf Mfdlifc la thb nffloa dvri^ the Imi 
two mostltt, be (ccb m though he had 
pUycd the lottery and had drawn a blank. 
With the cBoiplioA of thrac digbt mow- 
»tor«M aad a apdl who* the icni|>rniturc 
•tajred avovad eight above for a day or to, 
there baa bow hareaboata an alnoat 
uabrohea proceaafaB of aimay day*. And 
tU* Meied to have meant no bird move- 
meat; the abaencc of tnow in our neighbor* 
ing foot-bflb, aloog the nearby crceka, and 
on the pndrica lenvea naoovered an 
abaadaat foo dao pp ly for the birda. 
Coaaeqtx " ■ v have not been maaaed 

Into rc»t <Ung area* to be found 

in the dty and it* parks. A large influx 
of Homed Lark* i* an invariable aftermath 
of a widcaprcad and heavy anowstorm in 
thb iTgioo; they art then to be teen feed* 
ing in the ttreet* and park area* where 
nMUiy place* have bare ground after the 
storm. After each of the •torn* aince 
October IS la*t. there baa been a slight but 
teaqMmry incrcaee of Joacoa in Denver, 
HMrtly Plak-sided, and Gray-beadod, 
tboogh Shnfeldt** and Montana were abo 
detected, and also a single Slate-colored 
(Noveanber aj). 

There have been rather more Great 
Northern Shrikes in and about Denver 
in the period now reported upon, taking 
toQ of Eaglbh Sparrows, and, alas, abo 
of Hoonc Finches. A sinxle Sparrow Hawk 
waa aeea aear ihr "^ * ol on Decem- 

ber I, it beinit |}< lUwk that the 

writer has noticed here for the past eight 
week*. Usually t»y thb time there are still 
a few American Roo^bga and a few 
Red-taib, and Swaiaaoa's. At thb season 
one b justified in opectiog to sec Long- 
created and Woodhousc Ja)**, and, too. 
large flocks of Pifloa Jajrs are to be noticed 
woridag their wey eaatwaid; up to the 
prsaaat writing not a single Jay of any 
sort has been detected by the writer in 
thb vicinity. Wliile he suspects that the 
Tree Sparrow has been here some time, 
yet be believes that it b aot present now 
in lu a ccu s tu ma d aumban. If thb region 
or cold weather beti 



for 



thb date and ChrbtaMM, the 
that day will make a nMager Ibt 
\v II RBaofOLO, Dm»*r C'>l» 



.^A.-> f aAWCtaco Rtoioi*. — i-uut •ummcr 
residents of the San Fraadaoa nglOB wrrr 
seen after il <tiort was seat in. 

namely the .\ mer on October 13, 

and the Wcsieru l-lycatchcr, Pileolatnl 
Warbler, and Vrliow Warbler on Octobrr 
16. An accidental occurrence of the Tolmi< 
Warbler on November a6 is the sccomi 
record for the state during the winter 
month*. Thb Warbler wa* seen several 
times by a party of sis who were scoutini; 
for birda at the Claremont < Uil> 

Winter realdenu have ) •>• 

more abundant than us ti ' 
part of the winter. C'oi '>< " 
softened the ground so that birds ol all 
categories are provided with j^" i>...n.Un<r 
of food. The fruit o( Toyon I - t «■«! 

on the Berkeley hills \\.\.'' ; ' uir 

niahcd an added attr. ' u<.irrn 

Robins and Varied Thr ! • '-• i>'>ir<i 
October 14 and Cedar W.n-^.i 1.^ \ ...rm 
ber 15; Western BInriiirds have also been 
rqwrted from different parts of the city 
and their calb are often heard as they fly 
over the hilb in flocks of from sii to 
twenty. Of the winter birds that come to 
my feeding table three are now banded. 
One of theae, a Fox Sparrow, has returned 
for the second season; while two Golden- 
crowned Sparrows, banded last spring, 
are noted daily among the eight or ten 
regular boarders of thb spedes. 

A flock of twenty - five Band - tailed 
Pigeons seen by Mr. H. S. Swarth b the 
most interesting record of transients noted 
dur; r iod covered by thb report. — 

.^u: .; LKN. BtrktUy, Calif. 

Loa Akoblu Rbcioii.— The Alaska 
Hermit Thrush was a fortnight late in 
reaching our region, and up to date fewer 
individuab have been recorded than in 
former seasons, one or two only being 
seen on a dasr's walk where they havr 
formerly been abundant He made hi» 
first appearance about the 18th, at did al»o 
the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. On this dale. 




K 



A LiiiLi: LRorasB or the ^ 



(39) 



4© 



Bird - Lure 



■y Wftrblan wan aoivd pMaiag 
tlu«i«h. Tlw PUnUtad. ike Ydlow, Um 
L«lc*cc«t. tli« BUck-UinNitrd Gray, aad 
tW Tovncmd. vrrc rrrorded. Aoolkcr 
fligbt was noird on tbr >7lb and aSlb in 
wlkidi Black-ikroaicd Gray^prvdoniBated. 
October 31 a Water OuacI wm teen la the 
Arroyo Sooo. Tkurbcr'* J unco wa» hm 
reported October fj. The aftlb. Park man 
Wren* were reported pneaing tbtoogh, and 
the first Robina, Wcetera Bluebirds, and 
Cedar Waxwinci arrived in Sycamore 
Grove Park. Bluebirds were (airly common 
in the large vaUeya all summer. Tbr 6r»i 
Gotden-oowned Sparrow record (or tbe 
leaaoa waa aadt on tbe above date, also 
White Pelicaas flying southward. October 
31, Mountain Bluebirds were seen near 
Culver City, and in the Mme locality 
Meadowlarks were abundant. November 
t, tbe Black-throated Gray Warbler wa* 
noticed. Tbi» date was notable for an 
extraordinary gathering o( White-throated 
Swi(u at Point Fimin. Their »wi(i aighi 
and kaleidoacopic diangcs ot formal ion 
as they wheeled in lofty evolution*, ihcir 
white throata illuminated by the level 
rays of the deacmding sun , made a spectacle 
of woodcr and great beauty, long to be 
rc—iber«d. Another group o( people 
went down on the 5th and (ound them still 
there. No estimate of the numbers could 
well be made. November 9. a flock of 
tS to JO Ptpits was seen in a dry field near 
Silver Lake, where one lone bird gleaned 
aloag the nargla of the water. Who can 
say why Rpits are solitary when on a shore 
and grcgariottt in fiebb? Six Wcatem 
Gnatcatcbcrs were also seen along the 
bniahy border of the field. November 10. 
and OB later dates, the Towns<nd Warbler 
waa mm in Echo Park, where a number of 
thaai wintered last jrear. On thu daU a 
(iray-hcaded junco was found in Eagle 
Rock Park with a large flock of Thurbcr's 
that annually winter there. It is, very 
probably, the same bird that was there 
laat year, aa it is of rare occurrence here. 
November 17, two Varied Tkruahcs were 
aaai in Mocahucttga Caflon« and one of the 
Bl— I foted Jays that have been there 
tbe year. November 37, a 



CoouBon Loon was u bee r ve d at the 
rBRcrvoIr in Franklin CaBon. November 
>Q, Red breasted SafMuckers ware observed 
at fUgIc Rock and at Echo Park. At the 
latter place there was a CommoB Loon. 
Tripe made to San Diego and interior 
points November ;o in ^o, by two different 
par' 1 . • Uriy 

dioi .1 1 rned 

Larks and Meadowlarks abundant. Hawk« 
and Crows in large numbers. The Krr 
ruginoos Rough-leg has several time* been 

noted. V ' •" ""' —- -• ^^ '- — 

Uke. 

Deoemucr ;, un aiirrnuon 01 iirjinn}; 
weather foUowinf • rainy morning. • verv 
large fk>ck o* s .txwings. < 

at several ht. i^bted on 

over a Hollywood street, deKcndmK ttt 
drink from the puddles. 

The shore-bird migration increased in 
interest as the season advanced, several 
ftpecics that were poorly r epre s ented in 
the earlier part of the season becominx 
abunflant in November. Semi-palmatrd 
Plover. Red-backed Sandpipers, l..onx 
billed Curlews, and Ma r ble d Godwits wcrr 
ver>' numeroua. One Black Tum»iunr 
was seen November 3 on a r.Hkv iMtint 
Nwtbem Phalaropes were .. rvni 

on November 9 on a »Ioukii nr»i Wii 
mItigtOB, ectimatcd about thirty bird*. 
NoveflBber 17, three Red-throat 1 
and rtry large flocks of Booap 
HecimannGulU were observed. \ 
li, near White's Point, five 
Mergansers were noted and >itr 

winged and Surf Scoten. ..tiful 

Western Grebe b seen frequently upon the 
ocean and at Silver Lake. Among ihr 
rarer Dticks to visit this Lake were one 
male and three female Buflkhcads. The 
American Golden-eye was seen on Franklin 
Reaenroir November 37. 

Twelve American Egrets have been 
about the Harbor dbtrict all the (all 
They seem fearless and prosecute their 
search for food undbturbed by passing 
trolley cars and automobiles. December 
3 and s, in the broad open valley some 
forty miles ea»: of Los Angeles, on freshly 
plowed fields. Mountain Plover wrrr 




The Season 



41 



Um hundred*. lo aome intancet 
vcrr clfMcly (oUowiag the plow. 
WhUc Ibtrd a* (ommoa Mime yean tfo, 
thty ar<' < ocrurrence now. 

On I> :.v F. T. Bickndl 

anil 'A inrmbcr» of the ItKsl 

AiwluU.n ^... i< • ■. went out in an automo- 
bile to Marrb (or Mountain Plover on the 
plains to the •outh and west o( the city, 
where they were seen last year. No Plover 
was found thrrr. hut a veiy large flock of 
Mnunlain KI.k Kirds was Mcn in a fidd 
w h ing seeded, some hovering on 

th. <-rs taking their insect food 

ir.»m ihr air >>r ir.tm the ground. Thenum- 
tK-r wa« r^iimatnl at from loo to 200 birds. 
Pipits also were in the fields in equally 



nany Sparrows, including Western Chip* 
ping, Wcslem Savanna, Western Lark, 
at well as the more common Gambd and 
Gotden-crown. 

Kxtmding their trip by way of San 
Pc«!- • whrrr trn Kgrets were seen, 

to I uin and White's Point, they 

found White-throated Swifts (about joo), 
a flock of J] Black Turnstones, about the 
same number of Killdecr, group after 
group of Sanderiing (totaling, perhaps, 
350), Snowy Plover and Spotted Sand- 
pipers in small numbers. White- winged 
and Surf Scoters, and the dead bodies of 
a Shearwater and a Fulmar. ' lod 

Cemeter>' were gathered huti- niII- 

deer scattered about in groups of 25 to 50. 



K» » v< 



■ Vl'llir ■> 



f 



tm»flfi I '.tin 




T>ool{ X^t\iisi anb (Xcbietui 



liiBiK' or l.\ 1 
vitb a . 
(•ltoh\oi t 
iMtndon s! 



\>y H 
>\ >unft Ltd. 
P. Dultoo 



Some thiny-iwo ytmn ago. as tht lenior 
author of a work on Artratine Wnb,* 
Dr. P. L. Sdatcr introduced to the »orM 
an Argentine oraitlMlofbt who bu 
won an envinble reputation as a 
•ry naturaliftt. To lUa worli the Junior 
autlMir contributed obaervntionA on ih" 
>jo-odd tpcdca of birds luiown to hit 
whUe Sclater. b addition to supplying the 
■cfenlific framework of the book (dcacrip- 
tioH. synonymy, etc.), added notes on 
about an equal number from the recorded 
writings of other omithokcisla, the whole 
making a complete treatiae on the avifauna 
of the Argentine. 

Acting on the frankly ezpreaaed belief 
that the "only interest" the original work 
"still retains for the reader is the account of 
birds* habits contributed by bm" Hudson 
haa ''thrown out" all the matter contrib- 
uted by Sdater leaving only his own 
otMenratioD on the birds of the La Plata 
regloa. 

Although the reference value of the 
book b thereby materiaUy dcscreased. 
Hudson's share of the joint work con- 
stituted so Urge a part of it and contained 
•o niuch original matter that it well 
deserves publicntion alooe. Furtheraore, 
the fact that the voluaMs of iS8»-<9 
have loag been out of print b an «Ai*i>V mal 
rcnaon lor making Hudson's admirable 
bbd biographiea acfftnaJble to a larger 



The test of the original appears to have 
been piactically unchanged, only such 
mndtffBiiuiu having been made aa the 
difwMit character of the book neocadtated. 
«r, te aooM few i nata n cea (c. g. Eakimo 

•A nu ll! I ^ n I JMii^Mlii raisim— 

•MW bMi ^ tW Am-tla. ftsneUk: k, T. L, 
tdatm, wkk Mr. M tw, kabiu by W. H. Bmi 

EH. r«t««. itaa. 



( urlc«. here lAllcil K»kimo WhimbrH') 
the chsufd ^l.,!... ..I ihr ftpccics de- 
manded. 

ThetwovoluiMi.au. Lrrauiiful exampln 
'f bookmaking, and Grunvold's plates 
are artbtkally plaaaing as well as omltho- 
lagtcaUy illaatffativc~P. M. C. 

KKFoar or E. W. Nulmn. Cktcf of 
Bureau of Biological Survey, for 
the year ending June jo, 1920, pp. 
i-j6. 

From the first to the last paragraph 

report b solid nseat. No one can read 

ithout being impressed by the wide 

scope of the Bureau's activities and the 

value of the service it u rendering. 

Man cannot depart far from a purely 
savage state without coming Into conflict 
with other forms of life which share hi* 
environment, and when he reaches that 
stage in hb development which we arc 
ploMd to irrm cinlixation, hb reUtiont 
to organic nature have become so com 
plicated that it it of supreme importance t« 
bis welfare to understand them. It is 
primarily the function of the Biological 
Survey to promote thb end by invcatiisat 
tOff our relations to other "»-"«—'« and 
to birds, and. after having 4* * ^m i nH 
the economic stat us of a spedaa, the Survey 
b entrusted with the task of protecting 
h a rml e w and useful spcde* - "-^ '^f 'r^troy- 
ing noodoos ones. 

A Urge part of the presrni rrimn dealt 
with these phases of the Surv^s work, 
wherein it b dearly shown that 
past year millions of dollars 
saved stock-grower* and agricultuntts by 
the destruction of •itlmai* injurious to 
their interrttt. There is also a summary 
of the work of the Scientific Stafl of the 
Survey, that court which gathers and 
weighs the evidence before deciding 
whether a spedes b hwnfii iai and to be 
conserved, or injurious and to ha con- 



The Survey b further entrosted with 
the ad min ist rati on of the Mi«raiorv l{ir<i 



U>) 




Book News and Reviews 



43 



Law, vitk Um care of ow Mvmty bird 
r— nrniom, aad with to ■May other 
rcapoaribOitka that it b dificvlt to aader- 
•taad why tiaailar Burcaoi havt aot been 
fai oottBtfiei haviaf eeoooii c 
mmMfynkmowrnm.—r. M.C. 

Caasinia: a Biro Annual. ProcccdiiiKt 
of the DeUwarr Vdley Oniithologial 
Cub. Nu XXIII, 1910, pp. t-55; 
J half-toon, lilt.. I chart. 

Doffag the year 1919. the D. V. O. C. 
held sixteen oMetingt with an average 
attendance of twenty-five members, or 



joint HMollaf of thcM two dobs. Donbckii 
other comiaon interwts of both ■ o cfatto 
mifht be lervod by such retiniona wUck 
coold be bdd annually, and ahamata 
between the two dtict. Held in May, 
these meetings odght lead to cooperation 
in the study of bird ndgration. 

In tUs issue of 'Cassinia,' Wm. L. 
Baily presents a review of the oraitho* 
logical achievements of the uncle after 
whom he was named, which makes it dear 
from whom the reviewer inherited his love 
of birds, and Samud Scoville, Jr., 




fha(a(rapll«<i ty \ 



sbont so per cent o( 
fthip. Just why the I 

tio« Skoyid kave ovrr i;o 

nwiben on lU roll, while the Ne« 
SqtkHy MMten but taveni^ 
praUen In ocnithologicai soci< 



........ .^ Uvaly nccoMit of a hunt la May, 

1919. in CMtft ConMy, PaMHjrlvnaia, 
or nests of tke POanlod Woodpacfcar. 
Several weft foond and tkt pkotsfiipk 
>f one of tk«M tea Mnb at tka aaitaMt 
to its boM*. vkick Is 



■ifkt wen forai a Mibjad of debau at « •«* •ecurod by A. D. McGrew. 



Bird-L4M« 



TIm a»(Ml yvariy raport oq tbc tprins 
■UgimliiMi, local binl-Boi«». aa abMnct 
ol Um ptocaadiagi ol the dob at iu tixucD 
wwnlap. di^ aotaa. a MbUofaphy, aad 
Ibl 9i awai b c f t rondude tida waB adilad 
pahUcatioa i M • 

or III! I ■. si:\N ^.M n T^ ->t Nt.w 
N the year endinK March 9. 

I'uring the year covered by thb Ab- 
'"^'t. ihe Uancaa SodeCy has held 
CO meeting* with aa averafc attea* 
(unce of devea awaibefa, or about 14 
per caal of ita raridaat aieadMraldp. 
With the csoepcioo of Mvcral addrcaaei. 
the matter pKMatcd before tbcM mertfat* 
rclatca to local bird-life, and the data here 
priated doubtlcM will in tiAie be lacor- 
porated la a lUt of the birds of the New 
York regioo which it is aaaouaced (p. 5) 
will be prepared by a committee of the 
Sodety. 

Paget tS-jo are devoted to 'A Re\'isioa 
of tbc Sraridf Sparrow*,' by Ludlow 
Griscom aad J. T. Nkbob, wbote intrn>ive 
•tadka of thb group, iadoon aad out. 
have reaulted la the dcacriptioa of two oew 
races {PMSserkfrhmlmi HMrUimus A«ie«tfi, 
Alabaaia, aad P. m. jmmtiatla, northwest 
Florida) aad ntorc definite knowledge of 
tbc raagc aad rdatioas of those which 
were p re v io u sly kaowa. 



It i« aaaouacad that thb aaaual 'Ab 
stract' will be saccaadad by a 'Proceedlag*' 
bailed as occaaioa raqtdrca. Pagas i-S o( 
the Prorcodiags. iadeed, appea r ed July 
1$. 1910. We aote that it bears the terUI 
voluRMT number of the Abstract and i» 
consequently Volume XXXIII. It i» 
devoted to descriptions of reptUca aad 
amphibiaas. from the West ladica, ia the 
Americaa Museum. May we vaature to 
suggest that thb nuterial should have 
appeared in an Americaa Museum puUica 
tioa, while the fuads of tbc Uaacan 
Sodety might be emittovrd more advan 
tageouftly in the p uf mattrr 

reUting to the faua« ... ^...^u oMst of it* 
member* are interested. — F. M. C. 

Familiar Stut>' 
Hacvta » 
W 

I. 

h.iK lone 
Over neventy i>eauiiiu!iy 
photographs bear witness to 
man's skill as a photographer, mIkU- ii.< 
accompanying text bespeaks hi* kerc 
sympathy with birds. In addition t<> 
pictures illustrating the bome-Ule of t)ir<i« 
there are several of rather u! 
character. aotaMy one of a Br 
Crackle in fUght, and spirited port r 
the Brown Thrasher, Catbird, and .Magpp 
— F. M. C. 





Editorial 



45 



irb=1Lore 



A Bi-Monthly M««mrta> 
to Um •tiMiy »n4 Pilftlw ol 
omeuL oaoAji or ms AOMrwM »o ci»ii— 
B4H»4 by rKANK M. CHAPMAN 

r K^Mw. MAMKLOaOOOD WSIOIIT 
>^M<iil W D. APPLBTON U CO. 



VoLXXlIlP.MMMiPihtMfyl.lMl No. 1 


•uaaaupTioM kati 

■ mil mf UMii4 taMi. aM «i*w M4 1 


n 


cavTBMvraa. «m. nr mamb a. 


CaAMUUi 


BIrd-Lerc'a Motto: 



The exhibit of painting* and photo- 
(;r4|ih« of birds which, thank* to the total 

''-r of arrangement*, wa* held in 

•n with the annual CongriM of 
- ' ' \mrriran Ornithuloin*ls' Union, which 
< lurnnl in \Va«hinKtnn November last. 
jroutcd *o murh intrrr»t that we hope 
luture cuni(rr<k«c<« may be made the 
•Kra*ion for similar exhibition*. They 
scT\t not only to introduce artist* to the 
puMic, but personally, or through the 
mniium of their work, they introduce 
artitu to one another. Furthermore, lhe>' 
h4\r a <ii>tinit value which should react 
favorably on the stttdy of bird* and 
in. i.lrntally .n thr A. (). U. Itself. Phila 
•irlphta ( iininiittrr please take notice! 

I'nfurtun.it. u t he distance between the 
CongrcsMoDal Library, where the picttires 
were placed, and the National Mnsettm, 
where the A. O. U. was in mmJob, was 
grent enough to pre>'ent naay, the writer 
inrlttded, from returning to the eiMMttol 
after the opening night . At the beM, oae 
vi«it wovUI not have warranted anjrthiag 
likr a critical review of the work of the 
iiliy or mnre artlsia aad pbotofmpher* 
•hown. whiW* ih«> crowd on A. O. U. night 
|irr\rnir<t <>n. fr. .tn making a satislactory 
rwniisattao of the many snbiecU dl** 
played. We brought away, therafoft, oaljr 
impreMioM of no eathtMlMlIc nad appro- 
• laiiv^ aodlence and of a aarpiWag lot of 
k.mmI hirci p<>ru)iT«, ladatfag atiaiberaby 
arii»t« t*ra<iit.tii,N unkaowB ttt the omllbo- 
logkal world. 



Moat of the artists wpreMntcd, however, 
are primarily painters of birds, the larger 
part of whose work ha* a p peared a* 
illustratioas In omitholocical pabttcalloaa, 
where, with identUkation as the chief ead 
in view, the figures have been made as 
large aad as detaitod as poeri b l e . It was, 
therefore, doubtless to be expected that 
liaintingi of thu nature would form the 
larger part of the exhibition ; and the 
number and excdlence of those shown b 
an asstmnce that we shall aot lack for 
oraltbolocical illustrators. 

On the other hand, paintings which 
satisfactorily depicted the birds' haunts 
a* well as the bird were few in number, aad 
an artist without an interest in birds wotUd 
doubtless have examined the collection 
with controlled enthusiasm. The need for 
bird portraits will exist a* long as there are 
books and articles on bird* to illtistrate, 
hut beyond and above this field there b 
nd even larger one occupied in the 
i by *uch men asThorbura,Lodge, 
and Liijefors, a study of whose wtKki 
we commend to Americanb bird artists. 

To one who recalb the very beginning of 
bird photography, and who remembers 
the first photographs of living birds shown 
before an A. O. U. Congress (secured with 
much dU&ctdty by a committee appointed 
at the precedlag Congress), the eshlbU of 
bird photographs was astoundlag evidence 
of the part the caaMca has come to play 
in bird-study during the past twenty-five 
years. Nor could thb exhibit adequately 
nurk the advance which has bcea 
since the BMCion-picture cnaMm has 
added to the binH>botoffraphor*s oatlK. 

Thb type of bird photography was. 
however, duly r epreeeat e d at the r««lar 
OMctiags of the CoagrMS whore Major 
Allan Brook* showed aartioa plctwes of a 
surprising nuad»r of wild TruaMieter 
Swaaa, Nonaaa McOlatock. intimate 
stadlM of Rgwt*. Whtoe Ibbaa, Least 
BItteraa aad CalHnaleioa the r e wnre Hoa 
of the Natkaal AModatloa of AadiAoa 
SodetiM oa Oraaft Laka, Florida, aad 
Rohwt CaakMa Marpkjr ariUhitad Ibas 
dapktteg the Mtd-Ufe of the gaaao la- 
lands off the Peruvtaa coast. 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

M4h»4 ky A. A. AIXBN. Ph.O. 
AMmt ■■ BiMMMilwrtiM niMlv* •• tiM wort ct iHt 
AVMUMM •• Ite l«taK> CmmI Orivwlly. ItteM. M. f . 

A BIRD IN THE SCHOOLROOM 

Readers of Bllu>-LoMt and bird-lovers in grnrml arr always much morr 
interested in wild free birds than they are in captive specimens, and naturall> 
•0. A bird in a cage, unless it be a Canary or some semi-domesticated spedes, 
is not bappy, b not itself, and spends most of its time in an effort to escape. 
Even if it eventually becomes contented, observations made on its habits in 
captivity do not make the appeal that would the same observations if made in 
the field. The tendency, therefore, when a wfld bird comes into one's possession, 
in one way or another, is to release it immediately without any attempt to 
team from it. This is highly on mrnend a h l f unless one has a satisfactory place 
to confine it, but because of this feeling many a qilendid opportunity has sl^iped 
through the fingers of teachers who would like to interest their children in the 
Uudy of birds. For the captive bird offers opprrtunities for observation quite 
different but (|ulte as vahuible as those of the bird in the open. The wonderful 
adaptation of the bird to the life which it is designed to lead can scarcely be 
appreciated until it is observed at ckMe range and even handled. In no better 
way can the paru of the bird and the arrangement of the feathers be leameH 
and the lessons be given which lead to careful and accurate observation in tht 
fiekL 

Objection b sometimes raised to the keeping of a bird in the schoolroom on 
the grounds that it will dbtract the attention of the children from their lessons, 
but those who have tried it tell us that it works the other way. It often proves 
the best source oi disdplioe for unruly children who can be bribed to pay atten- 
tion to their studies in no better way than by being told that they will be allowed 
to watch the bird for a few minutes when the lesson b completed. The 

objection comes from the lack of a suitable pbce in which to keep the 

but thb b easily overcome when the schoolroom has what it ought to have, a 
'terrarium,' a cage in which any sort of animal or plant may be kept. The 
ordinar>' bird-cage b not satisbctor>' because the large spaces between the 
bars permit the bird to get iu bill and usually part of iu head through anH 
encourage it to try to escape. Thus it wears the feathers from the base of it.s 
bin and frs)'s the feathers of its wings and tail and becomes a dbtressing sight, 
in addition to being a oontinaal distraction to the diildren. The terrarium, on 
the other hand, which b a cage made of fly-screening, does not permit the bird 
to injure itself anfl discourages the bird at the outset from trying^to escape. 

U6) 



The Audubon 




47 



• > IN I UK. SCUOOLROOM— A TKRaARIUM. 
rO A ORBAT VARIITY Of OTHER USKS 
ibc ConMR R«ml Scted LmRm) 

AnviniiiK ir<>m a Hummingbird to a hen can be kept in ii tu •u>-antate, and, 
at other tiroes, it can be put to a great variety of UKt. Anyone can bvild a 
terrRriuro, for if be baa oo ikill whatsoever as a carpenter, be can purchase 
five adjustable window-screens and nail or book four of tbcm together for the 
sides and use one for tbe cover. The best type of tenariaBi,hoii«w, will bftvt 
a strong frame covered with screcoiBg, a hb^pd top, and one ride covered with 
glass through which one can watch mofe tuSty. A shallow asetal tray or pan 
will form the bottom which will hold sand or soO. Such a tcnarium will provt 
one of the most valuable pieoaa of equipment in the school 



, Bird - lore 

but on what may be IctnM-' 

wild bird to be brought int' < k)I before p\ on, for a C*anar>' t>r 

adoineaUchen wtll«erv'e thr ]iur|MiMrrqually wrli "' — ' - » •■• 

in during the winter months when other opportun. 

-A. \ \ 

THE BIRD AS A FLYING-MACHINE 

Wilk flMMagTSplM by Ik* AntlMr 

There can be no doubt that one of the most wonderful caie» oi atiajitauon 
to be found in all nature i» that of the flying bird. The modi6catioo« which 
the entire structure of the bird has undergone in its dex-clopment from the 
ancient lowly reptile have been controlled primarily by the requisites of an 
eflkjent flying-machine. Other needs have been sacrificed or made subservient 
to the requirements of flight, so that today, except for degenerate forms, th* 
bird stands as the ideal heaWer-ihan-air flight mechanism. It is little wonder 
that man, in his endeavor to learn to fly, went to the bird and tried to invent 
wings that would lift him from the ground. But wings, alone, do not make th( 
bird nor account for its ability to defy the action of gravity. .\ man with v 
is no more a bird and capable of flight than is a hat because it has fea ; 
It is not alone the fact that birds have wings that makes them ca|iable of flight 
but it is the hundreds of little and big adaptations of their IxKUes, their leg>. 
their tails, their heads, their ver>' bones that lift them from the ground an«l 
drive them successfully through the air. It was not until these principles 
were thoroughly understood and applied that a real successful aeroplane was 
invented. 

One cannotf of course, study the mechanism of flight with a captive bird in 
a terrariuro or hope to eiplain in detail to children all ' ' 
but if one bears in mind a few of the principles that g< 
in moulding the bird so that it could fly, it will make the study of the structure 
of a bird fascinating rather than dry and uninteresting. When one visits a 
museum or a Urge aviary where birds from all parts of the world are assemUed 
together, one b at first led to believe by their various siaes and shapes that thc> 
have little in common except wings and feathers. But when one examines ' 
at all critically, he discovers that the apparent diversity of form b 
superficial, and that down underneath they are all fundamentally alike. Their 
different methods of securing food have given rise to diffeitnt bilb an<! ' 
which we may connder at another time, but aside from these coospicoous i 
their structure b very simihtr. Let us see, therefore, what are the main re 
quiremenu of an aeroplane and how these are met by the bird. 

I. Licmms: Above all eke, a flying-machine must be light. The materials 
used mmt be as light as compatable with strength and there must be no 
unnecessary matcriab or parts. So, in a bird, we find, devek)ped from the crude 



The Audubon Societies 

>tilian calcs, tho e tnictum called feathers, which are as delicate as tti* \ 
ire beautiful, hut " ' Annht 

mown. Wecann" .iruty 

of form and color; we can merely call attentkui to their lightness, their str<-iiK< >> 
their durahiliiy, the beautifully accurate wny in which they grow nn the )iir<l s 
wings and UmK, mi that each one has a particular place and a partii ular rnunrut 
in which to lay; overlapping certain other feathers and in turn lieing over- 
"uing the intricate • ' ' " ' . s. 

.itcst proitttion t< . nl. 




A I I KKF.Y Vn.i< pir ,.>.^., I, .., .. . V >.TRATIN'(; THK RRfMT' 
Kol \I>EI> WING BEST ADAPTKD FOR VOARIN'U 

We cannot lake s|ui c to difCUM the arrangement of the flight quills which give 
the greatest poMible resistance to the air on ' Mward stroke of the wing 

and the least resistance on the upward or non <.:... ..c stroke. We can merriy 
suggest running one's fingers or a pcndl through tJie flight quills of a fowl to 
show how easily it passes one way and with what resistance the other. 

But there arc other ways in which a bird b made light. Let some cbUd 
bring to ^hool the cleaned booes from a fowl that has served iu purpose at 
Sunday dinner, not one of the bones, but all of them, for there are many Ibmom 
to be learned from them. One of the things that impicsMs us fint b their 
unusual lightness. If we break one of them we see the rcAson: the marrow that 



BirJ 



uIU ihc l*>nr% <•( mamniaU is atisciu. :!u bono arc IkiIIkw, .in<l ihcir vk*alU, 
moreover, are liun. Here is aooihcr great «iavinj; in wcinhi Ihcy arc. likcwwc, 
ooQiwcted by air-ttCi with the lungt and filled with air I'hc^ air-san fill 
every avrnflabk tptoe within the body of the bird that b not <k cu|>ie<i by some 
oripui and when th«\' arr all filled with air tlu- bird ben>mr» nuuh liphtrr for its 
Sijtr 




A BL4CK TEEN AT ITS XEST. ILLUSTEATIKG TMK I.OXO. 
VAEEOW «■:'• ■- wrr:-' -■-. ..m,:- . 

ExEmmc a oiru s mouth Ell ic *ii ghif 5i vesiigc oi a looth. 

The first birds hsd them but ti <d ages ago becEOse tJtey were 

heEvy and required heEvy jews to support them and heavy muades to manipu- 
hue them. A real, efficient flying bird could not have all this eitrm weight, so 
Mother Nature devised another method of grinding the bird's food End todEy 
it is done in the stomEch, which is called the gizzErd. End the bird's heEd 
wci^ but little. 

1^ The first bird, likewise, had e long hatfd-like tail with feathers Elong the 
sides but this, too, wes heEvy End so grEduElly it became shortened until todsy 



The Audubon Sodetiet 



St 



aU of the foiUiere «rv bonie oo one bone and the akdetoD of the UU b very ihort. 
And to we might go on considering each and every part of the bird and we would 
discover how it has been made as li^t as its required strength would permiL 
7. Stuln'cth: If lightness were the <mly requirement of the flying-machine, 

would be a simple matter to construct one, but, unfortunately, great strength 
^ likewise required, and it is the combination of the two that is so difficult to 
achieve. The framework of the machine must be extremely strong to withstand 
the tremendous strains, and so we find, with the bird, that its framework or 
'Vrleton b the most rigid of all animal's. Bones fuse together to get greater 
rength and are reinforced by the development of new bones from mere bumps 
or processes to act as props. One cannot fully understand the many beautiful 
■R^ys in which the bird's skeleton is strengthened unless he has some knowledge 

the skeletons of other animals with which to compare it, and so here we can 




lECIMA 
ILl 



y I, Ri>tM>».t) WINt. 



merely call attention to the rigidity of the bird's backbooe and pdvis, the bos- 
like form of the thorax with the ribs firmly Ustened both to the backbone and 
to the breast bone, and further strengthened by overlapping piocsiMi. The 
familiar SrUhbone' is nothing mora nor leM than the two ooUu^miee fused 
aether to give greater stmgth to the attachment of the wings, and so on. 
U one enmfars the breaat-booe o( a bird, he di toovtrt that it Is not fiat as 
man, bat hat a reiatht|y eBO tm oni lidge dofwn tha Biddlt for the attach- 



5fl Bifxl • Lore 

nent of muidet, the familiar breast muack* or white oicat of the fowl Thete 
are the poiverful mutcks that maitipnlafr the wingSp relatively hundreds of 
timet moce powerfvl'than the tbaOai mmdet in man. 

5. CoMrACTMBis: A third requitite of a flying-machine is ooopactneM, 
the heavier parU must all lie dose to the center d gravity. There must be no 



> 



A BLUBSIED IN FLIGHT. ILLt ■ THE WING OF AVERAGE PROPOITIONS 

ADAPTED TO ^ v|AL METHOD OF FLIGHT 

great wei^t on the wings or the tail or it will not be steady. This is most 
strikingly accomplished in the bird. We have already qwken of the shortening 
of the tail, the loss of teeth and heavy parts of the head, and the location of the 
flight muscles on the breast-bone instead of on the wings. These are all adapta- 
tions, not only to make the bird lifter, but also to bring the wei^t dose to the 
center of gravity. What b true of the wings is likewise true of the legs. Birds 
do not have bit calves. Most of the musdes are on the upper leg ckMe to the 
body, and, when neceswy, they are pndonged to the tips of the toes as very 
light tendons, just as b done in the wings. The body itself is short and deep 
for the same reason of bringing th^ hmv-x- tSv rr. gizzard, and intestines as dose 
to the center of gravity as poisibl< 

4. Poim: A fourth requisite of a marhine that wnll fly is power. Until 
gasoline was d is co ver ed and the gasoline engine, flight was impossible because 
the known en^pncs and fueb were all too heavy. Great advance has been made 
in recent years in improxing the enginfs, making them lifter and more powerful 
for the amount of fuel used, but still the great problem and the greatest draw- 
badt to loQg-oontinued flights b the weight of the fud. An aSroplane can carry 




The Audubon SocieriM 53 

It gMoline to drive it only a reUtively few hundred miks before it has to 
But what of the birds? Think of the Golden Plover that starts on a 
-stop trip from No>'a Sootia to northern South America or from Alaska to 
Hawaiian Islands, disfancm of o>Tr 3,500 miles, with only the fat stored up 
on their bodies to serve as fuel. Surely gasoline is not the last word in fuel for 
aeroplanes. 

If one watches the captive bird closely, he can see the feathers of its breast 
md elsewhere pulsating in accord with the throbbing of the heart. If one counts 
the pubatioos, he will learn how rapidly the heart of a bird beats coo^Mred with 
t hat of man, and that means how much more rapidly all of its p ro c es s es work. 
The bird's temperature is normally nearly ten degrees hitler than that of man, 
and that means that its tissues are burned up and replaced much more rapidly. 



\ ' n I I It M> I II niK li<k THE 

yol I'KF.OOFLOKc; Dl'RATION. 

and it means that energy in the form < r is liberated much more 

rapidly. What a strange misshapen creature man would be if he had relatively 
the muscular power ot a bird. 

.And so in these four respects, m their modifkatkNis for lightness, strength, 
compactnew, and power, birds are all much alike in spite of their many apparent 
diffctcoces. But birds do not all fly alike or in equal anooata, nor are their 
modificatkMis all carried u> the same extroae. As b weU known, some birds, Uke 
the Ostrich, the Pei^;iiinS| and certain birds of New Zeahmd have k>st entirely 
' l'«>werofflight;andbirdalikathcdoinertkioirlawgMinteiortotlwHa^ 
I ihe Eagle, it is interesdaf to note the diffenooeaintbafligbtof diffcfint 
groups of birds and to try to find diffeicnoes in the structure of the birds or the 
shapes of their wii^oorrelatad with the diflatnoes. Thns, if «t ooaikler the 
winira tif a niurhird or a Crow sa of normal or averaae p toportlo as and their 



S4 



Bird • Lore 



method of flight by cooUnuottt bMdng of the wingt, that nornial to most b^ 
we find four (eneral modifications correlated with lyfrialiifd metho<1- -' "'ni;. 
The first of these it that found among terrestrial birds like the domt^ or 

the Ruffed Grouse that sddom fly except to escape their enemies when ii is 
that they diould be able to rise quickly and fly very rapidly for short 
They ordinarily do not fly very far. The t>'pe of wing developed 
among this class of birds is one that ismuch shorter than theaverage and roundrr. 
and it b moved much more rapidly. It would be a distinct disadvantage for a 
bird that has to fly long distances to have thb type of wing as it would soon 
tire, but it b approximated in many of the Flycatchere and Hawks, tike the 
Sharp-shinned and Cooper's, that ordinarily lie in wai' ^ ' oy and dart 

out after it. With thb type of wing they are able to > i jiced almost 

immediatdy. The wings of Rails are likewise of thb type though, because of 
bck of use, their breast muscles have been reduced and the *' ' ' is weak. 

The second type b very different being a Urge, broad. : wing, such 

as b found in the Eagles, Buzzards, and larger Hawks. It b adl^>ted for soaring, 
and birds having thb type of wing can maintain themselves in the air sometimes 
for hours without flapping their wings, merely by taking advantage of the up- 
ward currents of air and adjusting their wings accordingly. \ third type of wing 
found among birds, that likewise enaUes them to take advantage of the air- 
currents, b the kNig, narrow wing, found best devdoped among the Albatrosses 
but also amcMig the Gulb and Terns and other sea-birds that are on the wing a 
large part of the time. Among the Hawks, the Marsh Hawk and the Fish Hawk 
have kmger and narrower wings than the others and they seldom soar ai^ ne\-cr 
lie in wait for their pre>' but spend their time sailing back and forth over the 
water or over the fields, for the long, narrow wing b best adapted for what may 
be called gliding. The fourth type b that of the pointed wing, usually broad at 
the base and moderately k>ng. Thbwingbbestadaptedforspeed of long duration 
and b that found among the Swallows and among the Falcons, birds!' ue 

their pre>' on the wing and strike it at full speed. They need to have i rol 

of their flight at all times and to develop great wpetd, and the moderately long, 
pointed wing seems best adapted for this. Thus one might go < > he 

differences among the wings of Inrds and perhaps find a rea.^^ iie 

minor differences that are known to occur, but the differences that have been 
mentioned will suffice to make the wing of the bird in the schoolroom have some 
qiftn»ng and perhaps start some diild ddving for the reasons for that which he 
sees.— A. A. A. 

QUBSTIONS 

I. Wkat b the best way to keep a bird la the ichoolroora? 
a. Why b the ocdiaary bird-csft vasatbfactory? 
J. Uliat is mcsat by a 'terntHum'? Describe one. 

4. What arr four requisite* ol a flyiag-machine? 

5. Name tea way* ia which the wd^t of a bird b reduced. 




The Audubon Sodetiet $5 

Why H fl tlii— t iMvr twth? 

w 

I >. >. riix nr« wajrt in which the weight o( a bird is brought dote to the center of 

\\ hat i» the framework of a bird called and how is it made strong? 
In what form is energy stored up on the bird's body? 
Why are birds able to fly long dhtanoet without stopping? 
IT them fly? 

1 

It types of birds' wings and explain the kind of flight for which 



FOR OR FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 

BIRO-STUDY AT HOME 

Many people are discouraged in starting a bird-list because it seems such an 
undertaking. They have to walk two or three miles and then only see a few 
hirds, but if you keep your eyes open and use your ears you need not go out of 
yuur own yard to see such birds as will start you well on your Ibt. My yard is 
such a yard as you would find in the residence section quite near the heart of 
any large city. It is about 50 feet long by 35 feet wide. It is sunoimded by a 
chcrT>-, an elm and plum trees, together with a diunp of large Ulac bushes on 
one side, a popUr tree, lilac btishes and a flowering quince and shrubbery on 
' I try to protect the birds from their enemies and I have two baths to 

■■ .~ive come Robins, English and Song Sparrows, Flickers, and Gold- 

Dnches. I also have four feeding-devkes which have been patroniied by Robins, 
Slatc-oilorcfl Juncos, Houv Wrens, Ruby-crowned Kinglets, En^ish, Song, 
Chipping, White- throated, and White-crowned Sparrows. 

I had many interesting experiences in observing tome of the birds. In the 
morning of May 18 I saw a Brown Creeper on a tekgra^rfi pole in another yard 
and went nearer to be sure of its identification. Coming back I scared up an 
Oven-bird When I cane ^one from idiool it was niniog but that did not 
prevent me from teeing a Black-throated Blue WarUer, House Wren, and Wood 
Thrush. In the afternoon it stopped raining and I saw four Canada Geeae. I 
had an interesting time with a NathviUe Warblar in the quince both. Hewoold 
alwa>'9 keep on the other side from me and it was rather hard to identify Urn. 
When I saw some Pine Siskins eatlaf the dandelion seeds I ran back for my 
camera, but while I was adjusting it they flew awty. When I was dr— ing one 
morning I heard a Wood Pewce and looUng oot ol the windov found him 
perched on a telegraph wire. 

Forty different kinds of birds were aeea in the fvden bacwta Mardi aad 
August.— RiaiAtD M. Cbasb (age la yenn), Rffkttkr, If. T, 

(TUs b Ml esMttsat rsoofd fer a dtjr fSidM. WhocaadobeltwH^A. A. A. 



$6 Bird - Lore 

BIRD- NOTES FROM MISSISSIPPI 

Not haWng tee toy Dote» in Bird-Lore from Mlv>i>hi|>{)t I thought mnw 
of Bnu>-LoKS readen would like to know of my txpaitact in ' v 

I havr had good «ucce«i with feeding-boards and btrd-bAtht. The v ..,.,....il>. 
Bob-Whiles, and White-throated Sparrowf were numerous though the latter 
only during the winter, going north when vpring came. 

During the nesting season I found many bird-nests. They are as ('>■'•* 
lo Mockii^bifd's, 6 Blue Jay's, 8 Purple Martin's, 6 Brown Thrall 
Cardinal's, i Towhee's, i Orchard Oriole's, a Bob-White's, 3 
Loggerhead Shrike's, 2 Red-headed Woodpecker's, i Brown-hcauvAi S u . 
I Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher's, i Mourning Dove's, i MeadowlarkV. 
Chimney Swift's. 

The Mourning I^ove's nest wa^ i^uui on the ground and when im «rggii 
h a t ch ed the ants ate the young. Both Cardinal's nests contained but three eggs 
wfaSe Ust year there were four eggs in all the Cardinal's nests I found. There 
were twenty eggs in one of the Bob-Wliite's nests and fifteen in the other. 

Some of the above nests we photographed, one of which contained a C()\^ 
bird's ^g. When the figs got ripe I put some on my feeding-boards and the 
Mockingbird ate them. 

I am the editor of a tnrd-study column in the county newspaper which is 
puMtthed once a week. I was the president of a Junior Audubon Bird Club 
last year and hope to establish one this year. 

One of my friends and I have made a bird sanctuary of about ten acres. 
We have five feeding-boards, many bird-houses, one bird-bath, and right 
throui^ the center of the woods is a small stream. I have made five more bird- 
bouses already for next year.— Leonard Daniel Hardy (age, 13 years), 
Gulf port, MUs. 

|Bia0-Lou reader* wili congratuUtc Leonard Hardy upon bi» a< - 
in diacovcring birda' nc»t» and will quite envy him hU opportunitica f< m 

Antk oooatitute a form of btid enemy that our northern birds arc aeldom troubled with 
Will tome of our other louthem frienfis (c!l \x% thrir nperienrrs. — A A A 1 

A BLUB JAY STORY 

Nellie Small and her mother were spending the winter in Colorado and iHiile 
there Nellie made the acquaintance of *Sammy', the Blue Jay. 

Sammy b generally cxnsidered a naughty bird but Nellie grew to like him 
very much before she had known him kmg. He proved by his actions that he 
could be agaUant fellow and a friend to the weiker and more timid rr<->"^» "f 
his band. 

Nellie and her mother lived near the mountains in a calnn whub wa> 
surrounded by huge pine trees and at a short distance flowed a clear mountain 
stream. 



The Audubon Societies 57 

Nellie went to the little stream for a pail of water. At first 
ly and his companions, who spent a great deal of their time in the tree 
above the brook, kept very quiet when she i^ipearcd, watching her care- 
Knowing Jays to be curious she placed a small dish of comhread, 
>ken in pieces, on the fence ttomt distance from the house. 
It was not long before Sammy flew down to investigate. H13 squawk to the 
' hers was answered and a half dozen Jays were soon enjoying a fine breakfast, 
veral mornings of such feeding convinced the birds that she was their friend 
and soon her appearance was greeted by a chorus of squawks from the tops of 
the trees. 

.\s she passed along the trail to the brook the birds flew from tree to tree, 
calling down to her not to forget that combread. If, on entering the cabin she 
did not immediately reappear, Sammy, larger and bolder than his friends, wOuld 
fly to the groimd where he coidd be seen from the window. Stalking back and 
forth he would cast anxious glances toward the door, his bravery seconded from 
the tree U^. His friends could 'root' for him if they couldn't help him. 

When Nellie came out he would fly to a safe distance among the branches 

above until she returned to the house. Then, darting down several times, he 

would carry pieces of bread to the timid ones in the tree. He must have por- 

>ned out the bread, for the other birds rarely came so near the house. 

As the days grew colder and the snow deeper, they were driven by hunger 

come nearer and soon learned the exact spot on the fence where she kept their 

>h. To avoid going out so eariy in the morning she would fill the dish late the 

evening before, then, jtmiping out of bed as soon as she awakened, would 

watch them from the window. Each bird would shovel away the snow with his 

bill, iieize a piece of bread, and fly to the tree where he ate it at his leisure. 

Nellie grew ver>' fond of Sammy, who seemed to be the captain of this Blue 
Jay company, and tried various ways <A enticing him nearer the house. One 
day, iriien she knew the Jays were aloft, she went to the fence in front of the 
house, much nearer than where she had been in the habit of pUdng the food. 
Placing several bits of bread on the gate-post she ran into the house and waited 
r Sammy to appear. 

•<>n he begin flying about overhead, darting and squawking, afraid to 

re so near. Finally, almost on the wing, he lieaed a piece. Having settled 

^ plumage after such a daring act, he flew down agiUn, kit cautiously, and 

look anothor piece. After a few days be would often perch on the poet and tend 

friendly glaaoet toward the window. 

By this time Nellie believed that he knew she was hit friend, but she wanted 
to try him still further. She scattered tome grains ol com, nice, large, yelknr 
trrains, from the fence to the porch. 

Sammy watched her from a safe distance. He was 'game' but very much 
irightcned. He flew down and ate the fint few grains, kioked cautioasly about, 
crq>t nearer, flattened his topnot, spread hit wingt and fairly OMvlid lo the 



S$ Bird -Lore 

step to tccure the hst grain. TiMn with an air of bravery which was funny to 
see he flew to the fence, settled his plumage and jeered at the timid ones in the 
tree. 

From that time Nellie pbced his bread on the porch railing. For a day or 
two he was afraid to venture id near, as the rail was just below the window, 
then begui to oome very early in the morning, gobbled the crumbs and fled. 

One evening Nellie forgot her pet until morning. During the night about two 
inches ol snow had fallen. When she looked out and thought of Sammy she 
dedded to wait and see what he would do. Soon he flew down and began tossing 
away the snow with his bilL Faster and faster be flirted but no crumbs 
appeared. When the bare railing showed and Sammy knew that he was forgot- 
ten, he was angry. He began to scold. The more he sooldrH Ou- mnn- 
angry he became. He fairly quivered as he sat and squawked. 

Nellie laughed but resolved that he should soon have his breakia^i. 

Ndlie thou^t Sanuny a very wise bird Hon't you? — Estbfk T. Rmsj n- 
■nOEl, Sm Carles, Aris. 

(Nrllir'i e spc rfa nce la catidag the timid Blue Jays to the window %how% liow wen 
the wariest Urds will fasUyrcspood to kindocM and loM a Urge iDra'""--< •>"■" f"^' 
A. A. A.) 

A ROBIN'S NEST AND FAMILY 

This Robin's nest, we observed, was in the fork of a white oak tree about 
40 feet ffXHn the ground and was made of grass and mud. We b^an our obser\'a- 
tions adaen the young were about six or seven days old, on August 3, and kept 
a one-hour's feeding record for three days. The first day, August 3, they were 
fed eight times in the hour that we watched, the male feeding five times and the 
female three. Owing to the extreme height of the nest we were never able to see 
very well the kind of food but the few times that we did see, it was usually 
grabs. On August 5, when the yotmg were ei|^t days old, we made our next 
observation. This time, also, they were fed eight times in the hour, only the 
male and female each fed an equal niunber of times. On Atigust 6, we made our 
hst observation. Only seven feedings were made, five by the male a : t h c 

female. Feedings usually lasted about one or one and a half minuiv „. — >itcu 
came immediately following each other but sometimes five or even ten minutes 
elapsed between feedings. In chilly weather one would feed and then remain on 
the nest until the other came in order to keep the young birds warm. Only once 
did we see any nest-cleaning, then the female went to the nest to feed and then 
went away with some small white thing in her bill. We did not see her drop it. 
Perhaps nest-deaning was done Uter in the day. Two days later the young had 
flown and we were denied the eq>ecial pleasure of seeing them leave the nest.— 
CotNEUA Doon (age, 15 years). 

(This b the way to bscosM really famtliar wub a bird by waicbtog 11 at ut nest and 
; canfal aous «f aB thai tasaaplns.— A. A. A4 




WOOD riWtl AT HOMt 



lS9) 



BROWN CREEPER 

■ y T OIUBBRT PBARtON 

dc J0«liorul aifocuuion o( 2lububon >ocirtiti 

BIMKATIONAl. LKAFLET NO. IM 

Few birds are more modest and reUring in their habits than the Brown 
Creeper. Its life n paaied cree|Mng about the trunks of trees, and when akrmed 
by the approach ol an intrtKkr will often remain stationary and thus avoid 
detection. lu notes are few and the aoog of the male so low that it is rarely 
heard. The bird is altogether so difficult to see and to hear, and blends so 
perfectly with iu wild surroondinga, that even a trained observer y»n\\ nU.n 
pasa near one without learning of its pretence. 

The Brown Creeper is from 5 to 5K inches long. Nearly one-liaK ol {\u> 
length is taken up by the long tail which is stiff and bristJy at the end, not unlike 
the tail of a Woodpecker. The bill is about K inch in length, slender, rounded, 
and slightly curved. It serves the bird well, for it is of the greatest use in explor- 
ing the small, deep crevices of the bark in quest of food. In ook>r the Creeper 
is brown above and streaked lengthwise with white. Two wide whitish bars 
cross each wing. The rump b li^t rusty red. Beneath, from bill to tail, the 
bird is white. The brown-streaked back of a Creeper, clinging motionless to the 
bark of a forest tree , presenU a mark not easily seen by one who is unaware tha t 
a bird is hiding there in open view. 

In the greater part of its range in the United States, pec^le see Ui.< ..;;.<. 
tree, mouse-like, bird only during the colder portions of the year, for its summer 
home b farther north. It b often found in companies of three or four family 
groups, poasibly — and very frequently associated with a l)an'' •' ' ''m« kadecs. 
Nuthatches, and Downy Woodpeckers. 

In feeding, the Brown Creeper climbs along the bark of irrcA by mean** of 
little jumps or hitches. Generally it begins about 2 feet from the^ground, and, as 
it moves upward, it nraminrs critically the cracks and crevices of the rough bark. 
Usually it abo moves slightly aidewise, so that by the time it b among the limbs, 
often ao feet or more inan the ground, it has circled the tree two or three times. 
Rarely it will creep aking some large limb, but more generally, when reaching 
the region of the tree trunk from which the limbs grow, it will fly to anotht r 
tree dose by. Alighting near the base, it again begins iu upward climb. 

While the bird b well known to be an eater of insects and their eggs and 
UrvK, but little has been learned regarding just what insect food it most pre- 
fers. It b known, however, to eat ants, sawflies, ^ders, and, to some "vt..,.* 
the seeds of the scrub pine. 

Its usual cry b a fine chip or screePf the sound of which has often been likened 
to the call-notes of the Golden-crowned Kinglet. lu song has been heard in 
the firing and smnmer by some naturalista who have penetrated the forests 

(60) 




Brown Creeper 6i 

iti Msting-haunts. Porbwh describes this as "a sweet, wild, indncribable 
Wmkun Brewester, who studied the bird much in the nesdnf-seaaoo, 
has left oo record his tnpreasions of iu singing. In a bulletin of the Xuttall 
Ornithological Club, published b 1879, he wrote: "Though one of the sweetest 
that ever rises in the thickets of the northern forests, it is never a very ooospicu- 
• ni^ <w .rii;. This b due to the fact that the song is short and by no means power- 
lui. but its tones are so exquisitely pure and tender that I have never heard it 
without a desire to linger in the \icintty until it has been many times repeated. 
It comitU of a bar of four notes, the first of moderate pitch, the second lower 
and leas emphatic, the third rising again, and the last abruptly falling, but dy- 
ing away in an indescribable phuntive cadence like the soft sigh of the wind 
among the pine boughs. I can compare it to no other bird-\'oice that I have 
rver heard." 

The nest of the Brown Creeper u made of sticks, strips of baric, oobwriia, 
pbnt down, and other materials. It is sometimes placed in hoUow trees, but 
much more often the birds hide it between a strip of loose bark and the body 
of the tree or stump to which it still clings. 

In the .lifi^ magazine for .\pril, IQ05, appears this ■ s; account of a 

^arch made by Frederic H. Kennard for a Creeper's n^ . ... .-lassachusetts: 

"On May la, 1904, at about dusk, while Mr. Kennard was in the top of a 
red maple on the edge of a swamp in Canton, inq)ecting a Hair>' Woodpecker's 
nest, he heard the call-notes of a pair of Brown Creepers as the\' flitted through 
the woods behind him. He did not see the birds, mudi less follow them, but 
only was able to note the direction in which they apparently flew. 

"Two days bter. however, on May 14, after finding one nest in a swamp 
2 miles away, we determined to have a kx^ for this pair, which we gueased 
were probaMy breeding in a certain cedar swamp. The quest seemed nearly 
hopetesa, but we had an afternoon to spare, and waded in accord in i^y. 

"The water was deep, the trees were thick, and the swamp particularly dark, 
as it was ck>udy, while the leaves that were then bunting forth added very 
materially to our difficulties. However, after an hour, we at bst thought we 
heard one of the call-notes of the Creeper, a note that ckiaely rawmblti that 
soft call which Chickadees often utter when feeding and which diimiamewluu 
from the Creeper's ordinary Kingki-like call. After considanbfe a sn ich we 
finally discovered the Creeper, and the discovery seemed to be mutual, ibr he 
allowed us to liKht our pipes and sit down and watch him for about fifteen 
mmutcs, during which he never stirred until, apparently makiof op hk mind 
that we were hirmlesa, he mofved on. *The trees and boihca were so thkfc, and 
hi* movements to rapid, that it was fanposrihie to keep an eye on Urn all the 
lime, and we often had to content ooneivea with merely a general kka of hia 
whereabouts. When aU at once we rcnUaed that two birds had come upon the 
scene, our difficulties were doubled, eafch of us trying to watch one bfard, and 
often finding that we were watching the other's. pi»rt!ruLirK aftrr the male had 



6t Bird - Lore 

mind tUop op by foediiig the femak, whidi he did at intervals. However, 
one ci them finally flew to a hard pine stub, •oine lo feet from where one of us 
was standing, and disappeared beneath a long strip of bark about 6 feet abo\>e 
the water. 

"One of us dfanbed on the other's shoulders and pedung in, found that the 
nest contained six fresh egga> This nest could never have been dtv--*-"-' had 
it not been for the bird's Mndnras in leading us to it, as it was absoli. len 

behind a very large strip of baric, while the stub stood in the middle of a very 
thick tan^, so thick in fact that we were unable to photograph it, as we 
ODuld not do so without cutting away a lot of trees, shrubs, etc, and we had no 
hatchet" 

P. B. Philipp, iHio has made much &t u< i v ut ihe habits of the Brown Creeper, 
in a recent letter to the writer, made the following statement regarding some of 
his observations. 

"For anyone who u not afraid of welting his feet m tin iLC-waler frcshcis 
of early spring, a more or less intimate acquaintance with the Brown Creeper 
is not difficult. 

"At this season iiu> lanc feathered gleamer frequents wet woodland or 
bottom lands, which overflow and in which there are dead trees with loose- 
hanging bark. Such places are usually remote from human habitation and 
visited only by wandering muskrat hunters and hardy bird ob s e rv er s . 

"Here, in mid-April, when the maples are putting on their wpring dress of 
red Mo ee oros, and the skunk-cabbage is pushing its nose out of the muck, you 
will hear a thin, pfauntive song of three or four notes, different from any other 
bird in these solitudes. Careful watdi will disclose the source of the strange 
song, and you will see a small brown bird ckMely hugging the rough bark (rf some 
tree. A good way to find the bird is to watch the bases of the trees near where 
the song appears lo come, for the Creeper usually begins low down when it 
starts to climb. 

*'On account of the character m us naunts u is oucn passed by, anu n is 
much rommoner than it would appear to be from published records. Most 
of the birds we see in the vidnity of New York City are migrants on their way 
to the spruce and fir bogs of Canada. Some, however, stay with us to breed in 
favored pbces. Such a locality is a certain swamp near Newton, S.J. Here the 
bird b a regular breeder. The swamp is timbered with ash, elm, and maple, and 
has a heavy undei gi ow t h. Blany of the trees have been kiUed by repeated 
fkxMling, and the kwaened bark has cradced and qmmg outward from the trunks, 
making the nesting-places which this bird most frequently selects. A nest 
there found is typical It was |daced behind a piece of baric which had separated 
from the trunk sufficiently to peimit the passage of the bird, and quite a bit of 
engineering skill was employed in its construction. First there was built a 
founda t ion of dead twigs criss-croswd and interlaced with bits of dead wood 
and bark secured together with c o bw ebs and fine strips of pbuit-<lown, some 



i. 



Brown Creeper 63 



indiet deep And filling the wp&ot between tbe bark and the tree trunk. 
The lowermost twigs were UNtdied acroat the space and acted as braces for 
the material placed above them. On this foundatioo was built a tiny aq>ol fine 
dried grass, well matted together, lined with very fine fibers, and fine strips of 
inner bark as the shreds from dead cedars. This nest was placed in a dead 
maple tree three feet above the water in a very wet part of the swamp, and on 
May 3, 1913, contained five eggs, white, sparsely specked with light brown and 
amber. Sometimes the bird will lay six or seven in a nest. 

"The female of those pairs that I have watched, does the nest-building and 
is accompanied by the male while gathering and arranging material Bothbirds 
feed the young and are very tame and untwtyirious. One pair I found in 
northern New Bnmswidi unconcernedly visited the nest while observed from a 
disfanrr of ten or twdhre feet 

"Nesting in the latitude of New York City is early and the young hatch in 
iauMay. Whennewlyoutof the egg they are tiny creatures with a covering of 
bbcktih natal down. When grown and out of the nest they appear to stay with 
the old birds for a time, and I have seen whole families in late June creeping 
about the tree trunks in their characteristic way." 

The Brown Creeper breeds chiefly in Canada as Ur West as Manitoba and 
in United States as far South as Nd>raska and New Jersey; also along the 
Alleghany Mountains southward into North Carolina. This bird beloagi to 
the family CtrtkiUm or Creepers, of which about twelve distinct speciei are 
known. They are all confined to the Old World with the exception of the Brown 
which is found in North America. It is divided into five subspecies or 
wieties. It is migratory. At Washington, D. C, for eiimpir, it b 
known only as a winter visitant, arriving about September 21 and leaving about 
.May I. 







Cfje Hutmbon Societies 



Uh Ki 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

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laiaiw al It. f4 all aia wal ca a n - 

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S£? 



Foaa or Baopmar?— I do k«r«l>irj|i«a aad baqaaalli to tW Natioaal Aiiitiidia af AadabMi 
iaiiai for UwPaMKtfaa «l WB4 BMi aad ASiMb (laoatparatad). vt tk» Chy tt Na* Yait. 



OUR NATIONAL PARKS IN GREAT DANGER 



Few pco|<^ •'l-'^ 

rcaUic that • a i«*r 

years have sotight to gain acccaa to the 
National Parks have at laat broken throtigh 
the atrong cordon of protection hitherto 
thrown around the parks by Crmgwinasl 
action and public Mstiment. ThcMmlden 
mtttt be repeUed and our nineteen great 
National Parks held intact. 

Lbtcn to tUst At tbe last imion of 
ConfTcas a provision was inserted in tbe 
Water Power Bill, which turned over to 
three membert of the Prcsideot't Cabinet 
the authority to grant water-power con- 
cctatons in National Parks. Tkis Mt it 
••V « /«W Only two votes, therefore, are 
now required to admit tbe enemies of 
the wild paries to an orgy of dcstmction 
and desolation. 

THE RBPKAL BILL OP SBNATOK JONKS 

Vco' naturally this Cabinet Committee 
is being besieged by requests for permis- 
sion to enter the National Parks for tbe 
purpose of building dams, power-h o n s as. 
and otbcr constractioas for tbe ntflisntion 
of the water for power devdopmcat 
purposes. Two of these reqticsis have come 
from Los A ngel es n^cre fomifrrinl latar- 



lots .trc tcckiog to gain a(ir<k» into ttir 
Uautiiul Yosemitc National Park. 1 iiio 
portion of the Water Power Bill must, oi 
conrw, be repealed and it should be stated 
here that on I>eccmbcr 7, iQao, Senator 
Jones of the state of Washington intro- 
duced into the United States Senate a 
bin for the purpose. At the time of going 
to press this bill had not hern advanced. 
It goes without sasrir mc«'i 

with strong oppoeitioi> xyrd 

interests who would exploit tiic parkf 

THE DBSmtlCTtVB SMITH BILL 

On February 11, igio. Mr. Smith, uf 
Idaho, introduced a bill to permit tbr 
building of a dam in the FaUs River basin 
in the southwestern part of tbe YcUow- 
stOBC National Park, with a view of mak- 
ing a reservoir co\-ering 8,000 acres and 
then use the water (or irrigation purpose* 
across the park line in the state of Idaho. 
This measure was psmrd by the United 
States Senate, after a Committee hearing 
at which A. P. Davis. Chief of the Bureau 
of the Unite' Reclamation Service, 

stated that ^ known region wat 

largely swamp Uad and tbcreforc of Httlr 
or BO interest to tourists. Continuing 00 



(64) 



The Audubon Socieries 



•S 



, thk bin hM» been rrportwl 

ly by the Hoote Committee to 

it wm» tritmd, and it i% at thic time 

in tlie Howe for fauU action. 

taring the post tuuMT, WOUam C 

r meaber of tliia AModatioo, 

vnd bead e d an espeditkNi into 

tb« l-aU* iUvcr rcgioo. lUa ftadbga are 

M-t forth in aa article which a p peared io 

r 5«l«rrfey BMuimg F0St for November 

. loao. He ttatea tlut he found tlib 

xt not a territory ol twampa but a beauti- 

1 vplaad meadow traverved by streams 

led with fith, a territory in widch game 

Abundant, and a region tlut would afford 

ABtiful camping sites for at least lo.ooo 

irists. A few mile* of dirt road from the 

iM-r feyscr basin would open this new 

V to motor parties. He found along 

.-cs ol the badn no less than forty 

^llSf cascades, and hot springs, some 

h wonid be destroyed and the most 

<tJwn ren de r ed insccemtble should 

ihi* uasii^tly reservoir be created. This 

Smith Bm wmtt ht kUUiX 

THE NBW WALAH BILL 

Already other commercial interests are 

Kwking forward to repeating the benefit 

from the precedent they expect to be set 

V Congrem in passing this measure. 

Senator Walsh, ol Montana, has iatro- 

doesd In tha Senate a bQl to dam the 

Yellowstone River where It fk>ws out of 

the YeOowstone Lake. The idea b to 

M-rumulate water hare during the flood 

A«oo and let it off later for irrigation pur- 

{MMSs in Montana. Of oowsc, dams ooold 

be built on tlUs river oiMsidc the Park, b«t 

this would mean the flooding of private 

lands that woold have to be paid for. 

H the dnm can be bdit InMe the park 

Bo private sipinss wonid ba attached te 

•- flooded lands, hence from the stand- 

lat of that daas of ovr dtlaeaa who are 

lUng to destroy anything of interest or 

nthotic beamy U monay can be 

thereby, all theee proportions 

eoaaenily worth while, and llMir ooaMMi- 

maiion i». by them, to be dovonUjT hoped 

The National AmnrJalinn of Anduhon 



Societies, the National Parks Association, 
the National Civic Aaaociatioo, and soose 
other public-epirlted InstHntions, aa well 
as nmny thousands of vnorfaniaed in- 
dividuals, do not see the sobjcct in this 
monetary light. This Association b fight- 
ing these park propoaitioos as hard as it 
can. We have recently made a call among 
our BMmbers and others for funds to vse 
in arousing the public to the imadaent 
danger that threatens our National Parks. 
About $4,000 have been collected to date, 
and thb money b being used in circulars 
pnbUdty. traveling expenses of speakers, 
and such other items as incidentally arise 
in connection with the campaign. 

I have referred above to three di*«fwft 
bilb pending in our United Sutes Owgress. 
It wiU help matters very materially if our 
membe rs write to their Senators and Con- 
gressmen and eiprew their hope, first, 
that the bill of Senator Jones, intended to 
take out of the Water Power Bill, the words 
"National Parks and National Monu- 
ments" will become a law. Second, that 
the bill by Congressman Smith of Idaho, 
intending to build a reservoir in the south- 
western part of the YeUow»tone Park, 
and which bill b now pending in the House 
of Representatives, shall be repenlad; and 
third, that the Wabh Senate bill, to dam 
Ydlowstonc River, shall be defeated. We 
are told, on what we believe to be co m 
peteat authority, that there are no lasa 
than a doacn tplmdid dam sites in the 
YeOowstone Park. and. if commarrisi 
interests are allowed to use one of tbaea, a 
procadant wHI be set for a vast disflgwa* 
tioo and da^Milatlon of Aamrlca's grsatast 
imtttral baaaty area. 

Anyone interested in the pm siia l ton 
of the wild antwal baantiaa of AmarW 
choicost spote bdndad in National Parks, 
or who cares for the p r e ser v ati o n of the 
wad lUe within their boundaries, shoold by 
sn means mminnlrsts their TJnn Tn thsJr 
TMa As sodn 
of flihting swh delrf- 
— its! antlafs eaespl by tha wsa p en of 
pnhllc f timsnt, and pnhUc iinrimMt 
liisly MprMMd te Wsihlmna always has 
llasfact. 




66 



Bird • Lore 



MOVING PICTURES NOW AVAILABLE FOR 
FLORIDA AUDIENCES 



NoraMM McCUatock, Um wcU-kaowa 
MUore pkoCoffraplMr, tt Pbtabvfgk, wfD 
bt avaikbk for mu v\ M% p k lit lactww ia 
FloffdA duriag Um aeatk* of Fcbnury 
and llarcJi. Hb MldiCMC* wUl be fully 
tDattratod with reowrkably beautiful aad 
laUrcctiag moviaf pictures of Florida bird* 
lilt. Hi* coHoctfcwi of tbcM subjocu was 
vorr WKb oaikhed by Uo ttudko at tbc 
Attodatka't proloctod Bona aad Efret 



coloay in Oraage Lake <: 
nuuaer. Aay meaUwrt or 
AModatioQ wbo are •pcadiof ihc wtnd; 
la Florida aad wbo would like to niAke IcxaI 
arrkagcoMats (or bavlag tbc pictures 
tbowa are iavitcd to ooaimuaicate witb thr 
boBie ofioe of tbe Aaiodatka at 1974 
Broadway, New York* or directly with 
Nonaaa llcCUatock, 504 Ambervoe Ave , 
Pltttburgk. 



ILLEGAL TO GIVE CHILDREN AIR-GUNS 



We to often tee air-fuas ia tbe haadt of 
cUldrco that it b tboufbt wise to bring 
brfotc the attcntioa of our readers tbr (act 
tbat there is a provirioa in tbe Penal 
Code of tbe State of New York, that makes 
It lUcgal to give aa alr-fua to aay person 
oadrr the age of sisteea years. It b abo 
IDsgtl for aay peraoa under the age of 
rfstaea to carry or bave ia p osi essi o a sucb 
air-fUB. 

"StcnoK i8q6— L. igtj cb. 608. 

"A person wbo manufactures, or causes 
to be maanacturcd. or sdb or keeps (or 
sale, or offers, or gives, or dispos es of any 
lastnuBsat or waapoa of tbe kiad usually 
kaowa as a black-jack, sluagsbot, UDy, 
saaddub, sandbag, Uudgeoa, or BMtal 



kauckles, to aay pcrMn; «f a #«rfM »A« 
0f«r$, iMm, iMMf. tmsa, «r GIVES an% 
gun, revolver, pistol or other fire-a- 
««7 aif-imm, »pring-fun or othrr i- 
meat or weapoa ia ^^ 
force is a spriag or a 
or weapon commonly Known &« a my 
pistol or in or upon wbicb aay loaded or 
blaak cartridges are used, or may be useri 
or aay loaded or blaak cartridges < 
ammuaitioa tberdor to aay •crrMi mmd*' 
tk» ft of sitUtm y *t n , ia f auly of a mis- 



"SBcnoM 1897- ' h. 608. 

"Any person age o( sixteen 

years, who shall n«ve in bb posscssioo, 
aay o( tbe articles aamed or dascribad in 
tbe last section, which b forbidden tho'-^" 
to offer, sell, loan, lease or pive to 
«hall h« ruiliv of iuvenile delinquen' 



FOR A UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
CONSERVATION 



Oa Doc— bar 8, 1990, Coogressama 
McDufy, of Alabama, introduced in tbe 
Boast of Rtprescatativcs a bill ia t eaded 
to ciaala a atw Cabiatt ottotr to be 
kaowa as 'Secretary of ConttnraUoo.' 
Tht bin anaags* for tbc usual omcUatry 
lor tht crtatiag of a atw dcpartastat of 
Govanuatat, aad provide s that thb de- 
parfsat shall bave jnrlMttcCkMi over the 
Fotatt Service, aad Bursa* of B i ologi ca l 
Surrey, aow uadar tht Jurisdictioo of the 
Dtpartastat of Agriculture; abo tht 
Cttlogical Survey aad the Natioaal Parks 
Strvfca, aow uadtr tht juriMttcdoo of tht 
; of latariar, aad tht Banaa tl 



FIsbtrits, aow uadtr tbe jurisdiction of thr 
Department of Commerce. 

The bill also provides for tbe creation of 
a new bureau to be known as tbc 'Burrau 
of Birds aad Game/ Tbe Department 
b to be supplied with a legal ofBce in 
durge of a sottcilor. Tht datits and 
authorities of tbe pr opo s e d Dcpartaseot of 
Cooser\ation are abo set forth In detail 

Prominent amoag the spoasors for th< 
biU b Hon. John H. Wallace, Jr.. of Ala- 
baam who for many years has been active 
aad taergctic as Sute Gaaie Warden of 
that PAn ifH*io w ai lth. 




The Audubon Societies 



KILLING DUCKS BY AEROPLANE 



*7 



\ few werk* mfrt. the P«,thc weekly ncw» 

'tottM» all over the 

• k-httot by »it*>- 

l>liinc. Id ibe pirturc iwo or three plane* 

««>x>|)ed over ihe majslic* and when the 

i.% aroae in rlonds the plaaca daahcd 

' * ^rm. it was «uy to tee that naoy 

d by Mrikiag against the wires 

' ' ' nuuhinea. The picture 

kcnt that It iscktimated 

tk* were killed that day in this 

this the PrcaidcBt of 

. . ured a copy ol the film 

wn to a number of interested 

* rr hall of the Americap 

1 1 History, New York 

•ok up the matter with 

.cy, for to take Ducks 

lie* is illegal under the 

Dr. E. W. Ncboo. the 

f, replied that the subject 

.. ..nder investigation, and that 

its were on the ground seeking to 
-rhend thcac violators of the law. 
(Jaint at the same time was mnde to 



the California State Board of Fish and 
(iame Cummissioners, and the Kiccutive 
Officer of the Commissioner, Charles A. 
Vogelsang, replied that he sent a warden 
to investigate but was unable to get 
e%'idence that any Ducks were killed by 
gun-6re from the planes, therefore no 
action was brought by the state authori- 
ties. We arc <itiU hoping for action by the 
Federal (•ovrrnment. 

In the January number ol P0ptUmr 
yrtkamUi there appeared an ektended 
article, with many illustrations, telling of 
this and similar big hunts carried on in the 
rice-fields in the Sacramento Valley, by 
aviators who it seems are employed by 
rice-growers to keep the Ducks frightened 
from the fields. The writer tcUs of going 
on one of these trips and how he was con- 
stantly spattered with the blood of Ducks 
killed by the propellers of airoplan^v It 
is a gruesome story apd among other 
things well illustrates the point that there 
is still vast need for Audubon Society work 
in thb be l ored country of ours. 



INDIANA AUDUBON SOCIETY 



\V • have had a very enellent year and 

a marked increase in public interest 

ir.i prr.tr. Ti ,n Our ScKiety has been 

■ n:r:.\ , ! iving establikhed a num- 

1 sanctuaries through- 

tn cooperation with the 

nacrvation CoBUBiMiaa, has had 

(•lie park and state rcMrvation 

! into a hint sanctuary where 

" *"t*plicdin wi"«-» -"•• "—i;"- 

spring. 

r annual mrr' 
May ao-a«. » 



ner 

tntrrcst were thomuKhK 
ounv Kri,.( .1 

In « 



meeting addrrMetl ... k.. n....! 
Director of the (*unM-rvation Con 
of the »tatr »i Indians, on 'Bi^' 
tion.' afui \\\%% Kou%»ou M 
'Bir. 
() 
ind* •> our new Sta' na- 

tion -<4on. whose a ' in 

enforcing the laws has done much to call 
*"""'"n to the in^M>rt«nce and economic 
of coMcnring our Mrdlife. We 
. <M.|M-raie witk tkt CoiBibiinn in every 
way poMiMe. mm! «• are tncounigcd 
to hope that hdoee long tiM Conunltalon 
will secure the a an ricea ol a trained omi 
tkologist to tupcnrlM MnJ fo— enrallini 
wiirk in the state. Our Society vaa never 
■r enthusiaatlc or active and wt are 
..^.ktng forward to a matk sm-"-'"* 
year.— PnAMg C. Rvant. StttHtt 



68 



Bird - Lore 



REPORT OP THE POREST HILLS GARDENS (N. Y.) 
AUDUBON SOCIETY 



Tbc two ouUUading thinf* sccom 
pIblMd by our locml Audubon Soddy th 
last 3r«tr arc: FifM.achaaicrin thrfonnol 
govcrnaMnt, and mbcoimI morr rinpha*b 
upoa the Junior activitk*. The work U 
■ow done through committee* appointed 
by the proidant instead of by a board oC 
truster*. The main advantafe b that the 
(liflrrrnt (ommtUec» meet a* often at i» 
Dfccmary in amall groupa aad there b a 
qdcfcer and more eftdeat tranaactioo of 
buttnem. The name* of the comakittcea 
are: Publicity. Field and Edttcatioaal 
Work. School and Juaior Work« ami Bird 
Eaemifa. The ofioer* of the Society are: 
Prarident, Mn. George Smart; Vice- 
Prettdent, Un. I. A. Waahbume; Secretary 
ami Trcaaurer, Mim M. R. Kne>-et». 

A cooteat held in the ncboob to deter- 
mine how much the children knew about 
local bifda tbowed more need of education. 



(U(C 4l I .. 

to the (iar' 

groups of I 

•ng picturr> . 

the age and con 

Thbtametr ■- 

Kew-Fore>' 

on with 1^ 

pounds of 

in the earl> »i>riug when Ut< 

much harm to the miKratnn- 

future work would *■ in the ui 

fication of all the L;:.. ,.. ...live »cli\ 

tics on Long Island ao that the park 

cemeteries and golf-links might form 

chain of natural preserve* extending i^ 

length of t' Maiv Eastwo< 

Knbvkls, 



THE BURROUGH'S AUDUBON NATURE CLUB OP 
ROCHESTER. NEW YORK 



The past year ha* been the most 
prosperous in the history of the Club. 
During the winter indoor meetings were 
held in Reynolds Library, and consider- 
able interest was manifested in the 
illustrated bird-talks given by our presi- 
dent, William B. Hoot. The climax o( 
interest aad attcadaace was reached when 
the bird-hikes begaa in May. The laat one 
was attended by nearly one hundred 
members and friends. During past years 
no Ukes were held in July and Augu»i. 
Thb year by unanimous request of 
members two were held each month from 
May to October iadarive. About lao 
species of birds were acca and identified. 

C oa ^t lyla g with the reqacat from the 
Natioaal AmodatJoa, copies of a protest 
agaiast the awaaure known as the Smith 
Bill, intended to turn over a large tract of 
YcUowatoae National Park for a rmervoir, 
were circniated aad aigacd by everyoae 
present. The oopica were thea sent to 



our Senator and Representatives in Con- j 
gress. I 

Membership day was celebrated October! 
as. It was for members only and all whM 
attended had to have their membersUH 
card. Thb resulted in l>' 
a large number of new nv 
pajrment of dues by old 
chartered and about seven - . 
went to Canandaigua and enj<> 
most delightful walk through th' 
dotts and interesting grounds at S 
berg. Thbfall.Audubonbird ' 
donated to several of the rii 
and it was very gratifying to v 
interest and enthusiaam the , 
teachers accepted theos. In r»ch 
nearly every chUd manifested a 6c- 
become a member of the Junior Audub< 
Sodety. In one school the pupils a- 
saving their pennies to buy a bird-fount.i: 
neat spring. — llAam f, v >.. 
Imy. 



The AuduboQ Societies 



N«w Lit* ll«aibw« Enrolled Irom 
October 20. 19ao to January 1. 1921 

Au. 

B.1 f^M 



Br 

C'41 

Ch.: ■ . ! i 

F" ■. ■ 

F. 

hi' 

K 

<•• - - . '- . J- 

(itxitinr, \\ . A . Jr 

<'rcftic, Wro. C". 

HarknrM. Mn W. L. 

lUvnr.. WiHi«m I)«F 

H 

H ^ k. 

H 

H telle dc rcvstcr 

jcii;.i:.^^. M:. Walter 

Uw, Mrs. Robert. Jr. 

I,ee. Charter N. 



I - 

N! 

N! 

M 

y. 

\Nir. 



K. 

!** Catharine M. 



n A. 
. .Isworth 
MiM Maria L. C 
Henr>'. N . Jr 



New Suautmnc Members Enrolled Irom 
October 20. 1920 to January 1. 1931 



\n:..i 
li... .. 

I; 
I. 



Miv« Marian II 
< .rl F. 



»l«r 

ulu 
M. 



Blaine. Cmrtr Raasett 

Bin 

BL 

Blaynry, »\ . > »V 

Blisa. Arthur K. 

Boit, Mrt John K. 

Boafib. F. G. 

Bontir<k. Mr, II. P. 

B.. 

B« 

Br 

Br 

Brcx>k>, r rc«i i.. 

Brown, Kmest B. 

Buckley. B. Lord 

Burdett. Mrs. W. W. 

Burhom, Edwin 

Burr It Burton Seminary 

Butler. Mr. and Mrs. Edward II 

Cady, John I > 

Oildwell, C A 

Callaway. Fuller K. 

Candlin, Asa G. 

Capen. WaUace C 

Capron. C. Day 

C*r«i W II 

Ca \ 

Cai r M. 

OuToU, Mr*. John F. 

Cfttchingt. Master Waddill. Jr 

Chadsey. MtaaE* ' ' 

Chambcrt, W. L. 

Chapin. S. B. 

Chapman, Mia* Nancy 

ChAM-. Arthur Taft 

lU, .\ufu*' 

;ihrr«rn, I 



1 K, i AmDrt»»e 

I iTK. . jamM King 

( It^tund, Dr. Ctemcat 

« obb, KdwardF. 

» «>ffin, Kr»nci» .A. 

( Mil. . Mr» Jr.»ntftr 

« .MK.xrr. H K 

Cook. Amsel G. 

Cordier. I>r. A. H. 

CorMM. H. C. 

Crawford. Mrs. LA. 

Crimmlaa, Mrs. Thomas 

('u«hniaa, B. A. 

Culler. Mr and Mr». K 

Ilavitl 

l>a\H». 

I ir ( .tmi». Mtv \ 

1>. !f. Mrs, Andf^ 

l>oane, Merritt H«>»aru 

t>orman. Mr* Franklin W 

Drostea. Mr*. F. W. 

Durr. II. E. 

E«r1e, Samuel L. 

^USdy. Bartlett 

FlUworth. John S. 

Faust. Oaretice 



Bird - Lore 



Hdd. w I. w. 

FNhrr. Kotwrt I. 






. )i 
Unwell. Arthur S. 
latrh. Rnyd 
f ■ ' "^ard, Jr. 
i ntftloa 

1-.,. '^•■•f 

Uwl 



rli. H 



' larjoric Ruth 

Kuhik. .\(il)u( k. 
.AiiKhlin Mr* Alrttandrr 



ihr) 



• I l»« l*llA4il 



l*rm< 

Rra. V 

I 

K 

KoUt. 

SaiUHi 

Savaic 

ScOcr- 

Shefwnl. MiM EaOy K. 

Shepherd. TfioniA« *(iiiiri>r 
Shoen 

SiMprr 

Smith. ritr 

Smith, .Mf> I. I .!«it, 
Smith, Mrs. Hir.i \ 
Smith. N. (J. 
Snow, MiM ('. I.. 

s..n„-rL.. Th..r^al,l 



<. .Vrtliur Aikil Miifjurir 
ir. I»r KrmnH* P. 



I'owen, Walter C. 



rrAiiii 






!•■ 




Turin 

riiiiit 


M 




rti.lrr 


X < H > 
'•< t. 








\.n. « 


w 


.If 




Vii..d. 
\. 

W 

\-. 
\\ 

w 
w 








. I 




v. 

\\. 

W.l.l... 

W.I v.. I. 


w 

. 1 > 

. M 




\ : 
ii 











! M I t SPRING 

YElXnW4CAOED Bl ATKBIRD. ADt 1? m M i 
^111 ( )U J a- Ain (-> lu \f Kitiun I t vi>i I 




2?irti=ltorc 

A Bt-MONIHLY MAOAZINB 

DBVOTftO TO THB tTUDY AND PBOTBCTION OF ttUUM 

Orwoiaii O — ■ 99 Tmc Aw w h ••eimcs 



VoL XXIII March— April. 1921 No. 2 



Winter Bird Life in Los Angeles 

By HARKIBTT WIIXXAMS MYBRS 

B«cr«tary Caiilenria Aa4abea Sodatjr. Cbatrflwn Birte. O. F. W. C 

Whk Fkotogfrnpht by tk« Antker 

NEVER in my twenty-one years* residence in Los Angeles have I had 
so many birds in my garden so early in the fall as in the year 1919. 
We are in the habit of having the Gambd Sparrows (a subspecies 
of the White-crowned) arrive not Uter than September 26, to have Ruby- 
arowned K inflicts, Audubon Warblers, Alaska Hermit Thrushes foUofW toon 
after. ^ brought a series of delightful surprises for the bird-lover. 

Our rains came earlier than usual, and during November the Sierra 

Madre Mountain range was covered with snow, an almost unheard-of condition 
at this time of year. In September a most diastrous fire raged for several weeks 
on portions of this same range, driving into the valley many <4 the small 
animals and birds. But whether or not thb fire, or the early cold, or the fact 
that there were fewer pine cones and acorns in the mountains than usual 
had anything to do with the unusual visitors that seemed fairly common, I 
would not xTnture to say. Syffice it that a more delightful fall and winter for 
the bifd-lovrr could scarcely be imagined. 

I usually have Cedar Wazwings in my garden during the winter and early 
spring months, when they come to eat the berries from the big pqiper trees* 
six of V our garden. These charming birds go about in flodcs, which 

areusu^ . . ing together in a compact fonn, their long-drawn-ottt notes, 

which always remind me of si|jihig wind, annminring thdr pres en c e as, still 
in dose fomuition, they light in the trees. They are extremdy fond of pepper 
ber ries and have an interesting habit hi conncctioo with the eating of them. 
These berries have hard centers which the birds cannot digest, so when they 
have caica their fill of them and, I suppose, the digeitibh outer portkm has 
been asiimQatcd, they fly into some other tree, the eocalyptai beiaf a favorite, 
and there disgorge these bmer pellets, which fall onto the ground below like 
falling rain. In my own yard, beneath these eucalypcus trees, kife patches of 
t>rt>i>rr trrnt have spruAf Up snd the uninfomicd ralfdit wcmder how they got 



7t 



Bird • Lore 



there. When thete eucml>ptuft trees grow along a roadway, or beside a cement 
walk, the renains d the red berries are most abundant and a cause of surprise 
to one who cannot ''read a roadside as he reads a book." 

This year I was anuued to find my yard full of Waxwings the first of 
October, and they were reported to have been seen hi September, a most 
unusual occurrence. On October 24 a Robin called in the yard. I thought that 
I had heard one eariier in the month, but by the end of October the yard was 

full of these big, jolly birds, and 
some of them were smgmg their 
'really, truly/ song as well as the 
familiar *wkfal wkeal,' *lia-tm tut 
call-notes. Last year was the iir i 
time that I had heard, oonmonly, 
that wonderfully dear, liquid song 
which, so far as my reooOection 
goes, b just like that of the eastern 
bird, and brings fond memories of 
a childhood iHien Robins nested 
familiarly in the garden and dug 
worms from the lawn. 

These birds are also fond of 
pepper berries, gathering them from 
the trees and from those fallen on 
the ground. They also disgorge the 
hard inner pellet as, I doubt not, 
all birds do that eat them. The^e 
spicy little berries seem to create 
in the Robins a great thirst, so 
that my bird drtnking-plates are 
freely patronized and cixxn the 
pellets are deposited there. Some- 
times four big Robins are on one small dish at once, and one day I saw a Cedar 
Wazwing drde dangerously near the head of a Robin as it tried to find a 
resting-plaoe. The larger bird resented the Waxwing's presence and nuule 
faces at it in a most undignified way, but nevertheless the Waxwing dis- 
regarded the Robin's protest and, lighting on the dish, helped himself to 
water. I regretted that my camera was not set up in time to catch this 
attractive picture. 

On November 9 a busy little Mountain Chickadee was seen foraging in a 
fruit tree in the garden. Some days before I had heard a call which I thought 
mi|^t be that of this little stranger, hut as it came from high up in the tree- 
tops and I felt might be that of the Plain Titmouse, I gave it little heed. Only 
once before have I had these mountain-k>ving birds in my yard and that was 




WESTBKN KOSINS 




Vinter Bird Life in Los Angeles 



7J 






about two years ago. in January or February, when one of them stayed about 
for two or ihrre weeks; so one may imagine my delight on seeing this little 

tor. 

On Novemlier la, a Crested Jay, dweller of the mountains, was seen in the 
vallc}' not far from my home. California Jays we have in abundance, but these 
beautiful, high-crested birds ordinarily prefer the high mountains. 

Wren-Tits, those distinctively western birds that usually live on the brudi- 
covered hillsides or wooded caAons, are constant visitors this winter and their 
peculiar clear whistles are often heard. Plain Titmice, thoee dainty crested 
midgets; California Bush-Tits, a tiny western spedes; Alaska Hermit Thrwhes, 
Ruby -crowned Kinglets, Audubon Warblers, Dusky Warblers, White-crowned 
Sparrows, Spurred Towhees, such common birds as Black Phcebes, Linnets, 




iially a stray 
f this wptdn 
'^inpoaitioB 



BLACK ruasE 

Song Sparrows, Towhees, Anna's Hummingbirds, Blackbii Green- 

backed Goldfindies are about in abundance. 

One surprise of November 25 was the appen ' 

male Phainopepla. These beautiful black-crest. 

that, for the most part, are gone by August, alt) 

is report r' - -Sc winter time. On December s 

alsovi^i; anl ami drank from a bird-bat) 

but the light was not strong eaou^ for a good picture. On December 9 the 

male was about again, and all through December he has been here. As I write 

this (December aj) he b still with me and I am hoping to get a p ho t ograph of 

him at my bath. These birds are alio food d pepper berries. 

Perhaps the greatest surpriie of the season was on November 19 iHien, on 
casually ^andng out of the window, I mw a mall dark bird wboee big white 
coUar stood out against the dark background and made Um comp ku o u s whara 
otherwise he blended into the tree. He was resting, head downward as im- 
movable as though dead, and in this poeitioo he remained for fully f^vt mtmitcs 



Bird - Lore 



without ttirring. Wha I opened the porch door and stepped out he only hitched 
hes Away. Quite evidently he did not mind mankind. A loud *yomi, 
'lib' from a neighboring tree proclaimed that he was not akme and con- 
firmed my belief that I was looking at a Slender-billed Nuthatch, western 
repffCicntmtivc of the WUte-bceasted Nuthatch. He finally climbed about on 
the tree, in i pectin g crevices before he flew away. His cousin, the Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, has also been rq>orted in the valley 

Cahfomia Purple Fmchesare in my yard earUer than usual this year. They 
fonge mostly on the ground, also eating the pepper berries fallen there. Later 
in the season they are fond of fruit buds and some complaint has come because 
of Uus habit. I notice, however, in my own yard, that I have plenty of fruit 
after they have feasted in my blossoming trees. Perhaps it a onlv msecu i hat 
they molest. At any rate, I always welcome them in my garden 

Varied Thrushes, large cousins oi the Robins, have been seen this winter 
in the valley, as has also that gorgeous creature, the Red-breasted Sapsuckcr. 
As yet, these two birds have not visited my garden when I have been at home 
to receive them, but as about eighty species of California birds have done so 
at some time of the year, I shall live in hopes that they will not pass me by when 
they are making their southern calls, but will show my garden the same con- 
sideration that so many other Inrds have shown. 







The Bird-House for Purple Martins 

By THOMAS U McCOnNBLL. McKMcport. Pa. 

THE probleiii ol dfnigning a good house for a cokmy of Purple Martins 
is simply a matter of attending to many little detaik. When a Martin- 
box it deserted after two or three years the cause is apt to be one of the 
following: I m prope rl y designed house, uninviting situation, soda as too near 
or under trees, or too dose to a fence or building, a poorly selected pole, the 
Sparrows may have been allowed to take posse Minn of the quarters, the small 
boys may be persecuting the birds, or the place may not be cheerful. 

The bird-house should have at least ten separate rooms, for the sociable 
Martins love to li>*e in colonies and small colonies suffer mudi from the Eaf^irii 
Sparrow. Make the rooms about 6 inches wide by 8 indies deep by 8 indws 
high. There is really no exact size n ecessa ry. For instance, one authority 
suggesu s or 6 inches wide and of similar he^t and 8 or 9 indies deep, the 
long rooms being favored so that the Screech Old cannot reach the nests. 
Another writer recommends nxnns 8 indies wide by 8 indiea deep by 6 indies 
high. 

The doors may be 3j< inches wide by 3 indies high, induding a lyi inch 
radius arch at the top, or round holes 2K inches in diameter. A round hxAt 
or arched hole should be made 'bulging* or become wider towards the center ol 
the box. "Even so small a change as boring a bulging h(^ in a box, instead of 
a straight one, and be\'eling the lower edge of the entrance hole, increased the 
occupanc>' of the boxes in the Beriepsdi woods from 50 to go per cent." It is 
better ne>er to use a square hole and tHien one is cut, by all means round 
off the top into an arch. Birds seem really to prefer a round hole. 

Two of the large, successful Martin colonies in McKeesport dwell in houses 
with eadi room having two circular entrances about i}4 inches in diameter 
placed about i inch apart. This seems an excdknt idea and the writer has 
noticed that the old birds, when feeding their young, use both holes and dart 
in and out with less confusion and faitcrference than when only one opcniBg 
b provided. These entrances should be on the same side of the room and never 
00 different sidn, as this leads to fighting among the old birds and tpdk 
disaster to their eggs and young. 

Porches, about a to a^ inches wide must be provided in front of the doors 
for the coQvenienoe of the old birds when feeding their nffstHngi aad for the 
young when they are ready to learn toffy. If thcrearenopoidMinnByyoaag 
birds fall to the ground and are lost. When a nestling unable to fty drops to 
the ground it must be replaced 00 the box because the parents new fead their 
young on the ground and, nwraover, cau are usually 00 the lookout forwdi 
accidents. By a suitable and artistk selectioo of povches the houn may be 
made a struaure of beauty and gnca. 

No ventilation b necessary beskka tha flBtmaoe holes and all rooms should 

'75) 



76 Bird • Loro 

be MfMuate and drmft-pioof. Usually the door-sill is the floor line, although 
BMiiy authorities advocate nMag the sill about yi inch above the floor and 
pofcb levds, which pravenu rain water from flooding the rooms. No wind- 
wheds, flagpoles, U^tninf-rods or other fantastic applhmrrs should be fast- 
ened lo the house. This point b often raised by beginners. A blind dumney or 
two nay be built 00 to the roof for the sake of bcwity and symmetry, and 
bcaidct a chimney makes the house more cosy and homelike. 

The house should be substantially built of K- ' ' P>nc or other wood 

so as to withstand the weather. It should be pau tc because white is 

the coolest color. During the hot weather the young birds suffer much from 
the intcnie heat of the sun. The writer usually paints the roof a darker color, 
oftan tome shade of green, never red. Avoid a red color because all birds in- 
stinctively shun a red bird-box. 

The hei^t of the box above the ground should be from 1 ^ to 16 feet, never 
less, although the author knew of one old established colony living in a house 
only 7 feet from the ground. The box should not be fastened to the pole with 
btaduts, but with ani^ irons, and vines should iiot be grown around the ; 
lor the birds are afraid of cats climbing the pole — a cat-proof pole is absol 
caential. 

To curb the English Sparrow, take down the house or i !•>•<• all the o|)cnings 
after the Martins are gone. Either method is effective. In Hikd-I^irk, January, 
IQ14, the author covered many other points in his article, 'Notes on Ho%- To 
Start a Colony of Purple Martins.' 

A few years ago the writer studied a handsome ten-room bird-house idiich 
the Martins would not inhabit after four or five years of trial and belie\'ed that 
the box may have been improperiy designed. He bou^t this box and ' 
openings to measure 2 indies square. This is rather too small for th< 
to enter easily and carry in nesting material. The entrances were enlarged by 
cutting a semi-drcular arch over the doorways, making the new height 3 inches. 
Last year this box was erected at the Youghiof^ieny Country Oub near Mc- 
Kaesport and about three pairs of Martins immediatdy occupied the pretty 
residence. 

Few people realiie how permanent a Bfartin ookmy may be. McKeesport 
has one colony over thirty years old and still as thriving as ever and there had 
been one within too feet of this one for over forty years previous, wh' 
us back well before the advent of the English Sptirrow. The writer { 
first Martin-box about twenty five years ago at Kittanning and the successful 
colony still flourishes. Since then he has started many cokmies at other places. 
His last effort at his present home in McKeesport has been unsuccessful and 
every scheme and de^^ was used in vain. The birds seemed to come and stay 
a few days and then leave. The house was the klentkal one that the Martins 
k>ved at his former residence only six or ei^tblodu distant. Finally one spring 
day, upon coming home, he caught one of the neighbor's boys stoning a Martin 




The Bird House for Purple Martins 



77 



the box. This solved the inyster>' and tUustrmtes one reason why a Martin- 
may not be inhabited. 

Referring to the selection of a cheerful spot for the prospective Martin- 
home, one can say nothing better than to quote the words of Mr. C. W. Parker 
(In tkf Open, April, iqi8): "Place your Martin-house in the moat cheerful 
and prominent place to be found, in the brightest sun, away from all trees, and 
where people pass most. . . . The main requisite is that you have a cheerful 
location, which b perhaps best described by the two words, 'pleasantly 
situated.'" 




( t.S HERON* AND NtST 



The Migration of North American Birds 

BBCONO SERIKS 

XV. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD 

AND MBADOWLARKS 

CompiUd hv Harry C. Ob«rboU«r. Chiefly Iron) Data in the Biolocical Survey 

YBLLOW.HBADBD BLACKBIRD 

Thb beautiful bird is distinctly an inhabitant of the West, for it occurs but 
casually in casteni North America. The breeding range of the Yellow-headed 
Blackbird (XmUkoeepkalms xmiihoupkaim) reaches north to northern Manitoba, 
northern Saskatchewan, southwestern Markeniie, and central British Col- 
umbia; west to southwestern British Cohnnbta and western California; south 
to southern California, southern Ariaona, the Sutes of Jalisco, Michoacan, 
and Menoo, b Mexico; and east to the valley of Mexico, western Texas, east- 
em Kanms, central Missouri, eastern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, eastern 
Wwcataaoit and central Manitoba. It winters north -to southern California. 
southern Ariaona, southern Texas, and southwestern Louisiana; south to the 
States of Puebia, Michoacan, and Jalisco, Mexico. It is of casual occurrence 
east to Maine, Connecticut, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Florida; and 
accidental in Alaska, Greenland, Quebec, as well as in the islands of Cuba and 
Barfaadoa in the West Indies. 

SPRING MIGRATION 



LOCALITY 


NwBber 

•f jrwts' 

tmm4 


Avanaidateol 
■pdac Arrival 


•prtef airival 


CUUicothe. Mo. 


i 


Mar<h i6 


Mardi 14, 1914 


Ckkifo. lU 

Siovx City, Iowa 


7 


May .• 


April 10. 1892 




April to 


April J, 1887 


Wan Lake. Iowa 




April 19 


April 14, 1907 
March aj, 190a 


MsdiMw. Wb. 




April 35 


HcroB Lake, Mina. 




jR^y'." 


April 10, 1887 


MiaacapoUs, Mian. 




April 31, 1917 


Sl Vincent, Mian 




Maya 


April 35, 1896 


San Antook), Texa^ 




April 16 


April tj, 1885 
April It, 1870 


GainciTaic, Tcsa* 




April >i 


Wichita, Kan*.. 




April 17 


April 5. «9»7 


Oaaga, Kaaa.. . . 




April 14 


April li. 1898 


Syraauc, Ndi.. . 
S(oasFsila,S.D 




April 19 
Ai>ril a 7 
Mays 


Aprtj, 1904 
April 17, 1910 


Kapid aty. S. D 
Afgnsvillc. N. D. 
Awcne, Maaitotia 




April 36, 1905 




Maya 


April 19, 1884 




April 30 
May a 


April 13, 1897 


Reabora. Manitoba 




April 34, 1897 


FL oKemn. Alberu 




April JO 


April 6, 191 J 
May S4, 1901 
April to. 1917 
March 30, 1907 


D«faafo,Colo 


4 


April a 7 


DcBvar, Colo 




April 14 


Rnpcrt, Idaho 




April 16 

Mayo 

May! I 


April 6. toia 
May 5, 1899 


Terry, MonUna 




Gremt Falls. Mont 




May 6, IQI3 


Flac»Uir, Alberta 




Apr • 


\- • ' 16. 1915 


Modesto, Calif . 




.K\y.. 


. 1, 1908 


Malhevr Lake, Orcg 




Apni 21 

May 16 1 


Apni 1. 1915 
May 14. 1914 


Okaaagaa Landing. B, C 





(7t) 




The Migration of North American Birds 

SPRING MIGRATION. 



79 



1 LOCAUJV 


NMbW 

ofjrMn' 

fwoea 


Avwaai 4bI« tt 
l-t oat abnrn< 




Saa Aatoaio, Ten« 
Oaaga. Kaaa... 
Svraciue, Neb.. . . 


4 
14 
lO 


May ai 
May .9 
May to 


May as, 1885 
Iune 3. 1893 
May 16. 1895 





Florida 
Auxiuta. Ga. 

Chester. S. C 

Ruckhannun, W. Va 
Washington. Ii (' 
Baltimore. M<1 ncir 

Krif. I'l :n-.kr 
All I'a 



PALL MIGRATION 



LOCALITV 


Nsabw 

•Ijrcan' 

fwoH 


Awact 4aU«f 


Lat«c4at«fl< 


Ckieafo. Ill 

ii. 
Grr 


J 

a 
II 

4 


October >6 

SeptcminT iS 
September 14 
September 38 


October 30, 1891 
October 1, 1910 
October 35. 1897 
September ao, 1908 
October ao, 1911 
October jo, 1910 
Septamber 16, 1911 
ScpCamber la. 1891 



CASUAL RBCORDS 

So date. 

September 33, 1893. 
April |g, 1884. 
spring, t888. 
Viuust 39, 189a. 

.September to, 1891 ; September 18, 1893, October 
I. 1894. 

.\uj(USt 33, 1896. 

\t>ril 36, 1895. 

Nt.iv 3, 1880: September 15, 1885. 
. I- \.. ilate. 

June, 1878. 
J.ilv. 1884. 

!l .Iul%. 1888. 

la**. lAtuber 15, 1869. 

.%«. September to, 1877. 

ind. Mao^ Srutrmber 8, 1897. 

i88a. 

r 4. 1878* 
MBADOWLARK 

Hie well-known Mcadowlark (Skumdla «m|m) has a wide geogmphk 
distribution, occtirring from southern Canada through the United Stataa, 
Mexico, and Central America, to Veneniek. Oi iu eight r wio g n i ind s u b spe cies , 
only three occur in North America. These with their geographic ranges are as 
follows: 

The Eastern M eadowiark {S h imt UM «M|fM sMfiia) breeds hi MStem 
North America north to New Brunswick, southern Quebec, southern Ontario, 
and northeastern Minnesou; west to central and southwestern MlnnasoU, 
western Nebraska, central Kansas, and northwestern Texu; south to ontnl 
Tens, southwestern Missouri, central UUnois, central western 



Bird - Lor« 



North f^flfftHn^^ and gouthera Virginia; and east to the Atkntic CoaM 
fromVirgiiiiatoNrwBruntindL la winter it retires from the northemmott part 
ol its raage, bat renaiat at this Maaon north, at least irregularly, to louthcm 
Maine, southern Ontario, and Michigan, and passing at least as (ar south as 

Smithfrn ^M»h f «rrUm«^ AUhama, f .mikiaiiM, lid ■nuihcMtem Tg»a«. Itisof 

casual occurrence northeast to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island 

The Florida Maado>«lark {StmmdU smc«m vpOmU) is resident and 
breeds in the southeastern United Sutcs north to North Carotina, northern 
Alabama, northern Mlmiarippi, southwestern Indiana, southern Illinois, south- 
eastern MisKMiri, northeastern Arkansas, and northeastern Texas; west to 
eastern Texas; south to southeastern Texas, with the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, 
Misrisrippi, Alabama, and southern Florida; and east to eastern Florida, eastern 
South Carolina, and eastern North Carolina. 

The Rio Grande Meadowlaxk (ShmieUa mapia kooftsi) is resident in 
the southwestern United Sutes north to south central Texas, central New 
Mexico, and central Arisona; west to central Arisona and central Sonora; 
south to Sonora, central Chihiiahua, southern Coahuila, and southern Tam- 
aul^Mis; and east to eastern Tamaulipas and central southern Texas. 

All the migration dates given below refer to the comnKm Eastern Meadow- 
lark, and may be more or less misleadfaig because, at all except the northernmost 
localities, some individuab of thb species usually pais the winter. The spring 
dates represent, however, the normal ^jpearance n^en the bird is not wintering, 
or the dates iHien it becomes more conqxcuous from its winter seclusion ; while 
those for the autumn show its normal dit^ipearance from ordinary observation 
or from the loralitirs given when not actually wintering. 



SPaiNC MIGSATION 



LOCALrrv 



NWBkW 



Av«nt*4M*«f 
apriac Mfhrsl 



: wifvai 



Bcsvcr, Ps. 

RoMvo, Pa... 
Morrittowii. N J 
Alfrrd. NY 
S)-r*<.u»c, N. V 
lewctt City. Coon. 
Providence, R. I. 
AadMm.llaM 
Bostoa, Ifaw.. 
Rutlaad. Vi 
TOum. N ' 
PortUad. N 
Mootml. Qucbei 
Scotch Uke. N. B 
St Louis. Mo. 
CUca|p,ni. 
Fort WsyBc.lML. 
Celukbos, OUo. . . 
Ob«lia,OUo 



\i 

16 

«9 

a4 

9 

8 

SI 

9 

6 

If 

6 

li 
34 
17 
9 
M 



MsidiS 
March >6 
March 10 
March la 
March ai 
March? 
March 5 
March 17 
March 10 
March 18 
April 6 
April 9 
March ji 

March a 
March la 
March I 

February t; 
March! 



February 11, 1888 
March ij. iqij 
Rare, winter 
March 9, 191 J 
February 6, 190a 
R*r. 
Rsr 

FcLi»^. J, (886 
Rare, waiter 
Rare, wiatcr 
March a6, 1915 
March }o. 1908 
March ai, 1913 
April 6, 1907 
Rare, winter 
February 2%, 1890 
February 10, 1890 
February 5, 1915 
Ran, wmter 




The Migration of North American Birds 

SraiNO MIGKATION. 



8i 



IdOCAUTV 



Vicksbvii^ Midi. 
Loadoa. Ontario. 
Otta-- ''— -srio 

Sioux - . -- i>A 

Madboo, Wis. . 
Laacsboro, Minn. 
MiaacapolU. Minn 



Hmmhtt 



ipoU*. ] 
Kaas.. 



Oaaga. Kai 
RcdOottd. N«b. 



I) 
u 
I J 
1 1 
11 

lO 

«5 
8 

5 



ipHac Mrivsl 



March q 
March i6 
April 3 
March 5 
March li 
March 14 
March jo 
March 29 
March 5 
March 4 



lMll«i4uaaf 
•pdatuflval 



February 6, 1910 
March a, 1S85 

January 10, 1909 
^arc, winter 
March 7, 1910 
March Si 1894 
March at, 1SS9 
March 18, 1903 
Few, winter 
February 18, 1916 



FALL MIGRATION 



LOCALITY 


Naabw 
•tm?' 

NCOfw 


AvccM* dataol 
Um MMeb*mr«d 


LalMt date •! 

laMOMObMTVwl 


Beaver. Pa, 


4 


November 11 


I)f^rm>M-r fo, tUj 


Renovo, Pa 


I : 


i >< tuber 34 


N -3. t9«« 


Morristown. S.J 


1 .' 


.November 6 


k.. r 


Hartford, Conn. 


5 


October 36 


Rare, wiiiier 


Providemr, R I 


6 


November 3 


Rare, winter 


.\mhent, M&«« 


4 


November 7 


December 9, 1893 


Hotton, Mau 


8 


November 34 


Rare, winter 


I'ortland, Maine. . 






December 34, 1908 


Montreal, Quebec 


6 


October 11 


November 7. 1909 


ScoUh Laic N. B 








Coaooraiaf Mo. . . . 

CUcago, IIL 

Fort Wayne. Ind 


7 
«3 


November 4 
October a8 


IUi«,wialar 
December 4, 1915 


Q 


November 4 


December t, 191a 


Richmond, Ind. 


H 


November 14 


Rare, winter 


WaiiMoa.Ohio ... 
Obtrlia/bhio 


10 


November 13 
t >. tober 35 


Rare, w 
Rare, >« 


Xlckabttrg. Mich. 


10 


November 3 


December 1 ;. 1913 


Newberry. Mich. 
L.oodon, Oatario. 


i 


<». tober IS 


October »i, 1910 


« 


1 • tober 39 


November ao, 1901 


Ottawa. Oatario . . 




n. tober 15 


Novtartttr 13, 191s 


Keokuk. Iowa 


1 ; 


November 4 


Rata, wiatcr 


Madltoa. Wia. . . 


•■ 


< )< tober 34 


November 8, 1913 


Lao«ibofo» Mlaa. . 


4 


(K tober 14 


October 19, 1893 


Sl Vlactat, Minn 


i 


October 30 


October 31, 1897 


Oaaga, Kaat. 


«V 


November 13 


Few, wiater 



WESTERN MBADOWLARK 

The rich, meiodioua toog of the Wettcm Moukmlark {jSlmmlU mtf^ttU), 
to different fron that ci iti eastern lebdve, b a bniUar feature of w eit e m 
bird life. The geographic range of the ^wdea extends from aouthwetlenk 
Canada through the United Statae to central Mexico. Two euhq>ed« are vam 
recognbable, of which the dktrlbatkn b at loDowt: 

The Wettam Meadowlark {JSktrmlU fMgftda Mglacte) breeda in weatem 
North Amarka north to aotithen Manitoba, oantial Saakatchewan, cantral 
Alberta, and aooth central Britiah Cohmibia; weat to aontli central Britiah 



%t 



Bird - Lore 



Colurnhhi, central Wiihhuton, oeatnl Orefoo, tad western California; south to 
southern California, northern Sonora, northern Durango, southern Coahuila, 
and southern Tamaulipas; and east to central Tamaulipas, central Texas, 
central OUahona, eastern Kansas, saatem Missouri, eastern Iowa, and 
Wisconsin; occasionally to eastern niw^ and northern Michigan. It winters 
fron southern British Columbia, Colorado, and Nebraska, south to Louisiaiui, 
southern Texas, southern Tannaulipas, Michoacan, Jalisco, and southern Lower 
Galifoniia. It is of accidental occurrence at Fort Simpson in southwestern 
Ma i-^ fnt it 

The Wort h wa a t t m Maadowlark {StumeUa rngjieda c om/lmenlay it 
resident and breeds in the Pacific Coast region of North America north to 
southwestern British Columbia, south through western Washington t<> north 
western Oregon, and cast to the Cascade Mountains. 

Records in the subjoined migration tables all pertain to the We^urn 
MeadownnL. 

SPRISO MIGRATION 



LOCALITY 


Naabcr 


Av«a««aateof 
•pctoc arrival 


■■rtil dau ti 
■ariag arrival 


Siottt FsUs. S. D. . 


a 


March i8 


March 11, 1908 


Rapid City, S. D. . 


11 


March »6 


March 7, 1910 


Argusvillc, N. D.. . 


II 


March 31 


March t?, 1894 


Msrstoaaoor. N. D 


< 


March SI 


Ma: - .10 


Bathgate, N. D 

POotMMDd. Manitoba 


u 


uSniii 


Ma >4 
Ma >0 


Awvmt, Manitoba 


i8 


April 1 


Ma .1 


Raabua. Manitoba 


12 


Aprils 


Mai^~ --, voa 


Oa'Appcba, Satk. 
PL Shnpaon, Mack 


l6 


April > 


March 14. (909 






May >o, 1904 


B«nlah.Colo.. 


11 


March to 


Rare, winter 


Daavcr. Colo.. . 


lO 


March i6 


Rare, winter 


OMrcaac, Wvo... 
Ratndrum, Idaho. 


S 

lO 


Aprili 
Fcbmary it 


March a?, 1889 
February 4, 1906 


Tany, Moot. 


12 


March JO 


March ai, 1894 


Boa^nan.Mont... 


4 


March jj 


March ao, 1903 


Big Sandy. Mont. 

cSnaiMa Palb, Moot.. . 


s 


March to 


March a4, 1907 


5 


March t7 


March 19. 1896 


Flagstaff, AlbcrU 


lO 


April? 


March aj, 191s 


Spokane, Wash.. ... 


3 


February 35 


Febroary 11, 1907 


llimr Laka, B. C. 


4 


March tS 


March 18, 1911 


FAU 


, MIOaAT 


ION 




LOCAUTY 


NtfuUr 
Heard 


iMt ami ohwiMd 


LataaldaUflf 
Ian —a yl—viil 


Siovs Pan*. S. D.. . 




Novcnbcr t 


November 7, 1915 


Rapid aty, S. D.. 






November a6, 1915 


Mantonmoor, N. I) 




October t7 


Novcnber 3j, 1909 


A wcme, Manitoba ... 


19 


October 15 


November 8, 1907 


Bc«iah,Coto. 


to 


October s? 


Rare, winter 


Booewan, Moot 




October aa 


November 5, 191a 


Big Sandy. Mont. 




October IS 


October tj, 1906 



•TMa 
Scallaa af tka Aaadaaa 



fatal kaa Ml aa ym kam aeiaS apaa ky tka CimmHiii aa Wiiwriitaia ami Ch wi 



IM.} 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

rirTYNINTH FAPBR 

By PRANK M. CHAPMAN 
(Sm rnmtkigiaea) 

Maadowkrk {SkmuOa mofita). In the MeadowUrks the leies are much 
alike; the nestlings resemble their parents; there is but one molt a year, and 
seasonal variations in plumage are due chiefly to wear which is exceptionally 
pronounced in these birds. 

When it leaves the nest a young MeadowUric wears a necklace of black 
instead of the solid breast-crescent of its parents; it is dull buffy yellow below, 
its sides practically unstreaked, but the plumage of the upper parts is much like 
that of the adult and the bird is unmistakably a Meadowlark. 

The first fall (post-juvenal) molt is complete and the yotmg bird then 
acquires a costume not distinguishable from that of the winter adult. This 
differs from the summer plumage by its generally browner tone due chiefly to 
the presence of brownish margins to the body-feathers, the black breast-cres- 
cent l)eing mudi obscured by them. 

As the season advances, these margins largely wear off and what remains 
of them becomes much faded, and the result being the darker, yellower bird of 
th< season. In some instances, partioilarly in arid regions, at the end* 

of I ung season, this wearing and Ruling of the plumage is carried to 

an extreme which almost obliterates the bird's markings. 

The geographical variations in the color and pattern of the Meadowlark 's 
plumage are as complex as its seasonal variations are simple. From the southern 
border of its range, in northern Brazil, to its northern limits in Canada, nine 
different forms are currently recognized, of which four are known from north of 
Mexico as follows: 

1. Eastern Meadowlark {StunuOa mapta WMfiM, Fig. i). The race of the 
eastern United Sutea.* 

2. Southern Mcadowbirk {Skmidia wtagna ar p Ou h ), A mailer, darker 
form from the southern states. 

.). Western Meadowlark (Simmeth mapta M|lfcla). The paler form of the 
western sutcs hi which the yeUow of the throat extends to the sides of the ncck« 
and the bars on the rump and tail are more clearly defined than in the eastern 
bird. 

The refauionshipa of the Eastern and Western Meadowlarka have never 
been satiifacioray determined. In the MiiriMippi Valley typical aanplea <d 
each form may be found in the netting teaton at the same t i me e v i d en ce ol 
their specific disthictness in that refioD, where the few intemadiate y ei lmeni 
found may with reaaoo be called hsrbrida. 

But in the Rio Grande Valley a foim (Ase^itfO oocurs which to obviowly 

*TW n^m «i tkc w««ml Unm am sIvm ky Dr. O ti rt i J iii !• tte pmatMm »•««• 

(tl) 



Bird -Lore 

the dHuactoteCki of both mofiM and mgftOa that it it difficult not 
to eonMtt it A co aa e cta nt b ct tw en the two. 

In life the two birdt may readily be ditingwithed by the marked difference 
in the call-notes and longi; bat I recall no study of the song of koopni by one 
thoroughly fauniliar with those of mofiM and Mgfacto. In my notes made at 
Corpus Christi, Tens (where AKw^cft breeds), long before this bird was described, 
I record the Meadowlaric songs heard as resembling those of MOfiM, but at 
that time I had never heard thesoogof Miloela. A study of the sonp of Mead- 
owlarks on our Mexican border by a well-equipped observer would be sure 
to yidd interesting results. 

4. Rio Grande Meadowlark {SimmdU nu^;ita kooptsi). In general colora- 
tion this bird more nearly resembles negUcta than it does magna, but the yellow 
of the throat does not spread to the sides of the neck, as it does in the first- 
named form. 

Yellow-headed Blackbird {Xanlhocephahu xantkoupkalus. Figs. 3. 4). 
The "*^>'"g Yellow-head is quite unlike its parents. The whole head and breast 
are warm buff, giving the effect of a brown-headed bird; the abdominal region 
whitish; the back blackish, both more or less fringed with buff; the tail and 
wings black, the wing-coverts tipped with white. At the post-juvenal ' 
the tdl and wing-quills and primary coverts are retained, while the rest oi :... 
plumage b exchanged for a costume which resembles that of the female, but is 
i|saally without streaks on the breast, or if streaks are present, they are yellow. 
TUs plumage b worn at least until the following May, when there are evidences 
of molt about the head, and it may not be entirely replaced until the second 
&dl molt, but I have seen no specimens after May 34 whidi were not in fully 
adult plumage (Fig. 3). 

All of the thirteen May birds in inunature (first winter) plumage in our 
collections are from Texas and northern Mexico. It does not seem possible 
that they could have molted into adult plumage in time to nest in it, and the 
absence from our huge collections of more northern breeding birds in inunature 
dress suggests the possibility of such birds remaining in their winter quarters. 

Hie adult male winter plumage resembles that of the sununer, but the 
crown and nape are more or less obscured with brown. The primary coverts, 
as in summer, are conspicuously white with black tips. There b also more 
or less white on the outer greater coverts. 

The female b mudd alike throu^iout the year, but in winter plumage all 
the yellow areas are deeper and the plumage generally b darker. 




J^otcs; from iriclb anb J>tubp 



A Y<B>w lUU in a Sumi 

Ob Sep tem b er u. •O'o. when remdinf 
on tbe porch, my neighbor called to me 
to ask wlut the queer bird was that was 
valkiag in tbe middle of the street. What 
vas my surprise to sec a Ydlow Rail 
coming toward the curb I 

It took refvge amoag some petmiiaa 
that formed a bonier along the curb, and 
it did not move as I got down to within 
two fret of it to ttudy it. 

That so shy a bird should land on a 
much travded street in the heart of 
Chicafo immrd strange indeed. It was 
a disappofaitflBcnt that I could not watch 
it till it OBoved on. — Glaots Fowuut. 
Chktt*, /Ar. 




rh,.( t' 



r OWL 
• t«w« I II s ay . •< 

Wank It. t«iS 



A pucker's Pood 

in a porm by the writer, " Mr. Kltckcr 
Writes a Letter", printed in Bibd-Lou 
for AuRust. lAgg, arr these lines in ooaaec- 
tion with his food habits: 

"But my delicacy is ants. 
Stump or hill inhabitants; 
Thrusting in my sticky tongue. 
So I take them, old and youag." 

Running back from ottf bowe ia Paaa- 
deaa b a walk made of the aatural day, 
packed down to nearly the hardnem of a 
brick. For years I have seen occasionally 
upon that walk one of our beautiful 
California Flickers. But he itemrd to be 
always on the watch. A slightest move- 
ment at the near-by window, or on the 
screened porch, wmtid send him tying 
with hu brilliant tmdcr>wtaf display of 
dd fold. It will be remembered that his 
coin b of a darker yellow than that of hb 
eastern cousin. I had supposed that my 
'Golden Wings' came occasionally, like 
the California Thrasher, for crumbs that 
arc put out daily for the smaller birds. 
But today I glimpsed him irst aad karacd 
what he was after. Going through tbe porch 
very slowly I escaped hb visioa till 1 
could get my head ised at the edft of a 
ctirtaia for o b e ar va ti on: and he waa very 
buay. Just bcacath that brick-like surface 
the small brown ants have burrows. Lead- 
ing to these are openings in which a small 
b^ P«kU might be iMcrted. Mr. Flicker 
waa pantef away iiat at «•• boU Ibea 
aaoclicr, wbrgjag aad tndag tb«» ovt. 
Thai be wo«ld laaart kb bin far aa poMibk 
aad OM could imaglBe tht catch m hb 
lanwue. and dctM-t tha qufck ■wvameat of 
not ive sacoads elapsed 

iitivHi hM ltii*ag hb head high to take 

*«Mpteg abaerwatlwi. After watchtag 

' several meaaita I raCfacad ay 

^refutty bopiag la bavt blai aa4l»> 

twbedia hbrntjoyaiwH. I waa wall withta 

ihaloaklbaaknaaad 



(•s) 



86 



Bird- Lore 



««it off. I thca w«Bt out to Mc jittt vliat 
b* ImmI doac. Then were wvcnl placet 
wImt* Im had cspoMd tht tuaacb ttvm 
oaa to two aad a half lachca. At the plac* 
wbrr* one went drrper he had enlarKrd it 
with hi* bill and the aat* were agaio com- 
ing out in what he would. I kuppote, con* 
•idcr paying nunbcra. — GAatrrr New- 

A Friaodljr Bhic Jay 

TUabatnieatoryofaBlucJay. About 
the middle of Seplrmbcr a wounded Blue 
Jay appeared at my fann at Bedford IlilU, 
New York. One leg wa« broken, a wing 
waa bniiicd, and iu condition waa alto- 
gether forlorn. John, a member of the 
houeduild, took pity on him. bound up 
the broken leg with adhesive plaster and 
gave the bird comfort in many way*. The 
Blue Jay rewarded these friendly minis- 
trations with the most extravagant evi- 
deaces of gratitude and affection. It 
followed John about hit work, remained 
with him nearly all day and spent tbr ; 
in John's room. If John took a wai;. 
bird kept him in sight, flying from Ucc to 
tree, ami would come home perched on 
John's shoulder or his rap. Although 
d em o ns trating its attachment to its friend, 
it did not like to be touched and reluctantly 
allowed itself to be caught by the object 
of its affections. 

When John was laid up for some days 
with a slight ail mm I. the bird became more 
amidnotts in iu att en tions to iu bene- 
factor. It hardly left the sick chamber, 
■peading the night perched on John's 
toes or near his head picking off any stray 
fly that presented itself. If John gave it 
some food, the bird would hide it after the 
way of iu kind, perhaps placing it in a 
coftter of the room under a newspaper or 
other object and from time to time lifting 
the edge of the cover to see if iu treasure 
waaaafe. The strangest part of this strange 
love-making was the Blue Jay's call to 
John in the morning. It would insert iu 
beak between John's lips and waken him 
by tapping gently upon hb teeth. For 
woeka this cwimm affair went on. Thcbird 



wa» peneilly Jrrr Tl»r «in<!uwi wcrr 
open aad ii <-«n.. .y,^,\ »rni ai »ill 
Occaslooalh ma 

rawfiag liui hinx 

some glittering object and hiding it, but 
commonly iu behavior was most domestic. 
After the bird had been a guest of our 
house for six or seven weeks, the time came 
for the family to move to the city. Fear- 
ing that the wild bird would injure iltrlf 
agaiiut the wires if confined b a ca«r, a 
band boa was prepared with sliu for 
ventilation, and in that the bird made thr 
journey. John kept his visitor shut up (or 
a week or ten days until it should be 
accustomed to iu new surroundings. But 
the time came when humanity demanded 
freedom for the bird and the lop of the box 
was removed. The emancipate*! Blur jay 
made for the open window and ha* never 
been seen since. Whether it became be- 
wildered and lo«t it» way. or camr to srirf. 
or felt it bad paid iu debt to • 
we never shall know. John, who i.< . . . .....i 

a bird friend before, is heart broken and 
■'' " ■ '' I housebolt! 

sti,Wtki> 

Bvening Grosbeak Nesting 
in Wisconsin 

This past summer while at my cottage 
on the shores of Lake Superior, between 
Washburn and Bayfield. Wis., one cold 
day the middle of ' 
attracted by a pi 
"like the creaking u( a i 
hinge," which I at once to' 
note of a Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Imagine 
my astonishment when I discovered a 
whole family of Kvening Groabeaks, a 
male, female and three young hi' ' ' ^ 
ing on the half-ripe fruit of an < 
which grew close to our li 
window. There could be no mi>' 
their identity, for we were 
of them and bad ample ti 
their actioiu. Though the young were 
well able to feed themselves, and did, 
now and then one of the parent birds 
would pluck a berry and thrust it into the 
open beak of a young one; then the whole 




Notes from Field and Srudy 



«7 



would go on fcodiaf m bcforr. 
TIk young Urds could fly for short di»- 
uncn but were vrry awkward upon the 
wing, much : ut»ii and ruminate. 

Tbry were u;... _ ;> only a »hort time 

out of the nr»t. For three days the family 
were about the cottage, or until they had 
cleaned the elder b c f ry of fruit, and then 
disappeared. Later I think I diMrovcred 
the nest in which the yuung were hati hed, 
in a low thrub dose down by the edge of a 
purling trout stfcam just below the cottage. 
The nest was loosely built of dead grass 
and small twigs, and contained the remains 
of greenish-blue eggs, lightly flecked with 



we hastened to pboCograpb then, also to 
rdatM them imi— dlatrly thereafter with 
profuse apologies. 

On the eleventh of November the trap 
was moved from its barnyard home to the 
vicinity of our feeding bos. in an effort to 
reduce the number of Kngliah Sparrows 
who daily feasted there. 

Two English Sparrows were left in the 
trap as decoys. A casual glanrr a little 
later revealed, not a trap i ^luh 

Sparrows, but a Loggerhea> . , the 

first one we have seen in this vicinity, 
frantically endeavoring to make a meal of 
our imprisoned Sparrows. He was not 




NKD SPAKROWs AWAITING THEIK RKl 
Pbat««npiw4 by W. B. PacWy. Jr 



brownish »|>t>i* 0( .our«r I could not be 
•ure of thr i(lrntit> oi ihc Best, though 
there was not a shadow of doubt about the 
binU <) W Smith. RtamttiUt. H'li. 



shy about it either, as he stayed for half 
an hour before finally dechtJag that thoM 
Sparrows were aaUag hia ridiorfoua.— > 
W. B. Pcai^Y. Ja.. Ofihmav. OmisH*. 



The Adventures el a Sparrow Trap 

Imagine our feelings when we found 
thirty Knglish Sparrows in a patcntrd 
Sparrow trap that we had scoffed at for 
•i« month* On* might think that our 
trap, haviag vfawBcalad iUcif. would rMt 
on itj) laurtla, but mo! Several woakt lattr 
we found three White-crowned Sparrow* 
in its capadous interior. 

As thia aMrmber of the Sparrow family 
b mnfy MM oadtr auch dtcu— imw. 



Sparrow Meets Sparrow 

The first part of July, tgio junior- 
tunatcly, I did not record the esact date), 
i dbcovcred a pair of Chipping Sparrows 
building a nasi in a BaltiaMNvOriolt'anatt, 
which has hnas ior ttvanl uniom nbMt 
iftaan fael up In an old appla trea In o«r 
jrafd. In ihbocsi within a nest thart wart 
lo.be strange happeninga. 

I was away from hoHM much of the 
tkm Md so paid little atlontion to tha 



Bird - Lore 



birdi «fUr Um Mrt wm brilk mil the 
carty iwlt «f Jvljr •4. TImb I ■oUnd 
tbat Umi* w«« at Imm tluw, food rii td 

yo«M ia tiM MM, lkoi«h tiM Utl» •dfc of 
tto Oriok't MM aadt U dMkvIt to toe 
Um cmlMls ««IL I oIm detected tome 
kiad of • CO— otfawi obovt tke Mot, ia 
which oa Eagiltk Sponow WM uadovbtedljr 



TW Mit aftanooa trovblo la Um opplo* 
tnt was stiil prcMBt ia Um fona ol the 
B^lfah Sparrow. I watched with 6eld- 
gi^MW fraai the porch about twrnty-five 
(wt away aad oa the lawa under the tree 
lor the greater part of the afteraooa. I 
do aot attempt to eipUin my obtervatioDs, 
bat tiM foUowing U what I uw : 

Oa the edge ol tlM acat was a female 
Eagliih ^^arrow BMkiag vidoiis ataba at a 
Cbippini Sparrow that was tryiag to go to 
the aeM with a worm. Six or icvea Umca 
(I did MC thiak to bcgia to ooimt at irat). 
<ttd that Chippy make the atteaapt before 
it aaccaaded. AloMiat conataaUy the 
iatmdiBg Sparrow coatlaued oa the watch. 
Somrtimm ahc would ait motioaleea 00 the 
edgcol thoMBt oaly moviaf her head to 
watch the ndpplt S parro w wktm they 
approached, aad Ihea peck at them whca 
they wara witUa rcaddag dJetance. At 
other tiaMaahe would perch in the braachea 
aad daah to the attach when the pareata 
caaM with food. No aule EagUah Sparrow 
caaM Bear. Alao I aevcral tiaMa aaw her 
drive away aaother fentale Eagliah Spar- 
tow aa i«roeiy a* the did the rhippiat 
Sparrow. Oaca I eaw her natch a aiaabk 
giaaa worm from the beak of a parent 
Chippy aad Hy away with it. Frequently 
•he caaM to the nest and went through the 
a mdo M of feeding the young herteU. but 
I coold aot Me that ahe had aaything in 
her beak. Several tlam ahe did thb inn 
aMdiatfly after a CMppJag Sparrow had 
fed, aad, althoagh I ooaid aot prove it, 
beoaaee her aMtioM wave m rapid, it 
looked to aM aa thoagh ahe aaatched aoaM^ 
thlag fromayoaagbird'abeak. Thepareat 
birds did amaage to feed the young occa- 
riaaally by worltiag quickly. A little later 
I dbtiactly aaw the EagUah Sparrow 
f e m OKfete from the aart aad cany 



it away. She coatiBued at iatanrab her 
apparcat prooma of f aadiag the yooac aad 
oaoe I Mw bar giva om a worm. Oeca* 
aioaaUy aha left the tree aad waat haatiag 
dowa b the graaa, aaaally goiag thw a g h 
the faadag prooma apoa her retara. 

What cmdd have boca the raaeoa for 
auch eaoepCioaal coaduct? One adght aay 
that by aoBM chaace the Eagliah Sparrow 
abo had young in the neat, but all the 
yovag I aaw were decidedly rh^ppiag 
Sparrowa, aad called like theak 

The aest day I waa oaabb to make 
obeervatioaa, and in aaother day all the 
yoaag had left the aeat.— Mabkl R. 
Wiooms, £ajf JfarMa, L. I V t 

A Catbird PoundauoQ 

While '"^^ng after my bird nettA last 
May I diacovered that the Catbirda had 
built their neat ia the lilac buahea aad by 
June 10 four ywamg oaea had left the aeat. 
A pair of Robina looking for a aeating-aite 
for their aecond brood, now built a aecond 
atory to the deserted nest and by July 1 
they had four egga which, ia due Ubm 
hatched aad the brood waa reared ia 
safety. — R. J. MtDDi.STON, /</<ri<aefll<, 

Mockingbird Winters in Iowa 

On December 15, 1910, at noon, I was 
surprised by a visit from a strange bird. 
The feediag-sbelf is just outside the 
kitchea wiadow aad while wa aocad the 
bird'a aiaririaga it very leimuafy iaipactad 
all the arraageaMata aad fooda dltpi a yod, 
ate of suafktwer aad wild raee leadi, aad 
finally, after five or ten minutca, flew away. 

On the i6th I saw it four tioMa, twice oa 
the shdf. On the 18th it visited the ahelf 
aad oa the toth waa ia the )rard. 

I flad in 'Birda of Ohio,' p. 196. that 
"C. H. Morria, oa Jan. ast >903. in 
coaspaay with E. J. Arrick, found aad 
captured a Mockiagbird aaar McCoaaaib- 
vQle, Ohio.** Alao, Blaachaa. fai 'Bird 
Neighbors,' p. 8a, records that "even in 
addwiater the Mockingbird is not unknown 
ia Ceatral Park, New York City." 

With thia irvideace added to my own 



r. 



Notes from Field and Srudy 



h*a^ on tdwitiicaUoa and 
lent that my visitor 

wM«Modutoa»..w Mm. K ! H 

Awt4S, /#•«. 

A Tvllad TitnoiM* Story 

Rcadiaf of the Tufted Titmouse in 
Bu^LmM pw ptt M* to dMcribe my 
•i p w ieB CT with thk to me csUrdy new 
bird. I bear its beautiful call of three notes 
while I am writing; in fact, it is this call 
whicb started me doing what has been on 
my mind for some time. 

It was in May last jrcar when I distinctly 
heard one of my chicks call in a rather 
distrcascd and persistent manner. I sent 
a boy to the chicken yard to see what the 
trouble was. He reported that there was 
nothing wrong with the chicks, and that 
the calling came from the woods near by. 
We stopped work to investigate, as is our 
custom when the song of a strange bird is 
hcnfd* aad soon discovered two beautiful 
moMM colorrd birds, lighter grey on the 
side and with crest, a mark which 
us to locate them on the chart — 
and we do not often feel so sure that wr 
get the correct name. 

In the woods, and in fact all about our 
place, are many bird-houses, and the 
Tlu i bo#ed a lively interest in an old. 
obsokte Bluebird-bouse. 

In summer «e cat OMr oteals in a tent 
the whole north side of which b wire- 
six feet of our t^k we have a feeding plat- 
form. In summer thb b mostly visited 
by Catbirds. We cater to them by soaking 
bTMd la milk whicb tbey seem to relbh. 

It was act loac bafort oar new frieads 
this laadlat ibelf to which tbey 
oftn, aad Ibaia vaa a new interest 
in Ufi for as. la due tiaw tbey brought 
their foar yaaag, aad amidat a good deal 
of 'scrappiiv' tbey all gat tbeir ill Two 
of tbcjroung woaid efti dlaf to the pole 
aadcraoath tbt ibalf, bat tbey woaM aevcr 
all eat at the laaM tiaa. 

We saw macb af tbcai all tbt autuaui. 
but as seeds rlp«Md tbay caaM 1«M aad !«• 



to feed. In .Novrmbcr and Drtrmber we 
often did not see them at all for da)rs, 
but I believe that they were never absent 
for more than a week. — Al^aatT P. GbbOI, 
Toms Rhtr. .V J 

Notes from ColUns. N. Y. 

I was mii ted in the notes ia 

Btao-LoEK, . , (, iQio. on Robins' 
nests and regret that I did not have 
photographs of several I have observed. 




A MlXH-t;SBD KoltIS S^ 

One built under a «.. 
built on the fire-escape ftunia({ a- : . .^ 
four to eight nests, at the samr i • 
stairs, one above the oth< 

used the same nest (sec (ii. . „._, 

top of a window of a cottage for at least 
foar years, adding to it annually until it 
aaariy to ppled aver. Tbeaast was ream ead 
la priatiag the coCtafe, bat aaotbar was 
baOt tbb year. Rablaa balkl Jati oatridc 
tba aobiml wards. Several have bailt in 
low tpraca trem ia tba bad ge aad aae in a 
boOaw la the tnmk of a tiae. 

Tbe HoaM Wrsas certalaly da dwifoy 
lad aasta ol BlaeUrda, as w«B as 
af Bagliab Sparrows. Tbey wlB 
break tba agp aad drat aat tbeaesta. 

Aa abaadaaca al cactaa pat aat far 
I wed by YeUaw Warblare, 
(wbkb btfaa to aert May «a) 



90 



Bird - Lore 



mm! Cedar Waxwing*. A Brows CrMpcr 
•ad Rcd-brca*t«d Nutluitcli frd at my 
lUUoM, with Chickadee*. Whitr-brcaMcd 
NtttlHildMs,aBdl>owBica. ThcCkickadaci 
and NtttluitclMa fad from my haada aad 
wvaral morocoBMiag oati took avta from 
mylipa. 

A doMl troa m full of boles that wc call 
it the 'apartmcat Mub' bdd at oacc in 
ita amay opaaiagt a Flicker. Downy, and 
a Blttcbifd, bat tbc latter wa» driven off by 
aa Eagliab Sparrow. The Chickadees 
amdc amay boles in a 6ckle auuiacr, balf 
taUUa^ them aad then takiag o«her«.— 
(Da.) Aims E. PKauica, CMim^ 




ntoMk, lad. 
Hanging the Bird-Houaa 

Like other bird-lovers I have found the 
aaaoal patting op aad takiag dowa of 
binl*boaMa to be a good deal of a attiaaacc. 
and the awaaa of attacUag tbcm to tiacs 
or other tup poc ta by awaaa of aaila or 
•crews a very aataliif actory aMthod. Re- 
ccatly I hit npon a plan which I have 



tried out for a seatoa aad fouad very uae* 
ful. 

ln»tead of fasteaiag the house up with 
aaib 1 nuke a sauUl hole oa each side of 
the bos, aear the roof and acar the back. 
Through tbw e koica, aad csteadiag about 
a foot on each side. I slip a piece of stroag 
but flexible wire. The wire must be stroag 
enough to kupport the boi, but not so 
heavy that it may not be easily bent. 
I then drive two naib into the tree or other 
support on which the box is to be hung, and 
a little higher up than the place (or the 
box to rest. The nails should be shout s 
foot further apart than the wM' 
box. The wire 1 then twist s)> 
nails, making sure that the box bangs 
straight down and is level. It will be found 
that this supports the box firmly against the 
tree, and that the wire is p" '■ "♦■ 
in^Hsible. A few serond»' time i- 
in which to ' ■•■<■ wire an< 

box down. • ii in posit, 

naib may remain in place for use again. 
Heavy wire, with hooks formed at each 
rod (or attaching to the nails, b a satis- 
(actor>' arrangement, but requires more 
careful work in accurately measuring 
dbtances. etc., the first time the box is 
hung. — Emily .\. Co«msg. St, Paul, 
Minn. 

Birda aad Salt 

I was much interested in what Esther 
Reeks. Boulder, Colo., said about 'House 
Finches Eating Salt' in September-Octo- 
ber BiBD-LosB, 1920 (page a86). It was 
the first published note on salt-eating by 
birds I have ever seen. From some cas- 
ual obaervations 1 have made, I h^w 
been led to believe that some bird^ !t;.< 
salt nearly as well as cattle, horses and 
other animab, and i( thry had access to it 
at all times, a general liking for it would 
soon be developed. 

Across the road from our house, in a 
pasture, there U a trough where banrl 
salt is kept moat of the time. Eni;li<>h 
Sparrows can be scca on and around thb 
trough nearly every day, and if one look* 
doaely, they can be seen in'! 
picking away at the salt. Whil* 




Notes from Field and Study 



91 



) Um kroofk, I have abo 

Crow* ukd tome otlwr 

Mrds thttn BpiMrmUy e«Uag 

(ragncots o' *^t- I ^•vc givm mU to 

ckkkctu and find Uut tbey eat it f rredily. 

The abo\'c BoCca are not by any meaas 



cottdwiw, and if the fact that binb like 
salt kaa BoC alraady bea *-«"«'^-^. 
it should offer tome ofiportinitJw for 
inicrcvtiag cxpcriacatal worit at feeding 
•tatiooa, etc.— Fu3> J. Piutrc. Wimthr^p, 
/mm. 



THE SEASON 
XXIV. December 15. 1920 to February IS. 1921 



BocTOir Rbgiox.— The winter in 
Ml— chiMftU ha* been mild, so far, with 
>-cfy few cold days. Abovt Boston the 
grovnd has bc«n bare, or covered by only 
!«.> r>p three inches of snow. These con- 
are in marked contrast to those 
t winter when period* of intense 

• wrre protracted and the snow-fall 
W.1 r« as great. 

1 M< of birds reported two 

montlu ago has been no Icm noticeable 
during January and February. Not only 
is there a total absence of the irregular 
winter visitors, the Grosbeaks, Redpolls, 
and the Crossbills, but in this region 
there are very few of the usual srinter 
visitors, soch as Tree Sparrows, Juncoa, 
and GoldoHcrowned Klagleta. Parmanwit 
rcaidents abo— Chicfcadom and Whit*-bel> 
lied Nuthatches for awp l t - a re prcteat 
in numbers far bdow normal During 
mi<l« inter canuiioM into the country, 
although the son shone brightly and the 
air was soft and spriaf-like, we fowad the 
woods and thtdnt* d—rtcd, and for adlc 
after adic aa gOart as oridalght. 

Tkk abscace of birds sti as thiaUag, 
w o ad wlag whcfc the birds arc which 
usaaOjr spend the winter with us, and why 
they did not move southward this scnsoa. 
Observers who viaiiad aorthcra Jocalltisa 
last aulaaui raportad a good crop of piat- 
coaas thwt* aad htao pradlctad that 
there woald b« ao lavadoa of Cfowbflh 
into New Eaglaad; fMrhapt Iha Moe«ifal 
fruiting of birebaa, aider* aad oCkv tram 
siaiUarly acooaau for tha ab*wic< of Had* 
poUa aad Ptea Grosbeaka. 

Mr. Edward H. Forbask advaaca* tha 
oplaaatioa of the rarity of 



tka taMllcr paasoriaa hMi wbldi 



winter here. He says in Bulletin XXXVII, 
Di\ision of Ornithology (Mas*.). Jan. ji, 
lO'i: "Perhapa thb |*carcity) may be 
accounted for in part by the fact tiut many 
individuals that were accustomed to stay 
here were killed off by the severe weather 
of last winter." This sugfcstion becomes 
ver>- significant when c o a al d er ed ia the 
light of Mr. S. Prentisa Baldwin's discovery 
that many individual birds pass the winter 
in definite localities. 

The Evening Grosbeak has become, of 
late years, such a regular winter visitor 
in eastern Massachusetts that some 
explanation other than the abundance of 
food in the North seeaui neccmary to 
account for its noa-appoaraaca this year. 
The favorite food of this Grosbeak while 
wintering here is the seed of the box elder 
(A(*r megumdo) and it has bami sanartad 
that extensive planting of these tree* 
between New England and the Great 
Lakes has resulted in inducing the birds 
to extend tbdr winter range toward the 
southeast. Esaadaatioa of the fruit of the 
box elder trcca ia Lexiagtoa, Maaa., shows 
that, althoagh the trem appear to hav« 
ripwud Mad* tkb wiatcr, a large propor- 
tioa of Ike a m bryo* arc to withered thai 
thay woald be worthloM a* food for the 
Evaalac Grosbaak. Tbt faUart of thi* 
crop of Mods, if at aO gMMral, augr be 
impoadbh for tka abMBca of tki* bird 
froiaMcv Baflaad. 

If v h M mn wka Uvo 00 the GroslNak'* 
Uaa of tiaval to tka AtUatk Coast will 
asaaUao tka •cads of tka boa alder ia Ikatr 
respective lecaUtici aad report tke l eea ha 
to aM, I skaO be glad to saauaarlae tkea 
for pakMcatJoa.—Wnmoa M. Tvtsa. fsta* 



9« 



Bird - Lore 



Ntw You RsoHM.— lfid-DM«ib« 
to Um fine o( Fcbnwfy tbt mmm wm 
mufkably mild and opaa. A ibort oold 
Map ia «di ol Um laat two weeks of 
jMMfy.aMl a momtHiorm whkh whitaMd 
Um grooid for Um fnt Ume, Um vary aad 
of tka BMMiUi, provldad bvt a taate of 
wiatar. 

Btapomti to UMaa oomUUom by bird- 
life b fouad ia records of various spades 
north of tbcir ordiaary wiatcr raage. for 
which M« the ChristaMS Ccasvs ia the 
praoadiag aaaibcr of Bibd-Lobk. Of 
otlMT sadi records which have ooase to 
haad the oaost aoteworthy b tliat of a 
tauU flock of Tree Swallows wintering at 
Loag Beach, L. I. They were obeenred on 
New Year's Day by E. P. BIckaeB aad 
Charles Johnston. Another observer (W. 
C Starch) reporto "six of the Tree 
Swallows still left of the origioal ten." 
Lo^ Beach, February 1 J. At If astic, L. I., 
a Catbird aad flock of so Mouraiag Doves 
were aoted January t, and a Savannah 
Sparrow oa January a (J. T. N.). At thb 
saoM locality several Vl^lsoa's Saipe were 
prescat, Deoeaiber it (R. Flosrd, Jr.). 
The bay marsh where they occurred b 
•ttitable for aUgrating rather than winter- 
lag iadividuals aad they were likely bmv- 
if^soathlate. That tUsspedes did wiatcr 
oa the islaad, however, b evideace d by 
two in the hands of f unnert, aad oae or two 
more heard at Elmhunt, January 8 (H. S. 
Boyle). 

There appean to have been a small flight 
of BltMbirds the first week ia January. Six 
or eight are reported from the vidalty of 
Yoakcrs, Jaanary a (Qaddea), aad oa the 
aaaa date a flock of upward s of so st 
Oystar Bay (W. B. Nlchob). Jaauary o. 
a auaUMT, Oyster Basr— Purple Flachct 
with them; aad BltMbirds observe d la the 
vidaity Uuoi«h the rest of the aMBth 
(W. B. N.). The Purple Ffaich has beea 
uausually scarce thb fall aad winter. 
Its preeeace with theee Bluebirds b ia 
liae with the opiaioa that thqr had Just 
ia from further aorth, aad form the 
of the southward aw ve a w a t, com- 
of birds which, vader ovdiaary 
would have paaed hi late 



fall. A male Chewlak b reported from 
Broax Park, Jaauary is (L. S. Crandall). 

Prom up the Hudson (M. S. Crosby, 
Dutchem County) five Wiboa's Snipe are 
reported oa January i6 from *'Brick-ysrd 
Swaaq>** where they were observed ia 
early Deocmber; a Rusty Blackbird aad 
a Sopsackcr, Jaauary ift; t Red-wiaged 
Blackbird aad 34 Gracklr», January >a; a 
Moaniag Dove, February ij; aad a Coot 
at CoastituUoa Island. Jaauary 7. 

It b interestiag to enuBMrate these 
uausual iaetaaces, but they staad out 
afalast aa appaieat scarcity of pameriae 
bird-life, as coaipared with aa ordiaary 
wiater. Thb scardty caa be eiphiaed 1^ 
the effect of the very sevcie wiater pieced- 
lag 08 the persoaad of birds which ad^t 
ordiaarly winter ia the region, and the 
absence, abo, of iadividuaU driven south 
or c oast wise by severe weather. In the 
interior of western Long Islaad (aear 
Gardea Qty) Meadowlarks were aoUccd, 
apparenUy in migiatioo, from DeceaUMr 
IS to aj, after which date they seemed to 
have goae; but on January is there was a 
flock of 8 or 10 at Garden City, already in 
song, and a few, perhaps members of this 
saaM fk>ck, have beea coatlaually preeeat 
siaoe. No Horaed Owb were heard tbe 
first of the year at Mastic, a favorite 
reaidcat locality for them where they were 
uausually picatiful the wiater of 1919 to 
19S0. Tbey likdy had wandered because 
of aa obs er ved scardty of rabbits, and one 
or laoie Horaed Owb, reported from the 
outskirts of New York City thU fall. 
aad wiater, may have beea such wan- 
derers.— J. T. NicBOLS, .Vrw Ytrk City. 

WASmrorOM Rboiom. — Notwithstand- 
ing the mild winter weather about Wash- 
ingtmi during December, 1910, and 
January, 1911, birds have been aeitber 
uausually numerous nor ooaspicuoos. 
Perhaps the lack of soow, cold and high 
winds has induced the birds to reaiaia 
more on the uplands and has baa ooacea- 
trated them ia the valleys aad other 
sheltered placas. Be that as it amy, the 
open winter of the northera Uaitcd States 
has at least had aa iaflaaaoe oa the 



■ "" 



The SeMoa 



93 



Dumbcn of Bortkcai winter visiton berr, 
M wc bftw kad BO rqiM>rts o( rack birds 
u the PfaM Sbkia, &ad-brttstcd Nuthatch, 
White- wi^cd CroMhill, Saowflake* Aacr- 
can Pipit, N«rth«ffB Shrike aad Swamp 
Sparrow. It ia, of comae* powibh that Ike 
lack of iafonaatioB ragardiag tkc occur- 
rence of tkaaa tpedca ia due in part to lack 
of obeanratioa la favorable placca, but it is 
uevrthriwi true that Bortheni birda, auch 
as the Winter Wren, have been of leta fre- 
<|ueat appearance than uaual, and the tame 
reaaark will apply to moat qMdm of H«wk«. 

Ob the contrary, some coaamon winter 
viritara, such as the J unco, White-throated 
Sparrow and Fox Sparrow, have been as 
numerous as ever. The Myrtle Warbler 
appaxcatly baa been more often txn than 
b the rule during the winter, for we h^ve 
rccofdi is Dacrmbrr and Januar>' from 
various localiticaiatya region. The Robin, 
whi^ ia Marly always a rare winter bird 
about WaakingtoB, was seen on January 
4, igai. and also later in the month. 
Purple Crackles were noted on January 
J 5 by Misa M. T. Cooke, and doubtkas 
were present dnriag tkc entire winter, 
although wc have bo other reports. A 
Catbird was seen by Mr. and Mia. L. D. 
Miacr Bear Roeslyn, ^^rgiaia, doae to 
G«Of|tlo«B« oo January i, and was kept 
UBdcr ohaarvation for nearly ten minutes. 
This b apparently the only Dbtrict of 
Columbia record for the aumth of January, 
although the spadca waa aotad ob Decem- 
ber it, lUj. The B uiia a cM i«Bt bmb- 
tioBcd amy well kava baea d«a to tka arild 
winter weather, as was poaribiy abo that 
of the Americas Coot, aacB Bear WaaUag- 
ton by Mr. J. Kittrcdge, Jr., on Dacaabar 
19, io>o. which date b neuly a moatk be- 
yond the previous btcat record of the spa- 
des ia thb vidaity, Novaaibar a6, 1916. 

As poarfbty worthy el maatioa, a Pll- 
Woo^ackar waa o b aa r vad at iu 
Mb by Mr. E. A. 
Rub, Bear the old 
tunpika, oa Jaauary aj, 1911. Thb ip» 
daa b of coaaldarabb rarity about Waak> 
li^toa aad b nmfhitil la the wOdar aad 
awre heavily timbered parU of the coua- 
try. The only Croaabilb rapprtad araeigkt 



individuab «f the Aaaricaa CiusabiU, 1 
by Mr. F. C. UbcoIb oa the lower part of 
Difficult Rub, Deeaaber 16, 1910. It may 
abo be worthy of aote that an adult Bald 
Eagb waa aodoed oa December 3 soariag 
over tha aorthcm part of the dty of Waab- 
iagtoa, for, though the spadca b of com- 
mon occurreaoe akwg the Potoamc River, 
both below and above Washiagtoa, it seeam 
not frequently to visit the dty itaalf. 

It b of perhaps more thaa passing inter- 
est that even the rdativaly mild weather 
of thb winter has not roused the aaag 
birds to song, for even such common winter 
singers as the Carolina Wren, the Cardinal 
and the Mockingbird have been heard 
singing very Ijttle duriag oithar Daoaasbar 
or January. 

While the various spedea of Ducks that 
regularity resort to the Potomac Rivar la 
co B si darabh numbers duriag the wiatcr 
Months have beaa praaaat duriag D s ci aai h rr 
and January, they have been for the amat 
part apparently not nearly so numerous in 
total numbers of individuab as during 
last winter, evidently a direct result of the 
milder weather which has eaablad them to 
remain oa good faadiag gwwia da tuA$t 
aorth. The Uat of the twdve ^taciaa so ^ 
obaenrad thb winter b as foUowa: MaBard, 
Black Dud^ PiataU, Shoveller, Greater 
Scaup, Lamer Scaup, Bufflehead, AaMricaa 
Goldea-aya, White- winged Scoter, Aaseri- 
caa Margaascr, Red-breasted Mergaaaar, 
Hooded Margaasar. Of tbeaa tha moat 
BuaMrvua haw baca the Greater Scaup, 
Lanar Scaup, Black Duck aad AaMricaa 
Goldea-ejre. Tkraa SWrdkra, aolad bjr 
Mr. F. C. Uaoola, oa Daoembar 16, aoar 
tka PotoBMK Rivar at Difficult Run. form 
tke lataat k>cal racord tkat wc kavc. siaea 
aa oaa kaa previaualy r epor t ed tka spadm 
bayoad October >8 (1887). Tke Buifo- 
kaad, Botad by Mr. E. A. Prabb asar 
Dyfca, Vfaflala, aa Daoeaibar S9, b 
aa iotaraMiai occartica aa tka 
b aac varjr mmmni la Ikb vidaity. 

Tka WklMBaff Swaa, whiek far atvatal 
yaara past kaa fugulariiy viiltad tka 
PaiaaMC Rivar balaar WaaUi^laat f^ 
turaad la Wld»«alir, Vbgiaia* abaot 
Odabar ao, so «t ata tof a c m sd by Mlaa 



94 



binl - Lore 



PidMtt Waller, wbow pftvionK ohwnr»- 
UoM oa tkb SwM at tb* mum pUc« Imvc 
bMB rccofiM in ibcte ooIubum. In De> 
coabcr ol tlib wiaUr tbcfc wctv trvrrml 
kttadrMl ladlvidwk ftbovt ^Idrwstrr, 
alt]Mi«h tlMy did aot fc«d to ufx iIm 
«1mm« m Ium ofdfaMifly bcca tbc auc. The 
■Mkjority of tbcee bird* dhapp f r ed about 
Dooeabcr <s, asd Ulm Waller baa «eea 
oaly aa occadoiial iMlividaal tiace that 
tine. Tbe locfcaae in tbc Bombcn ot the 
WbiaUiag Swaa as iodkated by iu n- 
appearance oa tbc Potoawc River duriag 
tbe poet few yttn b oae ol tbe aMMt 
iatareatiag devdopaMats of tbe protection 
af orded waterfowl by recent protective 
hfiibrttm — HrtMity C. , OaKtaoLaca, 
BMfgfea/ 5iir*ry, ll'«jAiecto«. D. C. 

MuntsaoTA Rxciok.— Tbc weatber dur- 
iag tbe past two BKtnths has been ab- 
aonaally adld for tbe time of year. .Tbere 
bave beea ao coaaiderablc faUs of mmiw 
aad aoae that bas renaiaed on the ground 
ia tbe aoutbera part of the »ute, and 
oaly sis to twelve iacbe* in thr nortbcm 
counties where it is usual to havr three or 
(our frrt at thU time of the year. At thr 
present writing thr ground it practicaJly 
bare in the southern half of the state and 
tbe ice oa tbe lakes is only fifteen to 
eighteen laches thidt ooaqiared with 
aearly three feet last year. Not for many 
jrear* bas there beea such a mild, snowlcas 
whiter. Tbe M i s si s sip pi River bdow the 
FaUs of St. Aathoay baa aot beea frosea 
aad only rarely bas it been cold enough to 
aufce the rapids 'steaai.' 

Geaerally speaklag. there has ap- 
paraatly beea a nK>re thaa usual scarcity 
of bird-life thus far this wlatcr, oaly oae 
or two obaarvcrs reportiag aay ooaaider- 
able auaibar of biida. This applies aot 
oaly to wiater vidtaats but also to the 
faaiUar reddeat spade*. Thus tbe now 
large number of bird-lover* who aaiouin 
feeding statioaa have, with few eiceptioos, 
bam d isap pd a tad ia tbe number oif thdr 
callers. May it aot be that, in tbe case 
9i the waideat bird*, they are really here 
la aormd numbers but that tbe mild 
weather aad ab aeac e of aaow amke it 



pnasiblg for tham to take care of tb*aM»lvw 
without reaortiag to the proffe r ed lardrr«? 
A rorrcspoadeat from far-away Pr; 
vania. where conditions seem to be a 
the Mme. takes thb view (or gra' 
**It bas beea so mild here thb wintrr it)4t 
the birds havea't a eeded us aad with the 
esccptioa of the ever-present 'Downies,' 
a few Juncos aad Tree Sparrows, we sec 
none of our usual goodly company. What 
i* their gain is our loss and I suppose we 
•Jiould be glad they are not forced to come 
to us for bdp — but we do so love lo have 



Reports indicate that more iadidduab 
of the hal(- hardy »peHe>i — birds that 
largdy desert us dur 
bave reauiaed in tr. 
Word bas been r ec d vad of thr presence at 
various places in southern Minnesota of 
number* o( Tree Sparrows, Juncos, Brown 
Creepers, Red-winged blackbirds, Homed 
Larks, Crows and less nunwroasly o( Rusty 
BUckbirds, Crackles, Goldr ! 

KingleU. Red-beaded Woodpr. 
sob's Snipe aad still asore rarely 
occasional Meadowlark, Flicker, K 
Bluebird, Mourning Dovr, KinKii»hrr and 
Marsh Hawk. A (ew MalUrds havr 
remained in open water in some o( the 
streams and thb Duck was present at 
Heroo Lake "in immense numbers" 
until a (ew da)-* a(trr the middle o( 
December. Lake Superior has reawined 
uaf roaca aad there are )>reaent there oaaay 
Gddea-C3re Ducks, Old Squaws,Mergansers 
snd Herring Gulls. Crows, which ^ 
leave tbe state during tbe winter, ••>.« 
been common aad widdy distributed. 

Of special interest are reports from 
Pipcstoae County (Mr. Alfred Peter«on) 
aad Liaoda County (Mrs. J. S • 
in the extreme southwestern c<<: 
state, that the Homed Lark U wii- 

there in Urge numbers. Mr. Pel'.: 

writes from Pipestone under date of 
February 14: "On Sunday. January 30, 
I heard and saw many Homed Larks 
scattered in many places on plowed ground, 
such places being prderred to pastures 
during colder weather or time of saow. In 
a' field three aUks east of town I found 




The Season 



05 



t 150 of then, a» Mftr u I conld 
otfaMte, and about joo Loamiun in 
one iock." And «a tkr followinf day they 
"were to be heard and teen almoat every- 
where, particularly in pastures, being 
more numerous on the whole than hereto- 
fore. 7*hcy Mcacd to be in full aong. many 
»tanding on atooca or clods of earth whilr 
%tninnK. and I noticed one soaring to a 
height of }oo feet. ju*t as they do in the 
tprinx ithrrmometer 54* plus at 2 p.m.)." 
The particular interest in this is that this 
bird has of late years been very scarce in 
many placr» -*•- — ■• win formerly abun- 
dant. 

Winter vim' i\c thu» far not been 

numerous. >; ■ ' 'vU have appeared in 
limilrd num' • ■ ., . . .. .,,,.. r^^ to 

Kebruar>' 1 ;. 1 '■■• :•■■-! --.ii! i:,-r;i i>< -.u-^ from 
St. Peter, wril down toward the Iowa 
line. Only 6vc reports of Kvening (jros- 
bcaks. three of l*ine Grosbeaks, six of 
Bohemian Waxwings, five of Snow Bunt- 
ings and three or four of the North- 
em Shrike. Redpolls have been no- 
where abundant and reported from only 
three localities. Lapland Longspurs have 
been noted at two places in the western 
part of the state. Mr. Peterson stating 
that they arc wintering in large numbers 
in the vicinity of Pipestone, Pipestone 
County. 

SevenI cnrmpondcnU continue to 
report seeing unusual numbers of Prairie 
Chickens Mr. II. J. Jaeger writes that 
he saw. not long since, a flock of at least 
I $0 in each of three southwestern counties 
and many additional scattered birds. — 
Tmomas S. Robkbts. Z0*Ugkal Jituemm, 
VmivtttUy »f ilimmfttt; UimmstpolU, 
Mimm. 

CaiCA(;o Rr(.i<>% — Thik rrgum has 
enjojred the mildr»l January kimr 1906 
and this weather still pfwnib. The cold- 
r«i lime during the rccMit ptfiod wna the 
last wfck in DtcMnbcr when tW ■w rcnr y 
dropptd to aroond atn. Stoot Umb Um 
tMnpOTBlure hna avnragnd nbont tldfty 



TM* wentbcr •Mwa to have kept away 
the tmial winter birds from the North aa 



no RedpoUa. Sakins or Croaabilb have 
been reported. The only one here is the 
Northern Shrike. One seen at Beach by 
Mr. Gregory. December 26 and one at 
Willow Springs, January 8 by Mr. .\bbott. 
However, a number of birds that generally 
go south are staying I ' ' hr winter. 

Mr. (tregory reportsa I i»arrowat 

Reach, December 26 and .Mr. .Sanborn, a 
Flicker, Kebruar>- ft. Mradowlarks and 
Bronxed (irackles have also been reported 
from here. C>n January 4 a hunter was 
arrested here with a young Black-crowned 
Night Heron which he had just *hnt. The 
specimen came into the |>ossesftion of Dr. 
('. W. G. Kifrig, who preserved it. 

West of the rity, about at I^ (irange. 
Song Sparrows and Meadowlarks are 
reported and at Oak Park on Februar>- A, 
Dr. Kifrig reported a Fox Sparrow and a 
Robin. In the sand dunes of northern In- 
diana a Rusty Blackbird and Bonaparte's 
Gulls were seen by Dr. Lewy on December 
15. Messrs. Coffin and McBride report 
two Bluebirds here January 22. 

Other birds of interest for thu time of 
the year are Saw-whet Owl, Rough-legged 
Hawk, Red-headed Woodpecker and 
Brown Creeper, seen by Mr. G. A. Abbott 
about Willow Springs. Jantuuy 8. 

The common winter birds are here in 
their usual numbers, including Cardinals, 
Prairie Homed Larks and the winter 
Ducks, Mergansers, Golden-eye, Old 
Squaw and Scoter.— CouK CAMPaELl. 
Sakbokx, Ckk0i0 OrmilktUgksl S^cuty, 
Ckk0g0, tU. 

Kai(«as CtTY RioiOM. — Midwinter has 
been marked by moat unusual warmth. 
During the entirr current period there have 
been scarcely ten days of cold, but €«■• 
parativdy few birda have hmm pnmM. In 
en)oy the tot open wontlMr. Untmrnl 
nnmban of Dovna la laigt fockt aad 
•cattorad ovor a wide araa have baoa foand 
vhifavar tlMte an aaitablt faadlag plncaK 
nad at kaat on* iocfc of Giacklai. coataia* 
ing about two doaaa Wfdi, ku w ton wd 
within the soatlMra dtjr Uadta. TMa bM 
does Bot stay kef* la winter la atoaban 
tlM awot lavaraMa cltana> 



Bird - Lore 



Two otbcr tptdm not oonuwrnly 
fovad kcrc ml thb M«to«, tb« Kiagftftbcr 
■ad Catbird, have boCk bam aoud, tbc 
Ib loaw 0ttflibcf». A loM Catbird 
fai tba Mighborbood of tbc 
C o wli y Clab omstltirta* tba oaly kaowa 
local wlattr loeoffd for tbia ipadci. Cro»> 
bills, Waiatafi aad Wsbfaw. ao coouaoa 
dttitec VMcat wiatafa, bava baca aoCad tbb 
MMoa oalx as •tragglen. aad aot a aiagic 
Parplc Fiacb ba« baca recordad. 

Dacka ■ta3red late aad retwaod cariy. 
Tba hat large flocks of so«tb>bo«ad 
Mallards were scca late ia P a c aia b ar , aad 
bjr tba adddle of Jaaoary iapalkat bonka 
ci Platafls wcrs aotad ooapafMiic ia 
isiliwi rsfu oa tba Mlnoari Rhrcr. 
WlBiaai Aadrews writaa ffro« tbc Cowt- 
aejr regioa tbat oo Jaauary »$, at 5 rji., 
tbe river acar bis cabia was filled with 
iflUBcase flocks of restla« Pintails with a 
few Mallards adsed ia. By actaal oouat 
tbare wore ia sigbt at oae tiaw 4s flocks 
cnataiaiaf from $0 to 500 iadhridaab 
each, aad by dark these were beiag la- 
risassrt by tbe ooatiaaal arrival of fresh 
baadreds. Caaada Geese were aoted ia 
■DMS aaasbers in late Deoeasbcr aad early 
Janttary, bird* that were dovbtkss winter- 
in( in thu immediate aeigbborbood. 

Mijcrating Bluebirds aad Robias, im- 
pelled by the balmy wlater weather, owved 
iato the dty ia aoasben, aad waresiagiag 
early ia Jaaaary, perhaps a asoatb ia ad- 
vaacc of their aoraml tiam of arrival. 

Notes of iatcrest received from Mr. A. 
S ida ey Hyde, of Topeka, Kt** Tflt , iadicate 
that a few MeadowUrks aad Gradtlea 
wintered in that regioa, aad tbat aa early 
a wv ea wat of aortb-booad Geese waa 
aoCad.— Rabbt Haatn, Kmuss CUy, Ma. 

DsmrKa Rscioa.— This report will be 
of valae oaly becaase of its negative 
characteristics, siace it shows that this 
regioa has shared ia the actual or relative 
paadty of biid-Ufe which baa baea so 
fiaqaeatly reported from tba aaslara 
stales daiiag tbe past wialer. Tbe writer 
caaaot recall aay other wiater ia Colorado 
during the past tweBt]^flvc years, with so 
Bttlc bird-Ufo abovt Dcaver, aO of which b 



sabelaatiatad by bis aotes. TUai 
be due to bis fambiUty to be to tbe MJ 
as much as be wishes, for during 
wtotcrs be baa baea equally busy tt> ni» 
vocatioa, without aotidag so few birds. 
Tbare have baea, far eiample. f 
daea or Loaf eared Owb ia the 
very few Jaacoa (of the Utter), priacapally 
the Moataaa form. UtuaJly the Plak-aldcd 
aad the Grey-headed Juacos arc abundant 
hereabout all wtoter. yet durlag the past 
eight weeks they have baea very rare 
about Deaver. 

A tweaty-adle awtor ride ia aad about 
Deaver aay tiaw b c twaea Novcaiber aad 
April sboold disdoae baadreds aad 
bmdreds of Tree Sparrows aad a goodly 
auflsber of Soag Sparrows, yet each a ride 
oa December 35 uaoovared bat oae Tpee 
Sparrow and three Soag Sparrows. It 
•eemt undeniable, from the writer's es- 
perieace, that there have beea both fewer 
apedes and fewer individuals ia the bird 
popalatioa of this regioa all this winter. 
It b hia belief that aa ordiaary day to day 
survey of tbe aeigbboriag foot-hiUs aad 
adjaoeat streama would show that our 
urbaa winter bird populstioa had tbb 
year remained suburbaa. 

The two aumtba eaibraccd in tbb report 
have beea mOd, saaay, aad with but two 
light saowstoraH, aU of wUcb auy in 
part account for thb suburban •*- ' 
Robtos returning during the paat •^-^ 
(Pebcaary 13) may i ndica te tbe approach 
of tbe aorthward advaadag Robto army. 
Two resident outposts of thb army were 
seea to Deaver on December 19. which. 
however, b aot aa estraordtoary record. 
Tbe apedca which delights the writer most 
by ita return in numben in the early 
apriag b tbe Meadowlark, tea of which 
were aotkcd at the csetsrn edge of the 
dty 00 February 9. He bdieve* that our 
apriag migrants will appear earlier than 
uaual thb year. — W. H. Bbbotolo, 



Sam Faaacnco Rkhom.— After three 
dry wtotcrs, tbc aortbera part of the »tate 
b rcjokiag in an abundant rainfall. It i» 
iBAcalt to estimaU to just what extent 




The Season 



91 



tini oMiatios kM Affected bifd Aikiftv* 
Uoa witlKNit reports from all MctioM of the 
•Ute. la Um Bay Rntlon, there is an 
apparent redurtioo Id the number of 
Ducks on Lake Merritt and on the lakes in 
Golden Gate Park. This affecU par- 
ticularly the fresh-water spedes, as 
CanvaUMcks on Lake Ifcrritt show no 
decfeaae, while PintaiU, accordiaf to Mr. 
Dison, are about t wo- thirds as noaMroos as 
heretofore. The very abvadaaoe of frcah 
water in inland lakes and iooded areas 
might very well account for thb diminu- 
tion as it increases the territory affording 
appropriate feeding ground. 

Tbe land birda which show the effect 
of iaoeaaed rainfall are the Bloebirds, 
Western Robins and Varied Thmahca. 
They are not conap ic n onsly more abim- 
dant but they certainly are more •cattercd, 
since they can dig worms anywhere regard- 
leas of lawn sprinUcrs or irrigation syatcna. 
The western Robin, thb winter, b a 
duplicate la behavior of its eastern cousin, 
as it hope abovt the lawns in the residence 
section failcad of being limited to the 
nafghborlMod of berry-bearing treaa or 



One wqad et i whcChar G«lde»<f<owned 
Kinglru and Red-brsnaled Nnthatchca 
are mutually ddtaive. Last winter 
Nuthatches were abundant but Golden- 
crowned Kinglets were very scarce. Tkia 
jrcnr tha lablca are tnned ■• tbe Kiagleu 
are abnadaat b«t Wnthatchw art adHing. 
Pcriupa the ooaw provide nothing but 
woraw thb ynar. CwmhiHi are abo 
lacking so far. Flocks of Cedar Waxwings 
have been sauU and those of Buah-Tlu 
very larga. Ona ia at a loss to accooat for 
the apparait shortage of IferaUt Thrashes 
and Pipits. The latter arc probably con- 
giagatad aoaMwhere ia the Bay Ragioa 
bat hava ban few aad far bs t wai ia 
Bacfcalqr. PeriMpa thay prefar diy alopaa 
whara tlM aaads have aot all a p r aa t ad. 

AaMSg the rarer land birds art tha 
Oraaft^TQwaed Warblars, rtportad by 
atvani obttrvert. Say's Pbctba (Dtetaibtr 
j). Wttlara Gaalcttchaw, afaia oaaiaad 
to a OartaMMit UWda, a Whila-tkraatad 
Sparrow, aa the caaipaa of tkt Uaivarrity 



of California, and a Waatara If ocki^faifd. 
obt ar va d in Oakland repeatedly beti 
Deceasber tg and January i6, oy 
Margaret Wythe. 

Among water birds one might aM 
the Green-winged Teal and Earepaaa 
Widgeon on Lake Merritt, the abundance 
of Weatem Grebea on San Praadsco Bay, 
aad the frequency with which GnOa are 
seen in tbe parlu of San Francisco and 
abovt the scImoI grounds aad Univcrrity 
campus in Oakland and Berkdey. 

On the whole, the midwinter visitants 
(which always exceed in number the mid- 
summer residents) seem to me to be loaM- 
what bdow the average both as to number 
of spedes and of individuala.— Ameua S. 
Alum, BerktUy, Calif. 

Lot AMcauta Rkoiom. — December was 
characterised b> fine, adld weather with 
very little light rain, the storms that were 
so frequent on the northern coaat not 
reaching thb region until Janua/y. 

The Mountain Plover, reported in the 
laat isane, remalnad in the locality where 
they were first seen throughout Deoaiabar, 
and were still there in very Urge naabtn 
January it. December lo, a Golden- 
crowned Kinglet was seen near the Arrojro 
Seco. Thb b the only record we have of a 
reaident of the higher altitndca seen in 
lowar lagioaa tUa aeaaoa. Townaend'a 
WarUers have been atvenl tIaMt rtportad 
from the Arroyo ragioa. Echo Park, aad la 
Paaadeaa gardaaa. A POtolatad WarUtr 
haa rtasalaed ia SytMmun Grove thrnngh 
out Daotaibtr and January. On December 
>4. a fcauUe Phainopepla appeared in a 
garden where it has Uved for two winters 
The pair of Bhit>fronted Jayi 
■lad ia GfiAth Park are atiU there 
with thdr two fun growa young, and are 
laaa enough to coaM down to ahart the 
laadMa of aoM of Iha park aaa. 

TW CUaaat SpaCtad Plftaa lalrodaead 

ttttbMahtd b cartaia foothin localMaa 
whart It b seta aad heard at an seaaoaa of 
the yoar. la DooMabtr a Oiililta ali^td 
Flickar caaM la cnipiay with atvwal of 
tht Rad-thaflad. la the Mi 



Bird-Lort 



fai riiiirilliiB Pwk to «U Ibc bcrrk* of Um 
VlffiBia cfwpcr €• Um «»I1«. utu tht 
oAov vtedovtt InMi wUdi It vm obMfVM 
aad MIy Mwtiitd by Um Cmlor of 
OraitlMlaijr. la Um opm covaUy aaay 
bi|t fod» of Pipits, HonMd Uriu. 
Meodewkrks, mo mm, m w«0 m WcMcrn 
I^rk», cypphn. Vopcr, mmI SovBDoah 
SfMurow*, aiid Um «mm1 Gooibcl't and 
GoMoKiotnui. A CoMia's Kiasbird wa» 
Moa Docoabcr ta, mad • flock of Willow 
CiiUflailiw la tiM oUvo-braini wiatrr 
plaaMfc Lafffo co loai w of Crows have 
beta rtportad fnNa tkiwdlforeat localitic», 
aad the FcmifiaoaB Roagb>lcggod Hawk 
•cvcral UaMi. 

Mouataia aad Wntrrn Blurbinb. Cedar 
Waawiagi aad We»tcm Robins arc 
occadoaaUy scca, aad California Purple 
Finrbes are abwadaat ilaoe Um storm of 
Jsnuary. 

Ob January la. Mrs. F. T. BickncU aad 
two otber observers found on tbe 
Fraakl>'o CsAoo RcMnroir a HolbotD't 
Grebe and a Europeaa Wldgeoa, botb of 
wbkb are very rare visitaats to thb rcfion. 
Maay Dadu were oa tbe lake. Green- 
wiaged Teal bdag BMSt largdy reprr 
seated, tbeir avaiber bdag estimated at 
two knadred. Aaotber party, of which the 
writer was a aMmber, had a good obscrva- 
tioa of tbe Grebe a few days later and 
also eisHilBsd ipedaMas la tbe llaseaai. 
They aD believe the Idcatifkatioa was 
cerrsct. Jaauary sj was a day of partially 
dsarlng weather, following tbe severest 



of the wiater, whidi blaakelcd the 
aawataias with saow, aad, as la past 
ssMoas u nde r fiiitP^i'' coaitttioas, Tree 
SwaOows flodtad lalo EdM Park ia 
hvadrsds, drdlag aboat above the lake. 
Flodu of White-throated Swifu were 
aoticedjaaaafy s6aad5i. Nuptial flints 
of Aaaa's HaMariagbM were very fr»> 
queaUy aoticed dariag Dec— her aad 
January, and the females were seen gather- 
ing nwling auterial. February a a half 
coastinrted aest was found and the bird 
observed at her work. 

Very heavy gales aloag the coast the 
fust week la February resulted in an 
unusual ssssaihlsge of birds in Santa 
Moaica Bay. Oa February 7 our party of 
observers fouad there about fifty Western 
Grebes, about twenty Red-throated Loons, 
three or four Comosoa Looas, with a few 
of the smaller Grebes, sad oae Royal Tern. 
Surf aad Whita-wiaged Scoters, AaMricaa 
llergaaserB,Coaaoraato aad Browa Pdicaas 
were rcprescatcd by saMO aaaiben. Out- 
Bumberiag all other qwdes coaMaed were 
theGulb. Califomias were Bwst BuaMfous, 
anH after them the Riag-billed. About ten 
II: ring, five Glaucous-winged, a few 
Wf-»tcm, Heermann's aad Short-billed 
(iulls completed the Ibt. It was truly a 
sccae of 'Wild Wings,' wbca all the Gulb 
were in the air above a sea of glorious color 
and life, tbe wind whippiag off tbe spuaic 
from tbe Byiag surf.— Fsamcss B. 
ScmnDBa, Lm Anitl4$, CMf. 




'ook J^ctus; anb Ctcbictusi 



Sri>fir:M».Nt ;; : s ,,r |s>t\ 

By C«Amuu» 

I). Memoin 

•igical Oub. 

. Auk., 1920. 

■nap. 

i ' iicremsiiiK 

intcrrst taken in v that nrariy 

100 pte* arc rct| >...<.. ... cover the in- 
fomatkM acquired in the fifteen years 
which have dapicd since the |»abUcmtioB 
of Dr. TowBMBd't 'Birds of Eases Cooaty.' 
With a 1 Wr ol Jtmior amateurs 

as com(- r. TowBScml has con- 

Unncd active held work and is still the 
leadiBg authority of hb locality, able* to 
juilge and wcijth the value of the numcrou* 
«ixht records. The result is one of the most 
«nn\ in< ing and valuable reports on a local 
area which has appeared staoe sight rec- 
ords have cBonwNiily outavmbcred those 
based on ^Mdnwas takca. There b a 
no»t intcicstiag pccUmiaary chapter oa 
'Chaagca in the Bird- Life of Eims Comity 
since 1905,' a second, containing censuses 
of nesting birds and migrating Warblers 
in various restricted areas, and the bird- 
life of several poods; while the third 
dupier pfceento the more notewor t hy 
■iipnfttioa datca, reeonb of occ u rre nc e of 
the rarer ipectes, etc., of the past fifteen 
years. An cscellent feature of the book b 
a brief recapitulation of the ttotus of eveiy 
spedca, even wIms no additional infoma- 
tioo lias been obtained. The author's 
wide field experience b evidenced 1^ aany 
pertinent and iaicvMtlag cofwte oa 
life-hbtory «ad icM characteriatics writ- 
lea ia Ma usual oaay and sia^ile style. 
With all sight records of rare spades. 
even unusual or extrenM dataa, tke o b ee r 
vatioa b given with as muck detail as 
nrrewery and full credit b given to tke 
observer. Maay aawteuft would do well 
to aote tkat ao okservatloai are ghrca la 
greater detail tkaa tbeet of Dr. Towasaad 
kl— ilf, la tplte of the (act tkat ia years, 
kaowkdge, aad e i pe fj e ace , ke outmaka 
every other student ia tke ciouaty, aad 



more weight than theirs. — L. G. 



iuck 



BtrujETtH or tks Easax County Oam- 

THOLOCICAL CLOI, VoL II, No I, 

Dec., 1910. Saka^ Mass. 54 page*; two 

Thb secoad aumber of the Bullctia 
shows that the Essex County Ornitho- 
logical Club has fully lived up to the 
promise of its first jrear. The record of its 
regular meetings shows an average attend- 
ance of over twenty, an example which far 
older organisations might well envy. 
'Notes on the' Lincoln Sparrow.* by K. H. 
Forbush; 'At a Food-Shelf.' by Albert P. 
Morse; 'Variatiotts in the Song of ^the 
Whip-poor-will,' by Rodman A. Nichok; 
'Notes on the Ipswich Sparrow.' byjC. J. 
Maynard ; ' 1 miuti ye Construction of Birds' 
Ncsu.' by hMmund S. Morse; 'Notes on 
Bird .Nests.' by Walter K. Bates; 'On the 
.Nesting, Song snd Play of the Tree 
Swallow aad Bam Swallow.' by C. W. 
Townscnd, M.D.; 'The White Gulb at 
Swampscott,' by Arthur P. Stubbs, arc all 
pleasantly written, informative, or inter- 
esting papers. — L.G. 

The Ornithological Magasines 

Thr A( k. A leading article in the 
January Amk b 'The Dickcissel {Spim 
tm«ritsm4) of tke lOiaob Prairies,' by 
Alfred O. Grass. We kave here the first 
part of a detailed study of thb iatersatiag 
bird whick kaa completely dbappeared 
fiom eastera locaMtba wksVe It fnnaerly 
brad, but b abuadaat fartker weat, 
appareatly larwariatly so la placea. Tke 
Dkkdmel b ''piUmlaMtly a bird of tke 
■aadbwa, vkera, for tke suu (of llliaob) 
as a erkole. Its coaceatratioa b 81. t kirds 
to tke square aUle." Tke deaee low v«g^ 
tatloa of tkb type of laad provides it witk 
coMfnial nest lag sitw reare posts, telo> 

favorite riagli^ sutloaa for tke amk bird. 
From kera ke dellvurs kb akort uai 



(M) 



100 



Bird • Lore 



MMf , which givt* the ipcdM iu aaaw, with 
rraMtrkabIc p t iriH «K » tlu«a|^ Um day, 
dopiu Uw aiddkjr 1m»I, ftvcragtaig mvw 
or d^t Ua« per atettl*. TlMwUeUkn 
BO part ia MNMtrvctioB of the Motor care 
ol lAw youBf . la fact, la oao com when 
hh awl* «•• kJOad ky a Sharp-ohiaaed 
H«wk, o Bale coatianed regular tiagiag 
vhilc Um Boor-by youag •tarved to dcotb. 
TUt artkk b UliHtrttcd with four full- 
pago pUtci, phofeogiaphs ct haUtat, aod 
acat* with «gp aad yooag. 

HarriMa F. Lewit (ia a paper wfakh b 
to be ooatiaoed) gives a detaOed aartative 
ol tlM behavior of a aceliag pair of the 
Philadelphia Vino Bear the dty of Quebec, 
begiaaiag with the oe»t uader ooe*tnic- 
tioa. There b a careful cunuaarjr of the 
kaowa occurrcacea of the BohemUo Wax- 
wiag ia New Eaglaad by Horace W. 
Wright, who aMt with thb qtedea ia 
MaaaachuMttaia the late winter of 1918-19. 

More techaical are ^' Notes oa OrUlit 
MtmU aad Iu AUica.' Miller aad Grbcom. 
reviewiag thb gcaua of Guaaa which are 
gaaio-birds repladag the Grouse, to which 
they are uarriatfd, ia the tropica of the 
New World. Oberhober iads that the 
Holbcell's Grebe b aoC a dietiact species 
but a race of aa Eonniaa bird, aa the 
Wiboa'f Soipe b of the Old World Saipe. 
Little BrowB aad SaadUIl Craaes are 
race* of the saaie spedes; but the AaMricaa 
Bittern, thou^ that bird's repccseatative 
in America, b distiact froai the Europeaa 
Bittcra. He aboaeparatcs a northern fron 
a Muthera race of Blue Jay. There b aa 
aooouat of the jSth BMetiag ol the 
Aamicaa Oraitliolacbta* Uakw hdd fai 
Waddagtoa, by T. S. Pabaer, iU Secretary. 

Uader the geaeral headiag ol faaaal 
paper* aiay be rtassfd oae oa the birda of 
Hatley, Qudiec, ia 1919, by Moosley, 
as abo aoose of the geaeral aotca. AaMiag 
aaaieroaarecotdaolwaaa Bal oc cur Teaceaia 
'Geaeral Notea* are three of the Arfcaaaaa 
Uagbird ia Atlaatic stotca~Maasachu< 
tetts (September aad November) aad New 
Jcncy (November). These corroborate a 
record from Moataak, New York, ia the 
Btai>-LoKB Christmaa Ceaaus, which aee. 
Judging from datea of adgiatioa ol oar 



eaalera Klagbird it would seem that theae 
stragglers far from their regular migratioa 
route arc at a lorn to fiad their way south. 
Charica L. Whittle dcacribea a aest of the 
Water Quad placed oa a boHcental 
timber uader the eavca of a lean 
over aad some eight feet abovr ■ t 

of a small stream flowing through hort 
Bidwdl. Califoraia.— J. T. N. 

Tax WiuoM BmxmM. — ^The Septem- 
ber, 19S0, Bumber coataini 'Some Intrr- 
eatiag Recorda of Nebiaaka Bird* for thr 
Year 1919.' by Clareaoe E. Mickcl and 
Ralph W. DawBoa, ia which four specin 
are added to the state, based oa s p edwras 
secured. David C HUtoa gives some 
'Notes on the Birda of the Fort Leaven- 
worth Reservation, Kansas.' based on very 
fragmentary observatioe during the spring 
of 1919. Oaly eighty-two spedes were 
Boted, but soBM iaterestiag local iaforoM- 
tion about several was sccurr<' k 
that lack of opportunity U • 
ai^Mueat thaa real Dayton 
discusses the frequeacy of Whip-p(» 
calb, aod Wet more publishes an ad- 
to hb list of birds obser^r'* ^ 

Ceatral Oklahoraa 

la the December isaue Aivm k 
Usta 108 ^wdes obaerved in Itasca C> 
Borthera Miaaeaota, from aiid-Ju!. 
mid-August, a usdul record in a r<^i<'U 
where dviliaation will inevitably work 
much havoc Howard Clark Brown pre- 
sents iaterestiag evidence to show a north- 
ward movement of the Cardinal in north - 
centra] Iowa, and W. G. ErickK-tt givn 
soBie b r ee di ag habits of three birds of 
Chatham Coaaty, GeorgU. We note that 
the Grouad Dove haa decreased aearty to 
the poiat of diaappearaace without any 
obvioaa oplaaation, just as has been 
recorded ia aorthwcat Florida. P. B. 
Peabody cootributcs a long review of the 
'Migratioa Records for Kansas Birds' 
by Beasie Price Douthitt. publisbed in 
p r eviowa aaasbers of the Wilson Bui' 
The IfliprabahOity of many of the 
BMata, aad the fact that the daU given 
did BoC aapport other fttateaieats was 
BOted Iqr the pteacat reviewer in a previ 
oae iaMM ol tlda wwigarinf — L. G. 




Editorial 



lOI 



'^ivh'Jiovt 

A Pi MewtMy M«c*«te« 



Mi et fa« Ai 
mum* W rSANK M. CHAPMAN 

■ llMr.MABELOtOOODWmOHT 
Pwmifcii W a APPLSTOM * CO. 



VoL XZm PobllalMtf April 1. 1 



Ntt.S 



■UaSCIURTION RATn 
mmtimjttm (Mm Imh^ mm tfrfh* •■4 mti > u c«a«. 



, Vf ««*HI «. CHAVMAJi 



4 IM fan* 



If r«M» TW fa !!• Hm^ 



Tax iwturc lover who would live in 
complete banMBy with his envirooaeat 
oratt fad DO sauU diAcuUy io ezpUiaiag 
Mtiifactotily the warfare which cxi*U 
between man and bis fellow-creatures. 
So far as birds are ooBcemcd, wholly aside 
from direct destruction for sport, food, or 
feather*, the advance of what we call 
civiliratioo is inevitably marked by the 
ffadual retreat or entire disappearance 
of those specka which for one reason or 
anotbcr cannot endure contact with man. 

The mere pictcaoe of man b often 
sttfkient to drive away the wilder birds 
and the motor car, motor boat and air- 
plane have so increased man's ubiquity 
that one must now travel far to get beyond 
the soond of rq > todi ng guoHne If arabm 
are draiand, fonsts ai« MM aad cvca 
the tinas that remafai have their nmtJng 
cavities fned with cement and their 
foUafe sprayed with poiwa. 

Retnralag to an oft-frequented winter 
resort in Florida we went to call on a 
Screech Owl and Flicker which, the year 
belof*. we had left peacefully occupying 
hoams In oppodie sides of a cabbage palm 
■tab, only to tad that the VOIage 'Ian 
provement' SodaCy had raplacad Um daad 
tree with a livtaf oat. The g«Mral af act 
for the caanal o bee r vtr waa aa doabc 
'iroprovad,' but hu dls m Impcavimwia ol 
this kind only sacriica laparfclal appear- 
ancas to the things that are realty worth 
vhila. The little Owl sitting in grim 
quaiataam at his door had amda a boat of 



friends during the piecetfinff winter and 
his place could not be taken by aaothcr 
palm tree exactly like a hundred otheta ia 
ita row. Fortunately, in this '■ftinrr, 
those responsible for the birds' eviction 
were more than ready to repair an ua- 
witting error and homes hollowed from 
palm logs were placed near the site of the 
stub. Within a week one was occupied by 
a Screech Owl and the other by a Flicker; 
poiiibly tk$ Owl and Ikt Flicker that had 
been dispossessed. Incidentally there is a 
lesson here, for the case admirably illus- 
trates how improvements and regard for 
the rights of other creatures may go hand 
in hand. 

From the Owl's home one nuy look 
out over the watera of the Atlantic where 
daily are being enacted countless tragedies 
in bird-life which are perhaps the saddest 
of any for which man is unintentionally 
re spon sible. 

We have all heard of the gradual 
•ubstttutioa of oil for coal as fuel oa 
steamers and have learned with satia> 
faction that this step in human progrcsa 
would make unneces»ar>' the killing work 
of stokers at flaring furnace doors in the 
bowels of a ship. But we did not rcaliae 
that oil-buming or oil-bearing vcmrli in 
Hranlng their tanks at sea sprcsd a death- 
trap over the waters in which tho uea a d s 
of birds meet their fate. 

Today (February as) the east coast of 
Florida b strewn with dead or dyiag 
Looaa, Horaed Grcbca, Browa Pelioua, 
Gaaacta, GuOs aad Taras whose plumage 
baa bacoaM to dogged with crude oil as to 
be fuactJoabm. A Browa Pelicaa, that 
looked as though It had ba«i dipped la a 
tar>barrsl, was a subject for the kodaka of 
thoughtlam tourists at Daytnaa Baach 
who s sem ed aot to rsaliae the bird's hope- 
less plight, for birds thus af acted mutt die 
by sUrvatioa. 

Wa uadwttiad that an appeal haa baea 
amda to tiM Dapaitmaat of Cammwcs la 

dcaa their oil-taaks withia twcaty adies 
of laad, but evaa shoald they comply, the 
bii^ of the high SMB win stiU laU view 
tims to tlM oaward mmnk of dviliaatioa. 



Cijc Hububou ^ocieticjJ 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

MM«« l«p A. A. AU.KN. PlkO. 
AMnH •■ UWMlMlIlM nliU«« lo tk« ««*% flf tl* 
4i*utaMl !• Ike E«tar. Cotwl Uatvwtiiy. likM». N. V. 

STRUCTURE AND HABIT 

U M k Pkotocrapk* by Uw A«(k«r 

Disctiating the bird as a flying machine, we endeavored, in the last number 
of BiEO-LoRE, to point out how all birds are intrinsically alike in their general 
structure because of the phN'sical requirements of flight. It remains for us, 
now, to call attention to the differences in the structure of birds arising from 
their varied habiu, especially those of (Mocuring their food. Whether the 
differences in the form of bills and feet that are found among birds are due to 
their different methods of securing their food, or whether it is the other way 
around, and their method of feeding is due to the differences in the structure 
of these parts, is a dli^utcd point which we will not tr>' to settle here. Sufi 
to say that the majority of scientists today believe that moditications ui :. :. 
individual bird which are the direct result of its environment are not inherited 
but that the process of 'Natural Selection' or the 'Surxnv'al of the Fittest' 
serves to weed out those birds which do not show adaptations to their mode of 
livii^, and the result is the same. That is to say, the differences in the form of 
bill, and feet, and wings that we are familiar with today are the »um total of a 
great many little and big variations that have been preser\'ed through the 
oourse of evolution because they were adapted or well suited to the mode of 
life of the bird. That a beautiful adaptation between a bird's structure and its 
mode of life does exist, there can be no doubt, and one of the most interesting 
studies in ornithology is tbeendeavor to learn the reason for each little peculiarity 
oi structure that we find in our familiar birds. 

The changes or adaptations that have occurred in the evolution of birds 
have been for the most part gradual. This is oidenced by the fact that today 
the birds that have arisen from oommoo ancestors are still, for the most part, 
more like each other than they are like other birds, in spite of their diversity 
of habits. Were it not so it would be impossible to group birds into orders 
and families. The fact that tome birds have been more plastic than others 
in their adaptations and have developed parallel with unreUted birds of 
similar habits, causes many of the difficulties in our present scheme of dassi- 
fication. Thus the Hawks and Owls are really very disUntly related, the Owls 
probably belonging with the Ni^thawks and Whip-poor-wills, but because of 
the Owls' carnivorous habits, they look stqierfidally like the Hawks and are 
still put with them for the sake of convenience by many American oroi- 
thokigisis. Herons, Kingfishers, and Terns, Uk<*vt'^V ^otve hills that pt'- "'••rh 

(loa) . 



The Audubon SocietiM 



103 



alike, a<h{>tcd to spcsrinf fish, but in other respects they are very different and 
DO one wcnid think of calling them closely related. 

A good example of divergent evolution, on the other hand, occurs among 
the Gulls, Terns, and Skinuners, which are really closely reUted as shown 
by their anatomical structure, forming the order Umgiptunes, but which have 
bilb which are extremely different in form, probably because of their differ- 
ent feeding habits. Shrikes, Grosbeaks, and Warblers, of the order P<useres, 
likewise, are similar in all their structures except their bills, and it is natural 
to suppose that they had a common ancestor and that their variously shaped 
bills have arisen as adaptations to particular feeding habits. But, as before 
intimated, it may be that the history of these birds was the other way around. 




I r. B ■» 
>UtalMvt f 



'tSHER GREEN HEROV 

• i* iImm bird*. «yck art bat dkUMly 



and that these diverge bills have persisted from the thousands of possible varia- 
tions of their ancestors because the individuab were able to adapt their habits 
to fit their nwdified structures. Indeed there b much evidence to support the 
belief that both factors have been important in the course of evolution. 

Irrespective of how the changes have come about, let us consider some 
of the structures or implements of birds in reUtion to the birds' methods of life. 
Let us suggest in a few paragraphs a field that promises rich rewards to the 
careful observer.— A. A. A. 

THE IMPLEMENTS OF BIRDS 

Wlib fkMocnpk by Ibt AMbof 

When one passes through the haUt of any <rf our large mmeunt and in- 
specu the oollectkiM of mounted birds fnmi aU over the voild, oae b iovna^ 
1^ the great variety of form and color. Almoat every faoagfaMbleoonbinAtiaii of 
colors b found represented in the pluaafeol tome bird, and the many nsodifica- 
tiooa of siae and shape are such aa to leave one confused by the hetcrafeneoaa 
aaeemblage. One is almost led to believe that Nature baa given looeeretotn her 
imagination and alk>wcd her most fantaatk dreams to take the form ol^birda. 
Yet we are mnatnimid to believe that there b a rcaaon ktt evcrythiof, thnt 
no structure exists unless perfectlv adapffd to the function which It haa to 



I04 



Bird -Lore 



pnfofSL The varied colon of birds we may ooosider at anoUier time; b thoe 
panfiaph* ive with to oooskler tone of the OKxlificatkNM of bill aoH ''-^* '^^ 

IBIDHBBCflllS OS D(fQS« 

The long kf^ tkoder neck, and the great humped bill uf the FUuninxo, we 

are told, are eminently adapted to iu peculiar method of feeding on the m- 

mollusc life of the tropical mud-flats where it Uvea. The tremendous btlb > 




Dhr«iM hiilag hifciii k»v* br 



<.Ht EVENING Oy 

>r bio* ia tktm 

South American Toucans ati :n Hombtlls serve as arms for rra t r 

out to the smaller branches for the fruits upon which these ungainly creatures 
feed. But let us consider the commoner of our North American birds Hnth 
referencp tu their food and s^e if there are iumiUr reasons for their variety of 
form 

The Hawks, with their slrong, hooked bills, sharp talons, and poweriul 
wings fitted for the pursuit of small birds and mammals, we have already 
mcntkmed, and have noted that the type of bill and foot are so necessary to 
birds having a carnivorous diet, that the Owls, thou^unrebted, have developed 
simikr structures. One group of the common perching birds, the Shrikes, have 
taken up a carnivorous diet and have likewise de\'eloped hawklike bills. 
altbou^ their feet are of the ordinary perching type and are not used to 
assist them in securing their prey. The Vultures, on the other hand, which have 
degenerated from a strictly carnivorous diet to one of carrion, while retaining 
the hooked bill for rending flesh, have k>st the powerful takmsand the aconn- 
panying strength of limb through disuse, sn that now thrv even sprint from the 
ground with difficulty. 

But, if one examines more cksely such a gr«' 1 ! . 

all having the same t>pe of food, one disoovers dif!t:L:itr> ui i uin i r- > i\ ;i')'i 
wings according to their method of securing their prey, as was pointed out in 
the last number <rf Biai>-LoR£. There arc, for example, those like the Re<l 
shouklered and Red-tailed species, which find their quarry while soaring high 
in the air with their keen eyes fixed upon the ground. These have broad, 



The Audubon Societies 



««S 



rounded wings, fanlike taib, and rather heavy bodies. Others, like the Manh 
Hawk, beat back and forth dose to the ground, iddom if ever soaring, and 
these have long narrow wing* and slender bodies. Still others like the Cooper's 
and Sharp-shmned species, remain perdied on some oa^xwt awaiting the 
approach of their quarry and then dart out after it, and these have short, 
rounded wings for sadden bursts of vpttd. 

Another groiq> d animal feeders are those vriiich feed upon fish, frogs, and 
crayfish. Practically all have long, pointed, javelin-like bills for spearing 
their prey, but their various methods of catching the fish have brought about 
modifications of their other structures. The Herons and Cranes, which catch 
their fish by stalking them in shallow water, have long, slender legs for wading 
and long toes for distributing their weight and keefNng them from sinking 
into the soft mud. The Kingfishers, on the other hand, which secure their 
fish by plunging from above, have little use for their legs and these, following 
nature's economy, have degenerated. The Terns, likewise, with similar habits, 
have weak legs, althou^ the toes are webbed for swimming. The Gulls, whidi 
have become scavengers and seldom plunge for their food, have do'eloped 
somewhat hooked bills for rending the flesh of the larger dead fish upon which 
they feed. 

.Another fish-eating bird, and one that plunges for its quarry, is the Osprey 
(»r FLsh Hawk. This bird still retains the sharp, hooked bill characteristic of 
us family and so, instead of spearing its fish as does the Kin^<thcr, it catdies 
them in its strong, sharp talons, 
and the soles of its feet are 
armed with sharp homy tuber- 
des to cut through the slime 
covering the fish and keq> it 
from slipping from its grasp. 
When the Oapny rises from the 
water with its prey and flies to 
some high tree to devour it, it 
has merely to continue holding 
it in its talons in order to tear 
it to pieces with iu strong bill. 
But when the Tern or the King- 
fisher rises from the water, the 
small fish is tianafized by the 
partially opened bill of the bird. 
(All of the fish which I haw 
examined that have beoi speared 
by Terns or Kingfishers ha\< 




shown the two 
both 



mandiblsi as in 



by 
tbt 






n/«8tUN0 DOCK 



to6 



BM-Lor« 



photogiaph of the %ht§jMhfn with the mall tucker on pege ioq.) Juit haw 
the bill b atrkmted it a myiteiy to me unleH it it done under the wmter 
before the bird litet. Perhaps tome oboerver. who has been more fortunate 
than I, can explain 

Others of the 6ah-eaung bird^ such as the Loons and Grebes, are expert 
divers and pursue the iith beneath the water. They have powerful legs with 
ttrong webbed or lobed toes, the legs being situated far bade like the propeller 
of a boat to that, although most graceful on the water, they are eiu eme ly awk- 
ward and almost hdpless on 
land. 

The group of insect-r 
btrds is large and varie<i. 
there are nutny kinds of insects 
and many ways of secu r 
5>ome insects live in the .1 

about shores and marshes, and 
for these the birds must probe; 
some live among the leaves and 
harder soil of the forest floor, 
and for these the birds ' 
scratch. Others live within :..^ 
trunks and branches of trees, and 
to secure these the birds must 
be proficient carpenters supplic<l 
>nth chisds for gouging. Still 
r insects spend roost of - 

c darting hither and th.:..^. 

in the sunli^t and these must 
be caught on the wing. Lastly, 
there are those insects that hide 
in the grass or among the leaves of shrubs and trees, and these must be searched 
out with keen eyes. And so, among birds, we have probers in the "^ ' 

Woodcock, scratchers in the Grouse and Quail, borers in the Woo^., 

fli^t-feeders in the Swallows, Swifts, and Ni^thawks, and gleaners in the 
Bbddbirds, Thrushes, Vireos, and Warblers. In each group of birds we find 
those modificatioos of bill, feet, wings, tail, tongue, and eyes idiidi be«t fi* 
the birds for tecuring the insects in their particuhu- way. 

Among the vegetable feeders the largest number live upon seeds and are uf 
rather generaliaeed structure except for their bills which are heavy and conical 
like those of the well-known Sparrows and carried to the extreme in the Gros- 
beaks. There are a few birds like our HumminglMrds, the tropical H 
Creqxrs, and the African Sunbirds which take a large part of their su»tcii.: 
from the nectar of flowers. These birds have slender, probe-like biUs and ii r* 




CANVAStACK (CAmvg). A DIVIN'G DUCK 

Nou tlw Nklhraljr tkort. Urfck madk awl Un« f«c« 

bIbo94 fv bsck 



The Audubon Societies 



M7 



or lest tubular toogiues mndHWd so as to be best suited for socking the nectar 
from the various-shaped ooroUas of the flowers. Among the five-hundred-odd 
lof Hummingbirds we find ahnost every conceivable variation in the sh^w 
I, from those like Dodmastes, with probes nearly three indies kmg for 
sucking the nectar from hurge tubuUr flowers, to those of the tiny Rhampho- 
microo, with a biU scarcely half an inch in length, so short that the Hummer 
allots on the base of the 
flower and pierces the nectar>- 
in an unlawful way. A few 
Hummingbirds have curved 
bills, one almost sickle- 
shaped, and others slightly 
upturned, and all are adapted 
for feeding on particular 
flowers. 

Other vegetable feeders 
are found among the water- 
fowl, a considerable part of 
the food of many species con- 
sisting of the leaves, stems, 
or roots of aquatic plants. 
Their broad, flat, fluted bills 
and their curiously fringed 
tongues are excellently ad- 
apted for sifting their food 
from the silt and water, and 
their bills are so sensitive 
that they can locate thctr 
food no matter how roily the 
water or how dark the ni^t. 
One group of Ducks called 
the Diving Ducks find their 
food in deep water and it is 
interesting to observe that in those spades like the Canvasback and Scaup 
Ducks which dive without using their wings, the feet are phced far back 
toward the tail and are relativdy very laige. In the species like the ddSqaaw 
that use their wings under the water and in all of the Dabbtti^ Dticfca, Kka 
the Mallard, Pintafl and Teal, the feet are very much HMlkr. The I^viaf 
Dticfca, likewise, have much shorter necks and slockkr bodies than the Dab- 
bUng Docks, another adaptation to their mode ct Hh, 

Ffaially, there are birds whkh feed almoit midnfy opoa fraits, and a few, 
the S a p ao cker s, which derive most of their n o iirfahmw t from the sap of trem. 
This they secure by driOiiv series of mrnn bolea throogh the bark and estnUish- 




YELLOW-BELLItD SAPSUCKBK. A DBOINBaATI 
WOODriCKBt 

TiM SapMKkar*« MigtM it**l««fw fcM ti4 tmi apm i W k* mm 
•PMtlr SMfftli. Wl Sm kwMM tkmt tmi Umh Vkt U IS* 
tly toaalil ia fUlMriac iSa up vUch tmwm • iMSi pwt af 



io8 Bird - Lore 

ii^ ngttlftr 'm^u buihei,' viiitii^ tbe different trees M of ten as the sap coUec^ 
Oocuiaoilly, it is repotted, thewpfamentsand the unsophisticated S apsodt er s 
are treated to a bevcrafe which rapidly causes them to act in a questionable 
manner. Indeed one has been reported to have become so confused that it 
mistook a BHi'k kg for the hmb ol a tree, and very often they fly into windows, 
or dash tbeoHehfes against the sides ol housei, or fly erratically through the 
trees as thou^ they did not see very distinctly. Whether this is due to fer- 
mentod ttpor to sooMOCher catise, has never been definitely settled, and there 
b still plenty of opport un ity for eiperiment and obeenration to establish the 
truth. The Sapsucken are degenerate Woodpediers, and although they stall 
retain the characteristic bill, feet, and stiff taiU, their tongues, instead ol being 
grcntly protmsible, spearUke, and armed with barbs as in the true Woodpedcers. 
bive become ^>lit and brushlike for better gathering the sap. 

Were we to consider fully the food of all spedes ol birds, we would (list •>% rr 
that there is scarcely an animal or vegetable substance that does not f urnisli 
the food of aome group of birds. Between the Loons and Grd>es that find their 
food at the bottom of the kkes, and the Swallows that dart over the trees. 
there are birds, probing in the soil, scratciiing iu surface, turning over fallen 
leaves, gleaning through the grass and herbage, searrhing the leaves and twigs 
ol shrubs, diisrlling in the trunks ol trees, and rifanhing about the b r a nches ; 
and each bird has some adaptations, some modifications, some implements 
that are fitted to its own peculiar food and method ol securing it.— A \ \ 



FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 
BLACKCAPS IN OKLAHOMA 

I am ten years old, and m the 4th-A grade at school, and since last February, 
a year ago, when Daddy brought home a copy ol 'Bird-Life/ 1 have been very 
much interested m wild birds. Some time before that date, Daddy borrowed 
several copies of Bisi>-Lore, and then subscribed for the dear little magazine. 

Our home is in Illinois, on a farm, with plenty of trees, underbrush, shrub- 
bery, and a big orchard, where the birds can buOd their nests, and we also have 
nest boaes for the Wreiu and Martins, and window-boxes and feeding-shdves 
for the birds m winter. When we return home, we are going to plant busies 
for seeds and berries, and a boulder bath-and -drinking pUc« is to be placed on 
the lawn. 

We have been Uving in this dty since bst October, and have only a small 
bade yard, with just a few young trees, but we think that if we had put up the 
ri^t kinds ol bird^iooses, and had put them up early enou^, we would have 
had Martins and Bluebirds, and maybe Wrens, as well as the Chickadees. 

Many ol the birds here are quite different from those we have at home, 
while others look almost the same, and really belong to the tame families. The 



The Audubon Sociedet 



lOQ 



fttrangest bird herr, is the Scissor-Uiiled Flycatcher, which is very often teen, 
even flying around in town, and sitting oo the telephone wires. But they don't 
always **utter their loud, harsh, chattering notes, on the wing," for about two 
weeks ago, three oi them sat in a row on a wire behind our house for quite a 
while and they all took 'turn-about' with their 'singing,' acting just like 
they were crowing. Among other new birds are: the YeOow-headed Blackbird, 
a much larger bird than the others of his family, and a better singer, thou^ it 
sounds like he would choke in getting sone parts of his song out; the Blue- 
gray Gnatcatcher, a neat, trim, sweet 
Utile bird, but too active to watch very 
long; the Lark, ^Mrrow and the Red- 
bellied Woodpecker. 

Early one nnonung near the hist da>'s 
of March, Mother saw a pair of BUck- 
capped Chickadees srarrhing around our 
house for a suitable place for a home, 
one e\'en going down in the top of a 
piece of pipe, used for a clothes-line post, 
and she said, "Now if there was a box on 
top of that pipe, I believe they would 
use it." Daddy went down town and 
brought bone a small water keg, about 
a gallon-aad-a-half size. After taking off 
the handle, and driving a cork in the 
small water bole, he bored a laiger bole, 
just the right sixe for Chickadees, in the 
side of the keg near the top, and fastened 
it on top ci the clothes-line post. 

Daddy says the only *fMd' we have 
is birds, and you may be sure we werr 
all watching, the next morning, hoping 
that the Chickadees would oome back. 
Sure enough they returned, looked the keg over very carefully, and then flew 
away, after staying about twenty minutes. The second mooiiBf they came 
again, and began at once to carry bits of damp grass into their new home, pack- 
ing it down very firmly, and both kq>t at it untfl the keg was filled with short 
grass, almost up to the hole. Then they made a small boUow in the grass, at the 
back of the keg, opposite the hole, and lined it with biu of moes, string, dog 
hair, and cotton. They were having troubla to find lining for their nast, and 
Mother put out some little pieces of oottoa, which the lady ChJrfcadoe sacmed 
thaaklnl for, and began to use at oooa. 

Five thiy «gp wwt kid in this oiit, aad while Mrs. Dee-doe was rittlacoB 
them, we of ten Kw Mr. Doo-dat briaf a ttttle grsen worm, or a bog and feed hor, 




t Mu KAi>i:r 



M!> K^KC. UUMK 



xio Bird • Lore 

and tbey would then both fly away to a small park, near our bouse. Almost 
before we knew it, the little Dee^leea were out of the eggs, and makiBg their 
'sbiing' little caUs for food, and the work of worm-bringfaig bepw in eunest, 
both Dee-dees being kept busy from early to Ute, trying to fiU little yellow- 
edged pink mouths, that were ahrajrs open, and always hungry. 

After about two weeks the baby Dee-dees had been climbing up the inside 
of the keg, to look out of the hole, and each trying to be the first to get the worm, 
when it was brought, so Daddy wired a little perch across the keg, just bekm 
the bole, to see if it would help them to come out. In a few minutes the bravest 
little Dee-dee scrambled (or was pushed) out on the perch, shook hhnself, and 
at once flew to a near-by plum tree, where he began hopping ' ' ^>, 

flirting his funny little tail, and looking so important. Ai r 

Deeniees followed the first one out of the keg. about one or two min 
and all began to take little short flying trips, as fast as their lit t ' 
rest up a bit, and seeming to worr>' their mama nearly crazy. Th 
the k^ in the morning, and by the next morning, we saw no more of ther; 
we think the babies were guided to the little park, and there taught to hunt tur 
the little green worms and white 'millers' that they like so well. 

They were all sudi dean-looking birdies, just the image of their parents, 
but with short, cute little taOs. Mrs. Dee-dee was a dean housekeeper, for we 
found no mites about their home, after the young tnrds left the nest. Daddy 
put up a larger keg, with a larger opening in it, for Bluebirds, and two smaller 
Wren houses, but althou^ a Jimmy Wren came and kx>ked them over, and a 
pair of dear Bluebirds have been here several times, the houses are all empty, 
and we fear that the dosely-built-up part of a dty b not the best place to have 
bird friends.— Makgaret Philuppe, Okmulgee, OUa, 

(One often wishes when he U compelled to move from one town to another that he 
could take hb (rioids with him. In thb story Margaret shows veiy delightfully bow one 
who has bird friends docs not have to move them for one finds them wherever he goes 
and it is easy to make new friends when he has good books to introduce them. — A. A. A. | 





Cfjt cCubulJon j^ocifticsf 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 



B4i»ad by T.OaaBKT PBAJtSON. Prwid«at 



«■ MaJMawH. lor Am ud rnMiftalliM, !• 
I SoclMiM. 1974 BiMamy. N^ Yofk Cfcy. 



ud Mad •■ MaJMawH. lor 

(twriittoa «l Aatfakaa ~ 

T. GaanT f ba««oii. fmUtml 
S. Palku. ^i'ii l'K«-^mM«ii WuuAit P. Wu/miom.SmnUry 
A. LocAt. S4t»m4 YM»rr*ti4m» Jokatbah Dwmbt. tf*—mtm 

Smivbl T. GutTU. Ja.. AUmm t 

Aay p wa oa. dab, Kkool ar caaipaay la ajraipaUiy wtok tbt ekiacls ol tUa Aaodadoa aay bacoaa 
a ■«niMr m It. aad all aia walcaaM* 

ay»<<rj|yaia»ayp la tW NaUoaal A«adatloa al Aadakaa Sadrtiai for tka Pratactiaa al Wld 



X FiaovssT?— I do hOTabyilva aad baaaaatk ta tW NaUooal AMocwboa <A Aadaboa 
&o^ ' '< • tbTPntacUoa al WId Adi aad iUlaali dacacpamtad). ii llM Ckjr al Haw Yafk. 

REPORT ON THE NATIONAL PARKS SITUATION 




In the U»t iMue of BiKO-Lotx an ac- 
count was gives regardiBg the attacks 
bcteg made io Cimgrcss on the Yrllow- 
•tooe National Park. BiUs had been intro- 
duced (or tlie purpose of IfgaHiJBf two 
projects whereby private pnrtks could 
use the waters of the Park for awunerdsl 
developments. 

nist, H. R. ia.644, introduced by 
ContvcMBMa Smith of Idaho, sou^t 
authority to build a reservoir covering 
8,000 arm in the touthwcatem part of the 
Park. Another bill, introduced by Senatw 
WaUh of Montana, known as S. B. 3.5S4i 
•ought to secure in Cungrws nuthorisatioo 
to dam the Ydlowstoae Rhrcr and make a 
reservoir of the beautiful Yellowstone 
Lake. Smith wanu water for irrigating 
lands in Idaho, and Wabh wants to use 
i{ir «Atrr« of the Yellowstone River for 
north of the Park in Montana. 
• . «ould appear to be no reason why 
the waters of the Fsll River Baaia and the 
waters of the YcUovstoM Rhrw could 
not bo daauMd up oulaide of the Park, 
but this te not what la wanted, for to do 
thift the wat«s of the r se er vo ir would covur 
lands. sooM of which wo u l d k«v« to bt 
paid for. whereas if the watan can be 
dammed up la the Park, no payaMOt would 
have to be nude, as the lands of the Park 



bdoog to the public. What these bmu are 
after is free storage base for the water 
that they want to use for private com- 
mercial purposes outside the Park. 

The plans which these men sought to 
carry out by means of Federal legislation 
would not only be detrimental to the 
Yellowstone Park, but the succem of either 
would mean the setting of a precedent 
which would undoubtedly result in the 
eventual destruction of a Urge anwunt of 
the scenic beauty and interest of this 
territory, which nearly fifty years ago was 
set aside by Congress as an area la which 
the natural beauties of tlM fegion were to 
be forever pcuMrved. 

Whea through the publicity of tUa and 
otWr orgaaiaatiooa tiM general |»uhlic 
became advfawd as to Just what was taking 
place, protests in the form of letters, 
telegrams and petitions by the thouaandi 
were sent to •cnators an 
with the result that it was found li 
to further advance dtliw MB. 

That publicity kiOcd the FaB Rlvtr 
Baaia project was adadtted by Criagrms 
ana Sadtb of Idaho at a ■■■nnible kenr> 
lag before tko Sifoct CoairiHoo «a Walar 
Power of the Rouse of Btp tma tatU es oa 
January 6, 19*1. when amay of us were 
prrsrnt. Mr. Sadth de a o un ced the 



(III) 



iia 



Bird - Lore 



Audubon AModaUoa aad oUir- 
out. wlui be railed mMwdlni; 
and tutcd: 

"Tbat tort ol iafbraatkMi ba* ben 
diMffwJMHid tbnwghaut tbb cooatry, 
aad bas tcarad ibc owmbcn ol Coagraw. 
Many wammhtn of CoagrcM bavc cosm to 
■M witbia tbc laat two or three wtfk*. 
wbo wen la favor of tbe Fall T 
proioct laal Mwioa. «bo do« 
Sattb, wc are la favor of tbb pru|Mi»ii lun - 
«c were la favor of it before-— but nv 
people at boaM are to arouecd tbat it 
would be poUtkal auldde for aic to vote 
for it aad I, of courtc. will nut be Mr to 
vole for it.' " 

• O whicb SeCI(tar> tJi tnr intrnor 

Payac, a little later replied: 
"Let ne lay, fuet, about tbe tiaiidity of 



CoancM i» aocustooicd to 
propagaada. I do aot kaow of anybody 
la tbe world eo capable of nea»uriog the 
value of propagaada at tbc CoagreM. So 
tbat I do aot thiak the naembera of Coa- 
are terrified because of aoaie pro- 



To which Smith retorted: 

"You aak any one of them, and they will 
tell you they are terrified and would be 
afraid to go home, almott. if they should 
vote for this MIL" 

In additioQ to tbe Natioaal Aaaociatioa 
of Audubon Societiea, auay other orgaaia- 
liooa aad nuaieroua iodividualt iai- 
BMdiatdy took up tbe cudgd ia defease of 
tbe Park. Chid aaMag the other organised 
groups BMy be awatiooed. the American 
Qvic Aasodatioo, which under the lead* 
etiUp of J. Horace Mr Far land, has been 
fMlbtiag battlet for the Parks for auay 
years; tbc National Parks Aasodatioa, 
New Eagbad Coof ereace for Protectioa 
of National Parks, Americaa Gaaw Pro- 
tective Assoda t ioa. Maaaaias, Sierra 
Quba, aad a coouidttec of active men 
beaded by Dr. George Bird Grinndl. of 
New York aty. TUs Aasodatioa seat 
out 15,000 circuUrs caUiag tbe atteatfan 
of tbc public to the dangers tbat tbreateaed 
tbe Park, and asking those wbo received 
the drcular to Oe tbdr protesU with thdr 
seaaum aad rnngrnsaMa. Contributioaa 
were also aaked for, tbe Moaey to be used 
aa a Natioaal Parks Dcfcaee Fnad. Tbe 
were iauaediate aad efective. 



'- he thousands of protests of oatfaged 
<'n» that poured into tbe Capitol 
resulted in aliyping further progrca* of 
both of tboM bins aad the>- died with tbe 
adjouraawat of Congress 00 Mardi j. On 
February at. there was a Com; 
hmtiag on the Walsh Bill, on w>i 
<^oa both sides of the cootr' 
heard. Tbe Association was < 
ably by our First Vice-Preddcat. i>r. I. 
8. PalaMT. However, it never came tu « 
vote in dlhcr House, but the Smith bill 
did pass the Senate and was more than 
once up for passage on tbe UaaaiaMMis 
Coaseat Caleadar in the Hoose. 

Aaotber aieasnre ia wUcb wt 
greatly interested wa« a bill for aaseadiag 
the Water Power Act. whereby three 
members of tbe Prcsidcot's Cabinet had 
been authorised to grant water power 
coaccadoes in National Parks. The 
amendment which we favored proposed 
to put this authority back in the hands of 
Congress. Tbe aM>ve was bitterly fought 
by our oppoaeats, but was carried ia both 
Houses and the bill signed by tbe Pre**- 
dent. The «um total of tbe campaign to 
date is that the friends of tbe Park* were 
able to kill both the Smith and the Walsh 
bill, and had suffident strength left to 
aoftcad tbe Water Power Act as described 
above. 

Actioa by tbe orgaaiaatioas interested 
b tbe preaervatioe of tbe Parks aad the 
wild life within thdr bouadaries was aot 
taken a minute too soon. 

Tbe contributions sent in to the 
Aaaodatloo have been suffident to meet 
our iauaediate needs and have also en- 
abled us to contribute fiaaadally to the 
eipe asa a of two of the orgaaisations with 
which we have beea so intiautdy asso- 
ciated in tbb endeavor. It should be 
borae in mind. howe\'er, tbat while we 
have woo the first battle, tbe oppodtioa 
b gathering its forces for a new attack at 
the acxt lesrioa of Coagrcss, and we shall 
have to auke tbc fight all over again. 
Mr. Smith has already served notice that 
be b goiag to amkc aaotber attempt to 
get poascaaioa of the Fall River section 
of the Yellowstone Park; in fact he is 



The Audubon Societies 



««3 



I 



rrportcd to luive »Utcid he i* xuinic to 

introduce • bill to takr thi> n ' 

out of tlir Park snH thould - 

thk ttDdr !c1, oi counc. then 

btMigrt- 



The foOowioff ttateiiieat show* the 

me and n ■ * of tbr AmocU- 

» fund (• A Park* Dcfaur 

from December 9. iqto to Frbruary aS. 



PUND POR NATIONAL PARK* DBPENSS 



CoatffiNilkMM. 



tx 



Ss^77 so 



Priating and maittag ts.ooo i u I'.ir^ 
Poctage oa Ctfcalart aad Currr>|M>iiil( m. 

BiMMM of Afeat ia Waahiagton 

SHdw illMtfattBf Natioaal Parks. . . 
CmiUfbatioa to Natioaal Parka AMociation 
Coalrlbatiea to Aawricaa Civic AaM>dation. 



Balance unexprnHrd. March t. ih.m 



««.503 53 




501 50 




8j 70 




MO 10 




ogo 00 




250 00 




i s> 


3.M1 35 




ti 8>6 ic 



FEDERAL GAME LEGISLATION 



Federal IcgisUtion in rcfcrrorr to birds 
aad gaoM has of late been confined alnxtat 
entirely to tbe subject of appropriatioiu 
for cafordag the eritiag lawa. 

TIm Piwiilint of tlrfa AModatioa. in 
coB^iaay with rrpre«cntatiires of various 
otber organiaations interealed ia wild life 
protection, appeared before the Appro- 
priations Committee of Coagrcaa aad aakcd 
fur f 10.000 with which to protect the 1ft. 
MrKinlry National Park ia Alaska. This 
1% a territory a> large as the Yellowstone 
Park and although it coataiaa aa abun- 
dance of ganse animals, it does aot have one 
wardea to protect iL A railroad from the 
coast haa beca paabed op iato the Mt. 
If cUaky country and ita coiyltioa aext 
somaMr will mean that aaaibcrs of big- 
xame huntrr« will vi«it the territory, hcace 
the urgcacy for iauacdiaU actioe ia the way 
of providiag wafdea aervicc. The Cooi- 

mitlre xavr kindly atteatiaa tO the pTO- 
pOAttiun aoti »n thr rtid provided iS,000 

(or the paipoac. 

The PrMidcat of the Aaaodatloa aad 
Mr. HoOaad of the AaMricaa Gaaw Pro- 
tective Amodatioa appearad before oat of 
the tabcoauaittec* aad arged that the 
rcqacat of the Sacfelary of Agriotlture for 
l>oo,ooo to eaforce the provlaioas of the 



Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act should 
be graatcd. The Committee exhibited 
a chanaing indifference to the arguments 
of the spcaken aad ia the ead graated the 
sanw appropriatioa as last year — about 
$145,000. 

Scattered throughout Alaska are a few 
wardens that work under the directioa of 
the Government. For years this depart- 
meat has been kept up by an annual 
appropriatioa of t>5,ooo. The House 
AppropriatioBS Committee provided that 
sum for the present )rcar, but the Seaate 
cut away the entire approp ri atioa. 

The President of the Associatioa hap- 
pened to be in Washington at the tiaie 
aad at oaco vidltad vaiioas anibtn of 
the Coafcraace Coooaittae of the two 
House* of Coagrees to which the bill 
woald be rcfcnad aad atroagly urged that 
the appropriatioa be retaiaad. He also 
wired to New York for f artlw hdp aad 
leprweatative* of the AaMricaa GaiM 

PIrt Clab litedittdir apptarad la WaalK 
lagtoa oa the same aiierfoa. It b p ha a 
aat to report that ia the ead the a^ 
propriatioa was pat back so that wa 
shottld •till have aoaM gaat pralactiaa la 
Alaska. 



"4 



Bird - Lore 



TO PROVIDE FOR A DUTY ON IMPORTED CAQBD BIRDS 



The (uUowinj; l^ a »«>p> <•< ihr hrirf 
•ubinillrd by I (>iU>crl IVar^m (or ihe 
NatiooAl AModatkw of AudvboB Sode- 
Um to Um Way* and Means Comnittce 
of CosfivM on February ae. t9>ii re- 
lalhro to paragraph 416 ta tbc tariff 
act, polaiaittg lo and ttiggcatiac tbe 
advitabiUty of a duty 00 iaqMMtcd wild 
Mnit. 

The Caitod Statca imported under 
■onnal cooditioBt (prior to the war) 
nearly $00,000 live birds aonually. These 
birds Bsay be divided rouglily into three 
groopa, vis., Canaries, 360.000; game birds, 
40,000; and oaiscellaneous cage birds, 
60,000. 

The Canaries were imported chiefly 



from (•rrnuiny. (Hbrr cag« birds, the 
game bird*, compming mainly Quail and 
Pheasant, came chicffy from Kuropr, 
Canada, Mcaico and the Orient. The»r 
game birds were imported for mtockiog 
game areM. The mJscelbnaoua cage bird*, 
included parrots, inches, weaver bird* 
and a great variety of spedr* Iv 

colorcd small birds. These !• 

arrived from Europe, Africa, Au'>i: > : 
the Orient and a few from tropical A n 
The following table shows the t 

imported for devm years, 1908-18, a 

ing six years prior to the passage of the 
present laws and 6vc years since the en- 
actment of tlte law (see report of Biological 
Sur\'ey, Department of Agriculturr.) 



niroitTATioN or Bnon otnuNO the tears tsm-Ma. incumivb 



V«r 


r>— riw 


,... ,, Partri4c« 


Qwil 
7*4 


OllMrGaa* 
Bir4* 




T_.,l 


1908 


338,15* 


4.4 « 5 


7.781 


9.533 






1909 


a.996 


a9.«9$ 
l4,93i 
39.986 


868 


3,009 


; 




1910 


36«/>S4 


7,«00 


1.033 


3,4^1 


4''^=4:"> , 


45».74'.> 


1911 


354.«58 


13.390 


3.753 


3.340 


64.33* ! 


475.»64 


191s 


363,604 


IS.4«» 


a3.i8« 


7,75« 


3.74a 


44,38: 


i'-.077 


191J 


39ar4" 


9.4 « 7 


10,183 


a.936 


>.8i9 


59.47 


StA 


1914 


36S.676 


4.»46 


36.760 




l.OSO 


6j.Rf- 


. 00 


I9tc 
1916 


»i6,os7 


I5.*4I 


7,080 


3.34t 

8,000 








"7.706 












1917 
1918 


] 16,471 


83a 




3>.8t4 






Vi.SiV 


10,000 


ISO 




S.aoj 






66.000 



The figures for 1919 and 1910 are not at 
present available, but it is known that tbe 
importations have not yet reached the 
normal condition that obtained prior to 
the war. 

VALUE or THE HRO* IN QUESTtOM 

Figures as to tlie value of the birds 
vary widely, depending on the species and 
the source of the shipments. The lowest 
■ppraisab are thoae of mlscrWancious 
•hipoacnts from the Orient. The records 
of the Custom Bouse in San Francisco 
■bow, aosong other oonsignments recd%'ed 
during the quarter ending December 31, 
1930. the folloirinR 

146 Parakeets, $3:. i' '"■> •-^'h. 

130 Chestnut Fimh* -: cents 



400 Strawberry Finch . :^ . 
each. 

150 Sociable Finches, %$; j cent- 

305 Strawberry Finches, I4; 3 centxrAih. 

These birds are imimrtcd free of duly 
and when told by retailers bring from $1 
to several dollars each, leaving a wide 
margin of pro6t between the value at 
point of shipnkcnt and the retail price. In 
bringing these birds into the country the 
importer needs only to secure a permit 
from the Secretary of Agriculture. Other 
than thu there is no means of controllinK 
the industry, and there b evidence to 
show that there is a large waste of bird- 
life through lack of proper care while in 
trsntit, or after arrival, or due to the fact 
that few foreign spedca arc able to become 
acclimated in this country. 




The Audubon Sodetiet 



"5 



to more prt«f>rrly rrKuUtr 
trtfic tad abo to produi r r to the 

Govern mcBt from « tour* r .- mUted 

and prrfrcUy capable of mrtaining a tax, 
the National Aaaodatioa of Audubon 
SiKirtin for the Protection of Wild Birds 
and Aniaab recomaMads the following 
change la Paragraph 416, to as to read: 

"Live trild birds, iadn.1iBg laad mad 
water fowl, but aot iadudlBg came birds, 
doawsticated food fowl or mtta imported 
by pabUc Zoological Gardens, $t each." 
(Or 50 cents plus >o cents advalorem.) 

By way of illustration, a Canary 
appraised at $> would pay Si duty under 
the flat dollar rate or 90 cents under the 
graduated rate. The Mme bird would 
retail at $5 or more at present prices. A 
tivc dollar parrot would pay Si under the 
flat rate or Si 50 under the graduated rate 
and would retail at from Sio to $3$. It is 
believed that this rate of duty would pro- 

liiii r a rr\ rnur of an\'whrrr fr<im $700 ooo 



to Sjoo,ooo annually from a sotircc which 
heretofore has yielded no revenue. Thb is 
arnre than Congress at the present tiaM 
appropriates to the .\gricultural Depart- 
aMnt for the enforcement of thr Mifratory 
Bird Treaty Act. 

The charge of the fUt uuitst tate is to 
effect the low appraised valoe of birds in 
the Orient and from some European 
countries where currency at present is 
greatly depleted. Naturally it will be 
prohibitive in rases of birds less than a 
dollar in value, but the losses on the traffic 
will probably not be serious. A bird that is 
not worth a dollar is given little attentioa 
by dealers and the losses on these laiscel- 
laaeotts birds, from the tlaw the Mfds were 
captured until they rcadi the retail store 
are numerous, and would probably reach 
75 per cent in the first few months. 
Comparatively few of these birds thrive 
in capti\nty, and many thousands have 
lost their lives through experiments. 



STATE LEGISLATIVE MATTERS 



This year the legislatures in forty-one 
of the state* iwewWrd. As usual this 
means much legiriation that affects the 
wild bird life, aad Audubon workers have 
much to do aad to think about. .\nMmg 
the propoaitioas that are up for considera- 
tion was a bill drafted by the Audubon 
Society of the Sute of North Carolina 
iateaded to establfah a Sute Gaaie Com- 
miarioB. Soch efloru have beca aude 
by the Aadaboa Sodety for t«a srean 
past, but an atteaipU have failed for the 
rcaaoa that in North Carolina it has been 
an almost iroa dad, though uawrittaa 
law, that any reprewatatlve la the legfa- 
taiure can ask for any kind of a game 
law or change in the esistiag gaaw laws 
(or his county that he da str es, aad through 
courtesy the lagislatan alwajrs lets him 
have it. The ff«Mlt has bMB that there has 
Krown op a h odgapod gi of g aa w laws ia 
that state which ia aanreloaa ai 
f ul to behold. Pwple oflaa aak tUa 
when the teaaoa lor shooUi^ QaaO la 
North Carollaa b. There is ao way to 
answer tUa OMapt to tell them to hay 



copies of all the law* that have been ea* 
acted in the past tea ycara ia North 
Carolina, go through these hooka aad huat 
out the latest law for the particolar couaty 
ia which they are interested. At tha 
present time there is a county measara 
pending in the North CaroUaa Lagialatore 
that b beiag fought stroagly, hot thb b 
because there b a divisioa aaMMg tha 
people thcawehrcs as to what they waat. 
Sa^ a sitaatioa b alaaiat aaheard of ia 
for as a role people there take 
r»t in the gaoM bws, oae way or 
aaoUMT. 

If the Auduboa Sockfy caa aaooaod la 
esuhlishiag a Gaaae PnaiBdMlna wMl 
state-wide authority, it wOl aadoabcadly 
be the awst aotahle piece of sute bird aad 
gaam proloctive lagblatioa that wOl be 
oaactod la the year i^ti. Jast aa thia ia 
poiag to prisa «t laara that the Gaaa 
CoauaMoa btU was dofaatad la tha 



la Florida a bfU has baaa prapaiad far 
latfodactkM te the Ugblatar* by the 
Florida Wild tM9 FreCactlva Lomm, a 



Ii6 



Bird • Lore 



■ewly fbroMd o<gi>lwnfcwi at Foit Mytt%. 
Tht aMviaf ipirit U Dr. GcMgc H Si.>nr 
«Im> with food Judgment Mid kn< 

b |oii« about hl» tmak with full rcali^. 

of Um oppodtioB he will have to mevt. 
Thb bin b for the catablbhrnent of a 
State Gaow rnwiwina aad State Warden 
Force. Soom jraan ago the vritrr roAper- 
atad with the Florida Audubon Society in 
workiag pcfwaily with the aacaberft of 
the Lcffitlatttre io TaUahaaeec and «uc- 
oecdad bi getting a Sute Game Warden 
Force ertabli>hc«i. Two ycar» later, how- 
aver, the law waa repealed. Still later, 
with the ffilcadid aid of Dr. WiUiama S. 
Btackmaa, then Pretident of the Florida 
Avdaboa Society, wc were able to induce 
tha IifMalmi to again pro\'ide for a 
Gaaw Cnmmhiinn. but the Govcnor 
wtoed tha bOL So at the present tiaie, 
« ith the csceplioo of lome county wardens 
who arc practically worthlcaa, to far as 
cafbrdag the law b ooaoeracd, there are no 
wardeaa ia the state but those employed 
by thb AModalioo and a few provided 
by the Federal Government. In the mean- 
time the game of Florida it fa»t disap- 
peering. 

In New York State a bill i» pending 
which if peiaed will practically wipe out 
the spleadid force of more than a hundred 
eipefibMed game protectors, and turn the 
proCectloB of game over to the Suir Police. 
It b iacoacaivablc that the New York 
LegisfaUvre shodd adopt svch a meaaure or 
if adopted that the Goveraor would siga it. 

We have had much oorrcapoadcacc 
with people ia Missouri where those 
■apposed to be iaterested in the protection 
of wild life appear to be haviag ro)ral 
battles, one group waatiag to chaage the 
gaaw laws aad the other group wanting 
thcmtoreamia as they are. 

The Asaociatien baa la a iat a iaed a lobby- 
ist at the llassachasetu La^shUare. At 
thb writing nothing of a specially detri- 
awatal character has oc cur red there. On 
the other haad« it b pleaaiag to aote that 
the p ros p ec ta arc good for getting aa 
a p propr iat ioa of t4,ooo to allow Mr. For- 
bosh to go a h ea d with having drawings 
I for hb amaaaKBtal book on the birds 



of Masaachasetta. Aaother importaat 
eame aad bird bin ia which we were ac- 
bterested was surc es a f uUy coe- 
..-. ud through the New Mexico !.*••••.«« 
lure of the New Mexico (is me Prtt 
Asaodatioa uader the able leader«iii{> <>i 
oar fffaiid Mr. Leopold. 

In Virgiaia, North CaroHaa, Peaasyl- 
vsnia. Arkaasaa, Kaasaa aad some other 
stotea, the subject of eaoouragiag the kiU- 
lag of Crows, Hawka, aad Owb by offering 
bounties has been up for coaaideratioo. 
These awasures in some places are being 
backed up by the organixed sporuroen't 
Asaodatloaa, aad it b regrettable to note 
that la soase iastancrs they appear aot 
to recognise the fact that soaw species 
of Hawks aad Owb are beaeficial to 
man's Intcrcata, aad oa the other hand 
rarely if evrr fir^trnv eamr birfi% ur Kamr 
aaiaub. 

I neSUuji I I HI i«i ic^is*«iiuii 1^, «»• I o«i i« , 

again under coasideratloo ia many partA 
of the country, just as it b every year when 
legisUturcs are in session. 

To keep track of these various BMasures 
or even to haadle the cor reipondence that 
reaches the ofice of the Natioaal Asaoda- 
tioa ia refereacc to state Icgislaiian i^ 
eaough to keep one maa busy. 

Oood Work in Baltimore 

The Marylaad Audubon Sodety, under 
the energetic leadership of iu President. 
Mrs. Baker Hun, b very active in bird 
work. Under the auspices of the Society. 
Chalmers Brumbaugh has given a course 
of public lectures on bird study aad aumer- 
otts field trips have beca taken. Recently 
the Society secured from the oftce of the 
National Assoc i a tion a fidd glaaa aad a 
series of fourteen bird books which witt be 
offered as prises in a bird-boi contest that 
win be hdd among the jroung people of 
Baltimore. By an arrangement with thr 
State Conservation Commission of Mary- 
land, the boxes will be placed in the Loch 
Raven watershed territory where they will 
be of practical use ia supplsriag homes and 
roosting places for the bole-loving birds 
of that interesting region. 



The Audubon Socieriet 



"7 



Audubon Bshlbit ia T« 



Thr Mi.UUcT 

rn rnt!\ hr!-t •" 



Mcc Attduboa Sodety 

■' ■" '—- rewlBf exhibit in the 

National Banit of 

i( iniiufird a large number of 



. itis nr^io and egga ol birds, abo nuuiy 
• untcd birda, pictorw, charts, and 
'/ina! Hrawfnga. PrisM were offered 
iwittft of birds tubmittrd 
urc wat talien to insure an 
interest in thr exhibit by the general 
.■-.v. That the metlMids employed were 
i*c is indicated by the very large atten- 
dance of peof4e who vWtcd the exhibit. 

The oficcn of the Middle Tennewee 
Vtiduboo Sodety are: A. C. W • 
resident; Mrs. Katherine P. Wru; t 
cretary; Mrs. G R. May field. First Vice- 
-r^ideot; Jesse M. Shaver, Second Vlce- 
'-nt; and Mrs. Sanford Duncan. 



New Lite Merrircn e.nrolled from January 
1, 1921. to March 1. 1921 

Allca.ThonMa 

AmstriMif, George R. 

Baldwin, Miss Sarah B. 

Banks, George W. 

BliM. Mrs. Robert Woods 

Bole. Mr« R F 

Bo«m.' 

Comin 

Dextcf. .^ii->-> .iM< < ^ 

Dove, J. Maury 

Draper. Flwn ^ 

Duryr 

Kddv rank 

K ItM Hannah M. 

V -u-h A 



M 
M 
M 
N 
I- 
K 
S< 
Stiti 



tiarics 

Jotaijay 



i H 



ThoapaoB, E. L. 
Walcott. Frederic CoUoa 
While, Mrs. Thonaa H. 
Wood, George 

New Sustaining Members Enrolled from 
January 1. 1921, to March 1. 1921 

At hf~Mjn. Edward Campion 
Adam*. Benj. H. 
.\dam.«. Irving 
.\lli»<>n, Mr*. George 
Ammidon. Mrs. I). ('. 
Anthony. Kdwin P. 
AudulM>n S<Hicty of Genesee 
Austin. Mr*. Willis 
Avery. Dr. H. T. 
Bach, Evietena P. 
Baxter, Hector 
Beale. Mrs. F. H. 
Berri, Mrs. Ethel P. 
Betham, Herbert L. 



Ri<i<II( 

Braiix 
BrsTKi- 

Br 



Ml 



» .\rthur 
T. H. 

Mrs 



h,> 

Br. r 
Br. 
Br 
Br. V 



HA. 
abeth A. 
icnay 

W. 
m G. 
W A. 

TiiS. 

■MI. H. 

vr.r,,cE. 

- > illy Eugenia 
Buckley, K. Nelson 
Burnett, Charles 
Carlton. L. A. 
CarroU, J. J. 
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Carter, Shirley 
Champioa,Mrs. W. r. 

aMMrvTii. 

Chauvenet. Mrs. Annie L. A. 

Ct Mrs. Ptam 

Ci uond SUmMT. Jr. 

Co&a. Uward H. 

CoaMgys,The Miiacs 

Cook. Mr. and Mrt. Aadrvw B. 

Cooalcy, I. Stvart 

Cooper. Mra. U. UBna 

Dana Natural Hblory SodaCy 

Davit, CUataa W. 

Dotar, MiM Mary L. 

Dovghaa, PmadaS. 

DowMa, Jobs I. H. 

Duff. Mrs. J. RolMrtaoa 

Dumm, Qnreaco L. 

Earl. TboflMB M. 

Edmwdi, Mat Margaret M. 

EdwMdi. Ml*. JuM A. 

QattitetR. B. 

EliMmasA, Knnoo 

Eldtr, George X 

BMott. Dr. Arthur R. 



Ii8 



Bird - Lore 



Kllb. Mr». Samuel 
Enut. Mn. Edward H. 
Evaaa. Mra. C. DcLaccy 
FaitlKini. W. E. 
Falc*, Mr*. CbaHc* H. 
Fanner. Edward C. 
Farmer. Otcar 
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Feincman. MIm Emma B. 
Femald. Un. W. L. 
Fiu Simmons. P. W. A. 
Folger. Mr» li. C 
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Freeman. Mr«. Charie* 
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Gardner, %in. Georgia B. 
Goodwin. George B. 
Goolden, Cliarles J. 
Graham. W. W 
Grmvca, I. M. 
Grdms, Mr». Herbert S. 
Giitwold. S. A. 
Haaa. Charles W. 
HaU. J. P. 
Haalon, CUnde 
Haraoa, llrt. Wm. E. 
HasUttc, Glover 
Heinitah. H. E. 
nibbard. John D. 

••. Mra. Wn-. ' 

J .imca 
IloUhaucr, Mr». Ch . • \s 
Homor, I. C. 
HoMonAliMl. 
JmoIw Bird House Companx 
JohastOB* J. Herbert 
Kibbee.W. B. 
LnBar, EuMnc S. 
Lenveas, Miss Annie M. 
LyoM, Howard J. 
lIcLena, Mrs. Ridlev 
Morgan. Wniiam Fellows 



Marstoa. Miss Laura A. 

Mcridea Sportsmen's AssodatJon 

Mohr, Lewis S. 

Monday Convetsatiooal Oub 

Mortis. Robert ' 

Munfer, Ifn 

Nature Study .>-> 

NfllliMtMi. Mrs. C. O. 
Nichob. Mr« r.rt.rer 
Obrig.>l 

OppCHHf ' 



1 D. 
C. 



line c 



Ta!' 



rnur 

>ugias 

t>ethM. 

Jr. 
H. 

- 1 F. 
.iM. 





GREAT HOKNBO OWL 

WmaOr — STmioinA 



■lAMOT TIBQtatAVm 



2^irb=ILore 

A M-MONTHLY MAOAXINE 

OSVOTBO TO THB tTVOT AHD PKOTBCTION OP BIROS 

Orwcm Ontiii f TMt AwotMMi ••cimc* 



VotXXni May— June. 1921 No. 3 



John Burroughs 

1837-1921 

MOKK than a quarter of a centur>' has |)assed since first I met John 
Kurrouxhs. and when, less than a year ago, I saw him last he seemed 
no older. Hi^ ' < vk'as ever so fresh and keen that he seemed to 

. mbody the spirit of t-v^.... ....^ youth ThiTi- am Imt fpw »»<N»i>lr li\iiu' wlm 

.in rememlier a world without him. 

Mentally he was no older in 1020 than in iSg5, indeed, if \i< 

marked by waning interest in one's surroundings, he was you..„L.. A 

the John Burroughs of 1920 was the John Burroughs of i8q5, I belie\-e that 
we n- (-r quarter of a centur\' and with equal truth say that 

he wa .... J ;- aghs of 1870. 

Certain it is that he was as much the auth<ir of 'Wake Robin' on the day 
on the <lay < on. and in this fact lies the inmn'' 

.. .cnce of the aba...... ..,..,..ty which formed the dominant ih.i: 

<if John Burroughs' nature. Simple, direct, genuine, unself-cons< iou>. 
he not un • to ilixover the truth but to express it. He pr»ed no morr 

in print tl..i ,>«.rson. lie did nothing for effect; there was no 'playing !•• 

the gallerv' and he avoided any situation where he could not be his own natural. 
^ fundamental characteristic of ' t-vs in the man 

*,- ...... ha\T won for him an enduring , ;:iong the great 

teachers. What he wrote had the unmistakable ring of honest tonvirtion 
Ml- won f hr . onfidencc of his readers who found in his printed |>Age a reflection 
"( the eternal verity of •> ■»•■'•• li<rlf. 

It wm« this uncomi ..' love of truth that accentuated Burroughs' 

hatred of falsehood. VStuti «untempt n ng he had for the io<mlled 

natij" -r;.. , v.h.. ,.1 ..,„,. upon the cretl... . . the public, pmmted fiction 
as fa hese nature fakers! With what righteous tndlgiui- 

t ^l ihiawftoton drfilation of the temple of nalure! All 

■«'^>«>^-fiiictiU must ftccept UU» kilieraBt liooeaty m 







11 










f^ 


1^. 




H^^^a^H^M 


i_±ijf^ 


«fc 


■■l^HR^J* 


■^i 



John Burroughs i.m 

• 
their romentonc. It is not open to dkcoaiion. For the rest, so far as his place 
ds a naturalist is cuncemetl, annotators will continue to compare him with 
V. ' . and Thofcau, Muir or even Darwin, and the comparison will 
ii each he posse wed certain attributes in common. 
Like White, he had a strong and abiding love of the everyday life about his 
lonie. Both found an e&dkss source of interest and pleasure in the miracle of 
^le changing seasons, the unfolding leaf and opening blossom, in the return of 
he birds. But to Burroughs in much greater measure was given the poet's 
irmprraiiK ' ;)ower of interpretation, and the gift of expressioiL His was 
thr more - t- mind. 

Ihoreau, on the other hand, had no lack of temperament, or of power to 

inicr; ^ <* was far more complex than Burroughs'. 

y iuent suggestion of pose wholly lacking in 

1^ .: '. He xk-rote as thouf^ someone were looking over his shoulder. 

weet, companiooaUe, k>vable nature do we find 

liipoai t ion we commonly think of as Thoreau's. It 

> difficult to picture Thoreau welcoming the thousands of pilgrims who have 

' o cordial and kindly a greeting at 'Riverby,' 'Slabwides/ and 'Wood- 

• Ige* and who, knowing John Rurrouiths. loved him. There was no 

.'uest-book at Walden Pond. 

Between Burroughs and Dan^in, m spite ul ihc wIxiIIn liithTcoi |i].i«rs 
thry uccupird in the world of naturalists, I have long tclt there were in.iiiy 
trong points of resemblance; and the likeness, I belie\'e, would have been 
greatly increa»r<l if they had both had similar training. Burroughs' was the 
more emotional. Darwin's the more material nature, but, given Darwin's 
iucation. Burroughs would have made a great philosophic naturalist. He had 
I'l'-' ' ' *' for truth's sake; he was fair-minded, unprejudiced, 

l>.tti< ; -f a keen desire to disa)vrr the relation between cause 

and effect. 

H< >t harwnis l.itrr years makes US grateful that Butrou^h^ 

v^as 1 i«> the atrophying influences of loog<ontinued, tntcusivr 

Primarily he was a k>ver, perhaps one should lay a worshipper of 

investigator of nature. A tffhnlfl education would 

>im a research sofllogist, but sdiooled only by nature 

herself, it was the poet rather than the naturalist in him that grew; the emo- 

-1. rather than the scientific side of his character which was develop^. 

Avcled far and wide, but no lure of new spacJas ever made him contented 

ir from home. The riot of tropical life repelled rather than fascinated him. 

Ihe Lonppur of Alaska was not a voice of the tundra, but a rendndtr of the 

lioboUnks singing hi the meadows of Us boyhood. He had no collBcHnn of 

peiimens; he made no definite, objective, continuous studies of animal life; 

•<orded but few notea. Indeed, he had snail patience srith those who, 

"lok in hand, 'interviewed' nature. "I go to the woods," he wrote, "tu 



John BurrouKhs i.^ 

• t l« rc[w»rt them. " .\n«l anain: l-r nv. |i,iri I lan ru-ver 
' in ihe rc|»»)rtcr fa>hK»n. 1 mu>l tun>i> .in<i tfaini> with hrr to 
|{et any good, and what I get I alisorb through my emotions rather than con- 
9ci< ' her throui^ my intellect. Hence the act of composition with me 
i« a «U-«iploiatk>n to see what hidden stores my mind holds. . . . 

I come gradually to have a feeling that I want to write upon a gixTO 
theme. . . ." Htm- the expression "I irairl to write" explains the potent charm 
of Burroughs' writings. \o editor e\'er prevailed upon him to write unless he 
had something hr wanted to say. The written word with him was merely the 
vivi* ' reaction <rf an exquisitt' 'itc nature to 

thr . t . the peace of the sun^ Iwm melody 

of the Hermit Thrush 

"1 }:. ■ ' ' U" timrr ih.iii ihou-ami- i;|miii lliou-,mil-. i .f .itluT> 

have** )'■• main ainoii;^ thr-^- tin ni-,i;ii!- Ii,i\i- uii<itr-ti««i tin- 

manifold voices of woods and fields until BurrouKh- ,i< to! i^ their interpreter? 

T ' ' recall the delighted surprise, when as a buy, I tirt nad Burroughs 
an<: rxpresaed on page after page some vague, halt loriiml thought of 

the poaMnion of which I had been barely conscious. His books helped to 

acquairr "' T Tattempted 

todesir: t. Promptly 

came the reply expressing his pleasure that anything he had written should 
possess' How many such let tci^ h« <n as the sue- 

cccding ritur>- rapidly widenol his a itimeasuraUe 

was the influence they exerted upon the lives of '•' > received them! 

An" ' 1 re Mddcned I ' ' ought that Bu- en, 

wi- inemlicr that : iNhed works ha ;>cr- 

fional quality which make them letters to the nature-lovers of ail time. The>' 
are his legacy to the world. 

If from thi^ wealth of human documents I were asked to select one passage 
which more than any other re\'ealed John Burroughs' attitude toward Nature 
at ' 'as well as at the age of twenty-eigti he wrote it, I should 

tak> ines from 'In thr Hemlocks,' publblx A. ike Robin.' 

"Mounting toward the upland again, I pause re\'erently as the hush and 
stillness of twilight come upoa the woods. It is the sweetest, ripest hour of 
day. .\nd as the hermit's ex'ening hymn goes up from the deep sditiide below 
me, I experience that serene exalution of sentiment of which music, literature, 
an<7 the faint types and symbc^" 

roughs* 'Angdus.*— Fbank M. CiuniAN. 



WHY DO BIRDS BATHE? II 
■y saitsrr tmompson sbton 

MY ARTICLE on this subject in the November-December Bird-Lorb 
h&« resulted in some vmluable information contributed by Dr. A. A. 
AUen. IthMm, N. Y.; S. W. Hopper, East Orange. N. J.; Mrs. H. H. 
Dunsbee, Odar Rapids, Iowa; Mrs. F. A. Snow, Aiken, S. C; Mrs. Bruce 
Ford, PhiUdelphia, Pa.; E. J. Sawyer, Watertown, N. Y.; Edith H. \l'hilaker, 
Toledo, Ohio; Dr. J. O. Tilton, Lexington, Mass.; R. Owen Mcrriman, Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, Canada; Mrs. T. T. Manger, New London, N. H. ; .Miss .Mary T. 
Barrell, PortUnd, Maine, and others. To utilize their notes I submit a second 
sununary. 

My attention b called abo to an article in the October Auk for 191 5, pages 
46S-468 on The Birds* Bath' by Heyward Scudder. He poinu out four 
variants of the common or wet bath. 

(a) The typical plunge, with ruffled feathers, spread wings, head ducked, 
«pifl«»*Vg with wings and tail, the body shaken for 2 to 100 seconds, (b) A 
short bath of s to 50 seconds, flight to a drying perch, th - - t more up to 
SIX or seven similar baths, (c) A numb«> of short <i> .out soaking. 

id) A dip with wings tight shut. 

To this he adds the '•k-halV described later. 

THE VARIOUS BATHS 

I. The Dip. That b, one or more dips with tlutt. rmi: wwv^^ .1 
ting, howex-er, only the surface of the body feat lur>. Ihtn- art .1 .1 
variations of this as above. The dipping of the Kingbird is a good illustration, 
but another kind of dip is the one that SwaUows take while on the wing. 

3. The Soak or Pltmge. This is a thorough and elaborate wetting of the 
whole plumage, making it all as wet as it can be — wet to the dun. Of this the 
Robin is the great exponent; although, as will be seen later, the Screech Owl 
also claims honors as a Knight of die Bath. 

Cke Shower-Bath, taken usually in the rain or under the garden hose, 
though E. J. Sawyer tells of an Indigo Bunting that improvised « shower-bath 
by repeatedly shaking the heavy dew down on himself. Some birds enjoy 
this so much that they sing iHule it rains. The Robin and Wren especially do so. 

4. TkeSmm'Baik. The sun-bath b not always «asy to determine. We may, 
however, cooikkr a bird to be taking a sun-bath when it remains posed in a 
sunny place, with wings raised so the sun strikes parts of the body not other- 
wise exposed, especially ufaoi the bird at the same time gasps with open bill 
E. J. Sawyer, hofwevcr, tends a photograph of a Robin taking a sun-bath all 
spread out flat on the grass; also refers to the elaborate sunning of the Pied- 
billed Grebe. The sun-bath of the Turkey-buzard b well known. Dr. Arthur 
A. ADen writes: "You do not credit Sparrows with sun-faathmg and so am 

(IM) 






Why Do Birds Baihe? 



ia$ 



a photograph of a ^'hite- throated Sparrow that viras so indulgfaig 
near a feeding-station 

5. The Air-Batk, a unUorm tluHmg and opening ot the leathers to the air 
oefy — a dry<leaning. 

6. The Dust-Bath, oommooly taken by all birds of the gallinaceoiH gioup, 
but never by birds of greasy (dumage. The following from my own journal 
has a bearing on thb: Claremont, N. H., 20 Jan., 1903. Yesterday it was 
a 3' below aero, today is a thaw, 6^ above freezing, with heavy rain. Some 
English Sparrows flew on the piazza by my window, two were drenching wet, 
soaked and shivering. I thou^t, "You are not long for this world, my little 
friends." However, a flower-box under shelter afforded just what they wanted 
— a dust -bath; in this they set to work to dtist themselves vigorously and in 
fifteen minutes all were dry and warm and in sleek feathers. 

The Smnnhhath is probably a mere winter substitute for the Dust-Bath. 
Only the Downy Woodpecker and the Shorelark are known to take it. 

WHY THEY BATHB 

The question is not yet answered but Dr. A. A. Allen sends the following: 
"My idea is that dust-baths kill vermin, but I have as yet found no biok)gical 
reason for sun-baths or water-baths except as it seems to bring a pleasurabk 
sensation to the birds. My observation has been that water-baths often folk>w 
dust-baths, and sun-baths often follow water-baths, for obvious reawns, but I 
know that that sequence is not always followed, and when a perfectly dry bird 




IMMATI/at WHtTg-THtOATID SfAaaOW TAKING A SVNIATN 
WimwptiOy A. A-ASw 



ia6 Bird -Lore 

indwlgrt b a sun-bftth it leenis to do to for Uie ple«ture it derives from it. 
(The only effect the sun could have on the vermin would be to drive them over 
to the thady side.) My efforts to drown bird-lice have been so unsuccessful 
that I can scarcely belie\'c that the little soaking that the feathers get could 
hax-c much effect upon them. A little dust in their spiracles, however, seems 
to put them out of business promptly " 

GENERAL NOTES 

The following is from Cedar Rapids, Iowa: "I can assert pontively having 
seen bathing, BUckbird, Bluebird, Robin, Catbird, Blue Jay, Cardinal, Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak, Oriole, Brown Thrasher, Goldfinch, Woodthrush, some 
other Warblers, and, of course. Sparrows. 

*'When I brush out the bath every day I thought it must surely be primarily 
for deanlineas — there is so much sediment in the bottom of the bath. However, 
as yon say, the Robins are in, I think, for fun. I have seen as many as seven 
young Robins in at once scrambling for place. The old birds won't let the 
young ones bathe till they have finished. 

"Once I wa4 fortunate enough to be near when a Thrasher, Grosbeak, and 
Oriole alighted on the bath at the same time. I do not remember now which 
gave way to the other. Several times Hununingbirds have flown through the 
spray from the hose, but this fall when it was vrr>' dry one could not be satis- 
fied with that but lighted on a bent-over iris leaf and stayed as long as he 
wished then flew up in a lilac bush and preened his feathers like any bird. 

"I have seen Robins take a sun-bath, but never any but Sparrows take a 
dust-bath."— Mrs. H. H. Ditnsree, Cedar Rapids, lawa. 

Mrs. Bruce Ford, of Philadelphia, says: "Catbirds are most cm r 
bathers in my little pool. One morning I saw one dip in the watrr. I thii..^. . 
was twenty-eight times, before it flew up to the tree again." 

S. W. Hopper, of East Orange, N. J., writes: "For about seven or 
years I have kept a pan of water for the birds to drink and Ijathe in, in i 
view from the window where I pass many hours each day. Whrn thr |>.( 
full the water is about three indies deep. Robins, Starli: 
Bluejays will |^unge in singly or crowd around and fight aiiM ».•>« .. .. « ...i... . 
to get ahead of one another. There have been as many as eight or ten in thr 
pan at one time and I have seen them one and all plunge in in all kit. 
weather, hot or cold, sunshiny or raining, even whm sleeting and frccziii). ■■■• 
their feathers. While the larger birds are in the water Slashing, the Kn);li>'l> 
Sparrows are all around on the edge of pan enjo>'ing a diower-bath, but as 
soon as water is low enough, in they go with the others. 

"Once I noticed a Yellow-bQled Cuckoo, and many times a Flicker, at the 
bath. They act very much alike when thinking of taking a plunge; they 
stand at a little distance from the pan as though indifferent and undecided as 
long as any other bird is near, but when the coast is clear, the>' perch on the 




Vhy Do Birds Bathe? lay 

rim of the pan to which they seem to have difficulty in clinging while they 
dip their heads two or three times into the water, and then suddenly plunge in 
and make a thorough job of it. sometimes returning for a second dip to make 
sure all is clean. 

"The Baltimore Oriole likes to plunge and play in the water, also the Gold- 
finch, and once a Blackbumian Warbler came and took a dip. The En^^ish 
^MUTows are the only Sparrows I have ever noticed go entirely into water; 
and they ne\-er mtsa a chance any more than the Robins who like to sit right 
down and stay in the water some time. Song an<) Tr«>f> <sivirrows and Juncoa 
only care to be sprinkled." 

Mrs. Frederick A. Snow of Aiken, S. C, write:* that both Blue Jay and 
Cardinal take plunge baths. 

A 8CRBBCH OWL THAT SOAKED 

The following account of an Owl liathing is of unusual imtre->t: 
One evening, just at dusk, my attention vi-as called to a great splashing 
in the bird-bath near a ^>nice hedge. Hastily dodging behind a big tree, and 
gradually crawling up to the bath, within eight or ten feet, there was visible 
only a confused mass of feathers, wings, tail, and great flurr>- of water. Out 
of thb nuebtrom came a Screech Owl, which hopped to a small shrub nearby, 
preened and shook himself, then flew into the hedge. Not a drop of water 
remained in the bath. Thinking it only a common occurrence for all birds to 
bathe, the matter caused me to mention the affair to my family only as being 
a most comical performance of a bird's bathing. The next night passed with- 
out a vi^t, but in the morning there was no water in the stone bath while 
another bath some fifty feet away was full. A few nights after, at a little later 
hour, my good fortune came again just as he came on the scene. The Owl 
(to me) seemed to find the water too shallow; at least his actions would so 
indicate, for he (?) plunged his head down into the water, then beat hb wings 
furiously and finally >wirlc<l his tail and belly round and round, ox-er and o\'er, 
in t>ne mad indistinguishable mass. No water was left in the bath after this, 
and a more woe-bcgnne looking specimen nexxr greeted an observTr of birds 
as thU Owl I K ' ' . edge of the stone and finished his toilet. It certainly 

afforded me > as several times the next summer, much pleasure. 

Some momit immer the water was all gone in this bath and probably 

Myforme. Now that you tell me it b a rare perfonn- 
> when the warm nighu come again, for there b the 
amtive call as hut year."~DR. J06IAB Odin Tilton, M.D.. Uxim0om^ 

M 

• Mr. imNviBIRD II A DIPPER: THR BLURBIRD A SOAKER 

"I have ol»»er\ed that Blueliirds and Kingbirds are my roost frequent 
bathers, and that they bathe in absolutely dtfeffent wtyt. TKe Blucbbda 



ii8 Bird -Lore 

Ui • '\ tht>ri>ughl> . nuikiii^ a liUMitc:^^ vi it, guing into the deepest part of 

th' .' ('. r, to thr middle of the Iwth-tub, throwing the water all about aod over 
theimdvet, and waiting for one another that everyone may have the deepest 
l> ••fnetiincs wvcn Bluebirda have aligbted on the bath at the tame 

I rnioyed a bath m /awfffr. The Uagfaiitb alight on the wire fence 

a idenly down into the bath and out again, only dipping into the 

N< this over and over again, never alighting on the bath-tub 

It : 

"Ihaveieentevenvaiieticsof birds at one lime watting their turn: Robins, 
Kingbirds, Bhiebirds, Goldfiocbes, a strange bird almost as large as a Robin 
with olive back, white wiag-^iars, and brilliant breast, shaded from deep orange 
to pale yellow (female Oriole] and two kinds of Sparrows. 

'The birds bathe usually in the early aftemocm, when 1 fan< \ thr u.itrr 
has become warmed by the sun. I sometimes have had to refill the Laih three 
times in as many hours. It bcdds more than a quart of water and is about 
three indies deep in the middle. Our season in these uplands of New Hamp- 
shire b short, and the birds bathe mo«tlv in Julv and Auirust. June and Sep- 
tember being too cold."— E. T. S. 

THE BLUB JAY BATHB8 IN WINTER 

"Blue Jays are very familiar neighbors of ours, coming to the window-sill 
regularly on winter roomings for peanuts and rearing their families in our old 
forest trees. They take frequent water-baths all summer in the bird-bath 
tinder the dining-room windows, thoroughly drenching their feathers and fly- 
ing to a nearby branch or chair-back to shake and preen them. 

"Last Friday, January 29, about the middle of the morning, two Blue Jays 
came to the bath, which had been recently filled, and enjoyed a real summer- 
time water-bath. The weather had moderated after some days of severe cold, 
and the temperature was several degrees above freezing. 

'*Robins bathe as soon as they arrive in March and all through the season. 
They begin their daily ablutions early in the morning and seem eq>edally to 
enjoy their evening bath. At midday they like to sit and soak in the shallow 
water of the bath."— Edith H. WmrrAKn, TaUdo, Ohio. 

ENTHUSIAETIC ROBINS BATHINO 

*'My friend in town here put two large shallow pans filled with water on 
the Uwn one evening. Next morning, a little before 6 o'clock, she counted 
nineteen Robins, twenty Sparrows, one Nuthatch, and two Vireoa. The Robins 
were taking their bath, two at a time, going from pan to pan, wfaHe the ^lar- 
rows tried hard to get a foot in. .\t times they would sit in a circle on the rim 
of the pans, but Robins found time amid their splashes to peck— and peck 
hard too—sending the Sparrows in all directions. Then the Robins wotild 
dbase their little ones in until the>', too, had a bath. The Nuthatch and Vireos 



Why Do Birds Bathe? 



f^K stood on the fence wmtching. If one wants to enjoy 
^t the time." M^ry T. Barrett. Porthnd, Hair 

I .... 



birds, 



lap 
the early hours is 



A BIRD-BATH FOR YOUK l.AWN 





I 



A lover of birds has built 
the bird-bath shown in the 
illustration and placed it on 
his lawn directly in front of 
his li\'ing-rooin window. Kvtr> 
nK>ming during the summer 
hundreds of birds come and 
take their dafly bath. This 
little resort has become ex- 
tremely popular and the trees 
round about are wonderfuUv 
populated with all sorts < 
song birds and other feathered 
folk. 

"This bath consists <rf a 
drum of sheet metal slightly 
concave and in the center b 
mounted a long galvanized 
iron rod throu^ which watn 
b piped to the spray attacti 
ment at the top. The surplus 
water, which amounts to only 
five to six gallons a day, nms 
to one edge slightly lower and 
b t .ty as shown in the 

cir i 1 K R. Van Horn, Lituoln, Seb. 

A NUTHATCH 80AKIN0 AND A WOODPECKER SNOW-BATHINO 

"The only two unusual bathing observations I have made, however, have 

been in the winter months, when our bird-bath has been stored away. One 

was the Downy Woodfieckcr soow-bathing, my account of which was printed 

in BntD-LoRc for NovemlMrr-December; and the other was a White-breasted 

- ch which I saw at hb ablutions this morning. 

•ft. convenatkmal, nasal notes of a Nuthatch made ne look up 
fr> >ok, and I loon located the talking bird. It was percUng on an 

iron pipe fence, fluttering iu wings and preening iu feathers, especially itsfUght- 
feathers. Alter a moment, it dropped to a imaU puddle at the foot of a tree 
and there splashed about vigmottsly for perhaps half a minute. Then it ran 
briskly up the trunk of the tree and out to one of the small branchea, where it 



k. 




Bird • Lore 

•hook iudl clr>' and anmnged iu featheni correctly, and, just before flying 
away, refrohcd itself with a bite or two of suet. The morning was mild (as 
most of the winter has U - h no snow on the ground ; hut the absence of 

«itT»«litn» Bfyl ^ *<fi*»Tp«M^^ ur made it, to my mind, an unattractive mom« 

ing for a plunge out-of*doors. Mliite-breasted Nuthatches may have the bath- 
habit, but. though I ha\'e watched them at all times of the year, this b 
the 6rst time 1 havr s«^n «mr minvinff a dip." -R. 0\*ks MtRKiiiAS'. 
HamilUm, Ont. 

A BIKDBATH OF THE CENTURIES 




original situati' 
birdsasa I 
>'earsago. 
**Thusr 



lit Indian mill, or 'maize-bowl,' showing the rounded cavity 
■inded into meal with a stone pestle, was found in Way- 
!>.>u used as a bird-basin in a garden in that town, in its 
{lasture hillside, it held water and was used by the 
the time the Usl Indian ground com in it— three hundred 

sume that we here sec one of the oldest bird-basins in 



oonsecutive use in the country ?*'—ALfiEO W. Cctttinc, Wayiand, Mass. 




Why Do Birds Bathe? 



I ; I 



SUMMARY 

genamliMtions represent our present knowledge: 

All of the perching birds take soak-, dip-, shower-, sun- and air-baths, but 
dyM|^yK0 the dust-bath except the English Sparrow, the Thrasher, the Song 
SpHMS^md die Wren. (I am in hopes that we shall add greatly to this list.) 

.\ll of the 'bigwings,' that is Goatsuckers, Swifts, and Hummingbirds, take 
sun-, air-, dip-, and shower-baths, but never soak- or dust-baths. 

All of the Woodpeckers take all kinds of baths. 

.\11 of the Cuckoos take all kinds of baths, but their ally, the Kingfisher, 
omits th- ' 

All oi ; prey take all kinds of liaths. rxt-i-ptinp that probably the 

Osprey omits the dust-bath. 

\n of the Pigeons and gallinaceous binls take all kinds oi baihs. 

Ai! uf the wading, swimming, and diving birds are believed to take all 
Ijaths, except the dust-bath. There are, however, few exact observations 
a^'ailaUe. 

When fuller information is arrumulatin! a new (hart of fiircfs anil tTif>ir 
liath-habits will be given. 

WHY NOT MAKE A BIRD'S DUST-BATH? 

\ow that we are establishing bird-baths all over, I wish some reader would 
try the experiment of a dust-bath for birds. Fine dust or ashes in a dish instead 
of water, with protection from wind and rain, would answer the purpose. I 
have tried it with a little lime and sulphur mixed with the dust, a.ssuming that 
the dust was to combat insects. Reference to my note early in this paper 
shows how useful a dust-bath may be to the birds in the winter H - 
chance for a lot of good, new obeervatk>n8. — E. T. S. 

BOUM I HAVB tBBN BATHB 

"In the article by Mr. Thompeoo Seton, 'Why Do Birds Bathe?' published 
in the November-December number oC Bau>-LoRX, I notice this statement : 
"Outside of the Divers, Gulls, Docks, Sparrows and Thrushes, I never saw 
any bird take a water-ljath." In reply to that statement I send the following 
observations of visitors to our bird-bath. This bath is 4 feet long by 1 feet wide, 
with a depth of water oi not more than tyi inches. It has been in use tinoe the 
midsommer of igi6. Bcddet the bird groups mentioned by Ifr. Thomp s on 
Seton, I have seen the fbUowing birds take water-baths: Rusty BhuJibirds, 
OriolM, Mesdowlarfcs, Cedar Waswinf^ Home Wrens, Redstarts, Sumner 
N'elkm-birds, Cspe May and Nashville Warblers, snd oos FUcksr. Of oowse, 
there have been dosens of Sparrows, Robins, and Bluebirds. I have teoi seven 
Bluebirds in the bath at one time. One iprinf t flock of fourteen Cedar Wax- 
wings visited the yard and all bathed, few or Ave being bat a time. Then In 



IJt 



Bird • Lore 



delibtratc Wazwing fairiiioo they dreMed their shining fe«then in thetpctftdiDg 
plum tree over the bath. The most beautiful tifht was in the tfting of 1917 
when I Mw a male Oriole bathe in one end of the bath with a male Redsturt in 
the other cn<i 

"At to habits in regard to befhtng 1 have noticed that most water-Lu - 
undisturbed will go in a second time. Some love to soak a long time. The j 
it of thb kind and when in the water he fluffs out his feathers until he looks like 
a ball and he also q>readt hit tail out on the water so that the white outer 
tail feathers show. It took the Flicker a kmg time to make up his mind to bathe. 
He came repeatedly to drink and often acted as if he wanted to l>athe but could 
not (|ttite make up his mind to do so. ("inally one day he did it. The water was 
not deep enou^ to suit him and he looked very awkward as he tried to dip 
under and get his feathers wet. As to time of bathing, I have little to report 
The Bluebirds in the fall always come about five o'clock in the afternoon. The 
early ^>bsher in the morning is usually a Robin and the one to bathe ju»t as 
darimett settles over the earth is a Song Sparrow. I once saw a Homed Lark 
take a snow-bath on a fence post and it seemed to be a most satisfactory per 
formance.*'— Mss. Abtiiub F. GAkosEfi. Trow \. Y. 




HOW TO MAKE A BIRI>-BATH 



"After trying many expedients for a bird-bath I have found a cement one 
by far the moat satisfactory. It can easily be made in the ground by'hol- 
lowing out a place, but a bird-bath should be placed at least two feet above 



Why Do Birds Bathe? i^ 

the gromid, so that prowling cats cannot so casfly take advantage of the 
bathers iHien they are off goard. 

"To make a good^ment bath, mix equal parts of cement and sand, with the 
necessary amount of water, and pour into a large disl^ian, first carefully lining 
the pan with rather strong brown paper. Then press an ordinary chopping 
bowl, ri^t side up, into the cement until the cement reaches the rim of the 
bowl. Wei|^t the bowl down with bricks or other heavy material until the 
cement is set, but not fully hardened. Remove the chopping bowl and care- 
fully trim the rim iA the new cement bath with a knife. When the cement is 
thoroughly hardened, turn the dishpan upside down and the new bath will fall 
out. Remove the paper and the bath is complete. It is well, however, since 
( rmritt is rather porous, to paint the bath inside and out with green paint. 

"The bath should be placed, if possible, where it is shady during most of the 
day, as birds do not like to bathe in blazing sunlight." — Craig S. Troms, 
VermiUwm, S. D. 

THB VISITORS TO AN ENAMELED BATH-TUB 

"Replies to v(\iral of Mr. Seton's queries have been supplied by obaerva- 
ii«>n> of t)irii-> which have frequented a white-enaroded pan which I have 
kept well fillnl with dean water and pUced a few feet from my kitchen win- 
dow. \ sloping sinnc in the pan permits little birds to bathe in shallow water. 

"On but. dry (lavs I fill this pan three and four times a day and the amount of 
dirt left in it shows that birds' feathers are by no means as dean as they look. 
The bathers must tuive been much relieved to get rid of so much dust. I am 
sure that many young birds bathe ju*'* ^■"' •*'•• f"" "^ •• •- .^;i.Jr..» \\\r. ,., 
splash and wade in water. 

"In that pan I have seen Wrens, Rubin- 
breasted Grosbeaks, Baltimore Orioles, Gr.t .... ii....^ .^i^^i..-.^ . 
Flickers, Red-headed Woodpeckers, and C'a < aks. The two Wood- 
|Kr<kcrs were slow and awkward in their muttonn, ihey did not bathe often 
nor slay in the water long. 

"The mure I watch birds the more I am imp it s se d with their human cfaarac- 
leristicH Kirds like to 'follow the crowd' to see and do what other birds do. 
In that same dour-yard I attracted many birds to eat suet. When the House 
S|)arnms >aw the Nuthatches, Chickadees and Woodpcdcent eating suet, they 
would cat it tou; but in another home near Chicago I put out suet two winters 
withuut attracting bircb, and thou^ many Sparrows were around they did not 
touch it. So I thought that the Woodpeckers tried the bath because they saw 
other birds do it. 

"Last October, at Forest Glan,on the north branch of the Chicago River, I 
saw a beautiful sig ht g r ea t nvmben ol birds bathing at the same tine just a 
little bcfon sundown. Many of them were Juncoa; nearest to nt were a 
pair ol Blticbirds; just beyond then soom yallow bl i di they may have 



I ;4 



Bird • Lore 



been Goldfinclics in winter dresjt. I dared not no too near for femr of fright- 
ening the wiwle flock. There wrrr Robins. Grackln and, I think, some Siiar- 
rows abo, but the Junoo* far oulourol>ercd all the rest. I went a second 
afterooon and law the tame thing repeated 

"Whik oneof our (tmily waa uiing the garden bote one aftcmuon. a Ruby- 
throated Hummingbird flew under the <pray and took a good drt ^" ^< -i 

flew up to a telephone wire to preen and dreea its feathers. 

"It isa temptation to tell of the auuiy incidents connected with thai bath-tub 
which I saw from my window, about four feet away, but I will mention one: 
A mother Catbird brou|^t her young hopeful there for, I have nu doubt, his 
first bath. She seemed to be coaxing him to enter the water, which he was 
reluctant to do. Finally he made the plunge and was as delighted as an> 
small boy in the gutter, and one never saw a prouder mother ! The pan always 
stood on a box about two feet above ground and she walked round and round 
on the box arching her pretty neck like a true ibor"-'-'-'-^!; once she hopi>c<l 
on the rim <rf the pan looking down on her off^rin^ >itcst pride. When 

he was satisfied with his s(dashing, they flew away together. She did not go 
into the water. 

*' Wrens enjoy a dust bath. The paths in my gardoi are at times dotted with 
little hoUows made by them. One coquettish Utile fellow, who alwa>'s tried to 
attract my attention iHienever I went into the garden, would fly down in 
front of me, a few feet away and whirl about in the dust. 

"I think birds bathe at any hour of the day, but they were more apt to come 
the first half of the forenoon or Utter half of afternoon."— L. Euzabetii Claek. 
Dtcalm, Mkh. 

NOTES FROM NOVA SCOTIA 

"Replying to Mr. Seton's inquiry, I have seen Robins, in pairs, bathing in 
the early dawn oftener than at any other time, in flower-pot saucers on the 
lawn, arranged to receive the drippings of the hose from the top of its reel. 
They go in and shake their wings up and down, hop out and go in again 
rqxatedly. I have also seen them do the same thing in the heat of the day. 
TSro or three times last autumn, when they were supposed to have left us, 1 
saw huge flodks of a doien or more bathing in the dusk of early evening. 
They perched on the bushes, and flew around in great excitement ; the>' wen* 
never still for a moment iriiile waiting a chance to bathe. The 'f< •-'••• -•<" ^■^•- 
were always in use. 

"Sparrows, Warblers, Goldfinches, Chickadees, RedstarU, Ju! 

bathe at intervab all day in warm weather, but I have not seen Vireo. 

of the larger birds except the Robins. Hummingbirds have been seen to bathe 
by a neighbor, but not by me. They come often to drink the drops at the end of 
the hose."— A A DesBusay, Bndgemater, Nna Scotia, 



> *- 



• «";§sr" 



« 



m 



'.¥'''* ^ 



1 




T. » 



(■Jl) 



I j6 ftird - Lore 

THB FUCSBK BATHINO 

**To Mr. Setoo's Utlof birds leen bathing I can add the Flicker. This ^)edes 
frequents • oemeat-Uned pool in our lawn lo frequently in hot weather that it 
has never occurred to me to make a note of its bathing in my daily record of 
birds seen. On two occisions, however, because of the time of the year and 
cootoess of the weather, I have recorded it at the hath. Thus, on September 6, 
1916, not only the Flicker but Blue Jay, Robin and Oriole batho't «n#l <.n 
March 30, 191 7 there is another entry of a Flicker at the bath. 

"I remember well seeing a Flicker try to tcadi a young bird lo bathe iiy 
going into the water and making quite a sphuh while the baby only stood in the 
edge of the water and shivered as the water fell on him. He finally did go into 
the water when the parent flew into a tree but only stayed for a minute. I 
haxT often remarked on the length of time it always takes a Flicker to make a 
toilet after a bath. Only one other bird that I know is more deliberate and that 
is the Brown Thiasher."— Mas. H. M. Bailey, Shux City, Iowa. 

THB BLUB JAY'S BATH 

"In Woodville, Miss., where I formeriy lived, I kept a broad, shallow recep- 
tacle under the hydrant in the front >'ard for the sake of the birds. I know that 
many birds bathed in it, but I never kept an accurate record because I supposed 
that birds tised water-baths pretty generally. One thing, however, I am sure of: 
There was no qpedes that used the plunge liath more regularly an ' ' 
tically than the Blue Jay. Whether all the Jays did it, or only a fe^s 
I cannot say. But I know that one Blue Jay at least used to plunge and s{>lash 
every day, like a boy in his swimming hole."— H. W. Wklls, PoriGibsonf Miss. 

THB 80N0 SPARROW IS A SOAKER 

"The recent article in BiRD-IxiRK, 'Why Do Birds Bathe?' by Kmest 
Thonqison Seion, reminded me of an unusual incident witnessed one stormy 
April day. We had been feeding a Song Sparrow in the >'ard since the second 
of the month. Here is my record: 

"April 5, 1920.— The day has been rainy and not warm, featuring fierce 
shu w ei ' s which swooped upon the earth in relentless fashion, the sound of their 
determined might occasionally augmented by a rumble of thunder. We thnuf;ht 
of the spring birds and spoke of them with pity. We shall have scant''-'' <*• •^'^ 

"Looking from a window, in the late afternoon, G noticed sonu tlunt; 

moving in a small pool whidi had collected by the doorstep. Her first thought 
was that a frog was in the water. A doeer scrutiny revealed our Song Sparrow. 
Her instantaneom idea that it was hurt and drowning was not held long. The 
incredible fact became evident that at almost dark, on a chiU, stormy April day, 
the bird was taking a bath. G called to me and I kx4ed down from my room 



^^^^^^ Vhy Do Birds Barhe? 137 

^^^^piu thorough ablutions, man-elling exccedini^y. Thmk of the little crea- 
^^Ecfoing to bed with striping wet feathera. Nothing Sybaritic about our 
^Boog Spanow I Thii atrtonitihing occurreBoe was at a quarter past five. An 
]fmom bter the street U|^ts were shining."— Clakkncb E. PATTEaaoN, Bangor, 
\faine. 

THE ROBIN TAKES SHOWER BATH AS WELL AS PLUNOE 

"Standing at the window of my room, one rainy day in the summertime, 

my attention was drmwn to a Robin that had ali|^ted on the roof of a nearby 

hed. There was a shower of rain falling, so much that there was quite a 

plashing on the shingirs I wcmdered why the bird didn't sedt shelter, but 

vhilc I wondered it oommenced a series of gyrations and gymnastics, ducking 

t« head and flapping its wings precisely as if it were in a pan of water. Then I 

>aw it was taking a bath in the rain. After a minute of this exercise it ran up to 

the comb of the shed roof and there commenced ^king itself and preening its 

feathers, while all the time the rain was falling. Presently it flew away, as if 

convinced that while that might be a good bathing-place it was not a good place 

to dry one's feathers."— A. W. Beale. 

ROBINS AND FLICKER 

"In your November-December issue I noticed the article, 'Why Do Birds 
Bathe?' with a list of birds observed taking various kinds of baths. To 
this Ust let me add the following: Robins taking sim bath, any time; 
Flicker taking plunge bath, warm roomings in summer.' —S. R. Ingessoll, 
B^Ustom S^, .V. )'. 



J^otcg from iriclti aiili <^ tulip 



A N«M CcnMt* 

Oa JwM 17, tgio. I tet out with • view 
ol aMVtaiBiag tb« number of nesting 
Kpedcs of Mnk in Cobb* Hill and vicinity. 
Thb place b in the MutheMteni pnrt of 
the city and b very well adapted (or the 
ne»tinii of tome birdt. A •trram runs 
throuffh the lower portion of it. flowing 
into a twamp and from there into the ¥Mt 
Canal. There are about twenty acres of 
doddnoaa tree* which rompriie the wood*. 
The principal one* are the chestnut, white, 
red, al>d black oak, ahagbark hickory. 
sassafras, and black cherry. Along the 
border of the stream there are numerous 
black willows and very thick undcrbrtiah. 
In the forest proper there b a wonderful 
pUae for the birds which asnaUy nest on 
the ground or in tUcketa. The sand-banks 
also offer an opportunity for those birds 
which burrow lM4es in the earth for nesting 
purposes. A field of grass on the eastern 
tide of the woods affords a site where the 
birds which generally breed in these places 
may nest. There b an abundance of natural 
food for Mrds both in the swaaq> and the 
woods. Cherries, apples, grapes, and black- 
berries grow wild here, and sumach, elder* 
berrica, haw, mountain-ash. and flowering 
dogwood are found in large quantitica. 

One may find a goodly number of birds 
here all during the year as it U, in the 
writer's opinion, a fine place for^hem. 

The foUowing is a Ibt of birds known to 
be nesting at this place. 

I. Killdeer. One pair nesting on an ash- 
heap near the mnsl 

a. Sparrow Hawk. Nesting in the edge 
of the woods near the field. 

J. Black-billcd Cuckoo. Two birds 
were seen but no nest was found. 

4- Kiacfbhcr. A pair nesting in the 
sand-bans. 

5. Red-beaded Woodpecker. One pair 
had a nest in a red oak tree 00 the edse of 
the woods but thcv left before thb date. 

6. Northern FUcmcr. A pair had a nest 
in the stub of a dead tree in the swamp and 
another pair were breeding in the woods. 

7. Rooy-throated Hummingbird. One 



bird waa seen. Verv likely it n^ :.l .: „• 
in a nearby orchard aa it waa seen not far 
away. 

8. Kingbird. One pair ncaliag. 

9. Wood Pewoc. Four pairs of thev^ 
bira* were breedlag la the woods. 

to. Crow. There teem to be no larxr 
Hawks or Owb arovnd to usurp the»r 
nests, so the Crows live peacefully in thr 
same one year after year. Three nc*t« 
were occupied. 

II. Red-winged BbckMrd. One malr 
was seen in the swamp. . 

I a. Meadowlark. Two birds were seen 
in the fidd. 

ty Baltimore Oriole. Two pairs of 
these birds were nesting in elms near thr 
swaosp. 

14. Goldfinch. There are usually about 
four pairs which nest here later in the sea 
son. 

15. Chipping Sparrow. One pair nest 
ing. 

16. ndd Sparrow. One pair breeding 
in the crass field. 

17. Soog Sparrow. About seven pairs 
were nesdag. 

t8. Towhee. One male scca la the 
woods. 

19. Indigo Bunting. Three audcs and 
two females seen. 

10. Bank Swallow. Only two pairs werr 
nesting thb year wh« • «• pa»t threr 
years there have b- or thtrt> 
pairs of these birds brrr<iing. 

ai. Red-eyed Vireo. Three pairs nesting 
in ihe wood s . 

aa. Yellow Warbler. Only five birds of 
thb spr<-ir« wrrr notrH anil thift ftcetnik a 
small 
of ne> 

ty CheUaut-MdcU WaiUcr. A 
was noted in full ttmw in « k««&«fra> r 
on the east sidr 

24. Oven-bif' 

35. Mouminx >i.wiM., *,„, ,., 
obsCTved. 

a6. Ifanrland Yelltiw ihroai Tw , 
of these birds were the march 

a7. Redstart. Tw ml a femair 

seen in the woods. 

>8. Catbird. About tea pairs of these 
birds always nest along the border of the 
creek in thie thickest underbrush. 

39. Browa Thrasher. Two nests of this 
bird were foaad. 

JO. House Wrea. Two nest-boses were 
occupied and another pair had a ^est in a 
pile of underbrosh. 

31. Whito-breaated Nuthatch. One pair 
nesting in the heart of the woods. 



(138) 



Notes from hield and Study 



139 



$7. Wood Tbrath. Two p»in of Uww 
bird* 9wn BoAing near the •trcam aftd 

I the marKin of the woods. 

Kgs. WBma Thru«h. Two pain ncating 
ttae woedi. 

34. Robin. About fifteen pain netting. 
i%. BlttcbinL One pair breeding in m 
bird houM on the edae of the woods. — 
R1CHAR0 U. Cha*k. lUclmUf, N. Y. 

The Woodcock M • 'Btefler' 

The imtinct of lelf- preservation b ostially 
•-troog in all animab, and Nature has fur- 
nished many devices for the protection of 
her ckfldrai. Color pattema vrfiich bar- 
raoniae deceptively with the surroundings, 
prctCMlcd injury to attract the intruder's 
attcatioB away from a nest, and the posture 
of aMHionkaa silence are some of the most 
coauBOB f onna. 

An excellent example of the application 
<»( all three methods was seen by the writer 
a few sommen ago when he fluslied a 
Woodcock wkik paatag along an old, 
unuskrd wooda-road. Becaus e of her pro* 
tcitivc coloring the bird was not seen oatU 
flushed, aad although it was certain that 
the nest was directly underfoot, it required 
•everal minutes of close observation to 
liiscover the thrrr little baUs of feathen 
huddled in tbr middir of the path. 

mother bird, pretending to have a 
tring nrn\ uttcfiag cries of apparent 
>li->U( itcred. aad lopped over 

a *totH . a large fnU adjeiaiag. 

Kri.>icnutnK trie tn. L, aad wbhiag to See 
how lung the would 'play tlw game,' the 
writer Idt the young birds undisturbed 
and followed her. When the punuer 
ttopped, the bird redoubled her efforts to 
coax him away. n«»w rsaialaiag t— ytJagly 
near, again fljriag to a saf« distaara, TUs 
perfonaaaoe was kept ap across the ten- 
acre lot to the farther waO, where, partly 
co ac ea led by a fringe of sbmUI ttacs, this 
stapid-looking. shallow patad, bat c«a« 
aiag Woodcock, thinking she had quite 
fooled the eaeasy, suddealy rec o vera d the 
ttseol her «iati,aad flavia a aridedide 
toward bar mmL 

RrtradiV Ua steps, the writer sought 
the youag birds, aad, sUadlag very aear. 
Uowly ftoopad wUh estaadtd head. Not 



a awveawnt or a peep. Closer aad closer 
went the hand, and still, true to the in- 
stinct that in absolute quiet lay their 
safety, they did not stir. Only one inch 
away I Could they stand the straia? 
Agaia the head osovcd, but the iastaat 
the fiager touched those tiny balls of yellow 
fluff, the spell waa broken, aad away they 
went into the bushes, where they were 
doubtless soon rejoined by their mother. 
So well do the feathen match the light 
and shade of the surroundings that one 
Btty stand aluMist directly over a Wood- 
cock oa her aest, knowing the bird to be 
there, and yet for some time fail to sec 
her. Turn away for a moment, then back 
again, and it i» almost equally diflicult to 
make out the form. Kvrn the large eyes, 
adapted, perhaps, for nocturnal activities, 
seem to blend with the foliage of the 
swampy thicket so frequently chosen for 
her nesting-place. — S. N. F. SAKroao . 
B ts Um, Mast. 

A Tame Orouse 

In the November- December, 1910, issue 
of Biti>-LoaB sppeared the story of a tame 
Grouse near Schenectady, N. Y. Several 
yean before that there was a tame Grouse 
at Oneonta which was discove r ed twenty 
miles away the foUowiag sprfaif. 

Juae It, 1910, 1 aoticed a Grouse foUow- 
iag aw in a patch of woods near Melrose, 
N. Y., about twenty adles from Schenec- 
tady. I was on the highway, walkiag, but 
entered the woods aad cautiously approach- 
ing the bird, a male, suc ce eded in catching 
it with bare hands. He had spread Ms ruff 
aad tail like a Turkey, aad ^wly sralked 
ahead of aw althou^ I was withla arm's- 
length. After admiring aad pettii« It. I set 
it down and the bird calady precesded 00 
iu digaiisd proawaads, aMldi« a chuck- 
iag aoise. Upoa awatiaaJai iMs to Mr. 
Barroughs the followiag week, he told aw 
of the Oaaeau bird. 

The daU is aol awatJeaed ia the 
Novaaikar-Dacaaiber artide, but theft Is 
or tUi bdi« the aaaw blid. 



A great away auteaw blke paas this road 
oa their way to Tray aad Sch ea e c tady aad 



I40 



Bird - Lore 



Um occvpMiu gaiacf witd dowcn •ioog 
iIm road, alto btnk*. Um biid, bdag m 
usM, co«ld Imv« btM cspCvfcd sad takca 
its 



At My rate. It to a qnmt ooiaddaaca, 
and ooiaddci witb the Omo«U apiaode 
alao. If BoukLoib raadan will raamnbcr, 
a taBM GffOMa appaarad la Vanaoat a few 
yaan ago, HMUag partMpa ftva caaaa, all 
la tida aactloa.— Edoai Bmnx, WaHt- 
ftrd, N. r. 

Pr«|»aratton of Pood bjr • Blackbird 

A Uadljr aeigbbor foUowt the laudable 
practice of kaepiag a paa filled witli frcah, 
dcaa water la the oeater of her aaaaD gar* 
dca, f or the lafiaakawat of tlM Uida. Vary 
of tea tUa offerlag b aupplaawatad bjr 
crwaba from the table. I caa tee this paa 
aad Ita aiaay featherad viiitorK froai my 



Oae day, oae of the vWton happcaed to 
be a fine, lUck Blackbird. He moved 
about, o ccaafcmaH y perrhlag hiaaelf oa 
the adia of tha paa aad d^ipiaf Ua bOlla 
the water. Soddealy, be cocked hit hfead 
to oae side aad thea ficw a few feet away 
where lay a place of emit. PacUaf away 
for a aoawat, he flew with the cruat to 
the edge of the pan and dropped it in the 
water. Standing guard for a thort while, 
he quickly took up aad twaUowcd the 
■o f toa e d Croat aad flitted away, evidently 
fceUag wen repaid by hi* lagadty la auk- 
lag a taaty amrael from a hard, dry cmat 
of braad.— Gbokck E. Ebol, Crraiaalrw, 

A White Crow 

Oa Ffdwaary lo^ 1941, a^dle motorlag 
aorthwaat of ladlaaapolla, I caaia apoa a 
flock of about eight Crowa, aaMag wUdi 
waa aa alhiao, lu wiaga aad upper taU 
fcathen beiag white. I waa quila doae to 
it for wvaral aacoada. 

Oa February 14 I agaia drove to the 
aaaM locality with a party of lix. Near 
the aaae place, aad in aa open, newly 
plowed fldid, I law the i^tc Crow, and 



alter a prnod of about a haii nunutr it 
flew with a black Crow. Aa I atartad la 
purauit from aaar the place in the field 
thara flew a aaooad white Crow. 1 have 
■ot aaoi Ihaai aiaca, but fanacra ia the 
Biighhnrhnnd riport them atlU in the 
aame locality. Oae neighborhood farmer 
la of the opiaioa that the Crowa have 
creaicd with Pigeoaa ( I) as an explanation 
for the white Crows. He says that for 
several seasoni white Crows have been 
coBUBoa ia the aeighborhood. 

I will attea^A to follow up the situation 
in aa effort to aacertala awra dafiaite in- 
formation regarding the cause of so aaaay 
albinos in the locality.— S. E. PstKiHS III, 

A Pamily of Wood Thruabea 

In the Utter part uf April I beard a 
sweet, whi»tlr-likc tall of a bird, which 
was not familiar to me. I waa not positive 
I had heard it before, so I immediately 
made a search (or it. I heard the bird on 
the Uwn of the Miami Woolen MiUs of 
Lindenwald. I work there aad as I am 
doae to the window I had a chaace to 
leara soaieching of this bird. Thia com- 
pany haa a laara. about 1 >$ fc«t square, 
aad bouaded oa the north and east sides 
by the large brick structure of the mill 
itsdf, and 00 the south and west by 
Symmca aad Pleasant Avenues. Shade 
trees adorn the south and wcat sides, and 
inside are several birch and maple trees 
aad auaserous lilac and other bushca. In 
the ceatcr is a 4s-room Martin house 
wUA ^vaa it a very pleaaiag look. It is 
a very alee place for birda except for the 
everlasting, menacing houae-cat. 

It was here that I saw thia bird hopping 
along the ground tike a RobCa. I soon 
Identified him as the Wood Thrush. For 
the first week he was there alone, when, 
oae asoraiag, as I waa look m, I 

saw somethlag flashing by tli « ^od, 

watchiag doady, saw him chaaiag another 
WoodThruah. Within an hour I aaw them 
agaia oa the grouad feeding on insects here 
and there. The aecoad oae was a shade 
lighter than the first aad preauaubly was 



NotM from Field and Study 



141 



the femair. I did not have to wait loof 
for what 1 waotrd to tee, for about 
May 10, I noticed the female carrying 
bits of paper, dead leave*, and wool into 
a tree doac by. The nest wu placed out 
00 a limb about it feet high aad within 
S fret of an upatair* window. There were 
all kinds of noise from the looms and warp 
maciiinc* in the wcave^rooai, but .it 
didn't leem to bother the birds a bit. The 
nest was made up of paper, wo6l, and 
leaves for the bottom, then some sticks, 
aad soow mud for the inside and finally 
finished with rootleU for the lining. 

The female seemed to do all the neat- 
building while the male sang to her and 
sometime* would fly with her to the nest 
just as if to see bow she was getting 00 
with her work. Within a week I noticed 
the female stayed un the nest most of the 
time. Knowing that iacubatkm must 
have cnm—rrd, I watched my oppor* 
tunity to peep in the nest. She did not 
fly off the nest until I almost touched her. 
With a loud ^ pU she called for her mate. 
They both scolded me until I left. The 
female returned to her nest immediatdy. 
In the aca were three cgfi aboot the color 
of Robins' eggs but not quite as large. 

I patiently waited for the young to 
arrive aad abovt June t the neat contained 
two young. Both parents seemed to feed 
the young but one always stayed at the 
nest until the other returned. The young 
grew fast and left the nest before the 
middle of June. They were pretty little 
faOowa with their brownlah backs and 
whitish VBderpart*. The male aeeamd to 
do all the feetttng after the yovng left the 
nest, mthin three day* after that I 
notired the female carrying paper, wool, 
ant] Iraves as before. I watched her aad 
noticed that she waa building a n ot her neat 
la a ample trie abaat so fMt f (om the 
first aad abovt the same hatgiit froai the 
grouad.^ Thia ac*t was aboat je feet from 
the buildlif aad well out to the adft of the 
tree. I do aot kaow how maay egp were 
laid thi* tiflw, a* I aever had a chaace to 
look in thencet. 

While the male wa* basy with the fint 
the feamle waa braedlac the «ni 



for the seooad offspring. I didn't sec the 
first two young after July lo. They were 
full grown at that time and looked abnoet 
like their parents ' the lawn then 

and I suppose wn ilic world with 

others of their kind, f be second brood 
were hatched about July 15 and left the 
nest July »6. Thb time there were two 
young again. They flid about the saaae a* 
the first, the male doiag the fecdiag. 

About a week ago oae of the young flew 
through an opea wiadow direct to the 
shipping- room. The shipping clerk, who 
is also a bird-lover, caught him aad put 
him back with his parents. 

Yesterday, August 7, when I last saw 
them, they were getting pretty well grown, 
aad I think they will also soon leave. 
The female has not been seca for the last 
week, but the male is taking good care of 
the young. 

I hope all these Thrushes laad safely 
throu^ their migrations. I will be glad 
to see them return again next spring for 
these birds have given me much pleasure. 
— FiANK Habbaum, HamitUm, OU0. 

More About the Song of the Red- 
eyed Vireo 

In the September-October. 1930, imue 
of BtBO-LoBB I had a few note* concern- 
ing the ability of a certain Red-eyed Vlrco 
to mimic the call of the Crested Flycatcher. 

Since its publication I have received an 
Intcrertiag letter from Mr. Winaor M. 
Tyler, of Leilagtoa, Mas*.; aad as he ^vta 
MB kave to qaole Us ohacrvatioaa, aad 
■iHtiats I Bead farther aotas «a the tub* 
ject to Bta»-LoBS, I wish to add the 
foOowiag estract from hia letter: 

"I also have heard a th^fag Rod-eyad 
Vireo iaterpolate the aote of the GrsBlod 
Flycatcher aad Mr. Walter Faraa apohe 
to BM eaca of aaother Rad'Oye wUck did 
thesaaM. Froai thBaa thtae obBenratloaa, 
two BBBde la MBMarhwiHtB aad oae la 
Ohio, m BsaBt laler (mrnt we aot?) that 
the latrodactiea of thb mmlagty fordga 
aote b a habit of the specisa. aHhoagh the 
aote b rsrtly heard, rather thaa a peca- 
Haiity of aa ladividaal bird. 



14* 



Bird • Lore 



mat Um VIrae to iiritetii« Um tty- 
catdMT MHM do«btl«l to aw, for I turn- 
•oC rwaU lnorit Um Utd-^yt utter the 
Mlt of umy otkor UnL Tbm, too, tiM 
GrMt-crwt b * vary vnooauMa bird 
witkw." 

It would be iatcmtiag to loani if 
otWrt havo kMid thb pccuUar MMg of tht 
Rcd-ojre. aad to hcor tbdr views upon tht 
•abject ! \ DooUTTLK, PtimutiUt, 
OU0, 



Tho Bvoateg Oroobook • 9n 



About a year ago, I tcot a brief artide 
CO aa Evening Groabeak wbich I taw in 
tbe iMMth of July, 1917, near the Inter- 
national Boundary, nortb of Lake Super- 
ior 00 Guafliat Lake. Tbe actions of tbe 
bird and tbe infonnation I gained about 
the tpedea from eettlera, lead tut to tbiak 
tbat tbe bird* were nesting in that region, 
altbougb I did not find a neat. 

Oa August t, 1910. 1 again saw Eveaiag 
Gfoabcaka ia Itasca County, Miaa., about 
a kuadrad adlcs farther wcrt aad fUty 
adlca farther south. 

Two birds, both of wbich seeoMd to be 
Budes in full plumage, I saw oa a little 
patch of sand near the post ofbce of Hae- 
top ia oeatral western Itasca County. 
Tlicy were apparently picking up fine 
gravel and when they kft, flew into a 
snail taoMrack swaasp dose by. These 
birds wcte soen witUn a few rods of a 
farm. The poafmastitr of Pinctop and Us 
boys told me that they were there every 
r, but be did aot fiad the nest. 



August 8, the same year, I saw two 
K%-cning Grosbeaks in a tree ia front of the 
post oftce of Popple, Itasca County, 
twenty adlcs aortheast of Deer River. 
The pnafmasfer told hm that these birds 
were there every saauner aad that they 
had beca ia the habit of p*^H »g up saad 
aad gravd la front of hb door, aad that 
about a wuefc ago Us cat had caught one 
of theuL These birds also Itew to some 
low wooded huMi oa the Popple River 
which pamrs the door of the post ofice. 

I did not liad a aeat ia tUs region and 
saw each pair of birds only once, but these 
observations lead me to think that the 
Evening Grosbeak should be listed as a 
summer rcaideat over a considerable part 
of northern Minaesots, aad I shall try 
thb sumauer to discover a aest. Campers 
aad bird studeats who bappea to see thb 
aotke would do well to look for aests aad 
youag aa early la the seasoa as pewible. — 
D. Laiiob, 5«Mrf Pt$l, Mkm. 

The Yellow Rail Near Chicago 

A Yellow Ran was found dead oa the 
streets of Hinsdale during the spriag of 
1919. It was mounted aad preserved by 
the Science DepartaMat of the school. 
Oae of my boys fouad one aUvc in a 
snowdrift during the Easter bttssard of 
1990. It appeared very much exhausted, 
often tucking its bead under its wing 
before a whole room full of observers. 

I am inclined to believe these Raib 
pass through thb area in adgratioa aMWc 
comaMMly ths'^ we bad supposed.*'' 
Esnsa A. Csaigmju, Mitm Fcrta, ttts. 




The Scams 



»43 



THE SEASON 
XXV. February IS to Apnl IS. 1921 



BofTOK Region. — Followiag aa ua- 
OMMlly mild wioter. this has proved the 
eaittcst spring Nev Kngland hM known 
(or ytmn; not even in tlM aoUble spring 
o( 1910 did the vffcUtkm develop to 
rapidly. The prcMat qwinf rivab that 
hittnric one of 1775 wbcD, during the 
IjauIc <A Lexington, the griM on Um Com- 
mott b reported to have waved in the 
brcczr. 

from an ornithological and a 
.^i.ujval point o( \'iew, it has been inter- 
estJag to compare thb year with the re- 
markably late scaaoo of 1910. On Feb- 
ruary to, 1921, just when we had begun 
to look for Bluebirds and Simg Sparrows 
(the weather had been mild and for a week 
the ffonad had been practically bare), 
thcf* came a foot and a half of snow, the 
bcavicst snowfall ever recorded here for a 
single day. The delay in the progress of 
the season was short, however, for after 
tea days of warm sualight the grouad was 
bare again, hjrias begna to riag, aad dur- 
ing the week foUowiag If arch 6 the first 
group of migrant birds entered the region 
in (till numbers — Song Sparrows, Flickers, 
J nd M eadowlarks were distributed through- 
i>ut the country; Blackbirds, Red-wiaged 
and Rusty, aad Bronsed Crackle* caaw ia 
immcase Ihichs, "datt'ria' ia taU trees," 
aad with them caow Blashirds aad Robias 
(feediag oa the grsvad thus early), aad 
soea afterward Fm Sparrows arrived (00 
the 11th, before their average date). Gose 
on the heeb of thb group a few Phobc* 
snd Cowbirds appeared (on the ijth. 
rrcord dates) and within a few days the 
latter bird was wcil rqircseatad ia the 
fftfioa. fuDy tea dajrs bifors its avenge 
date of arrival A jrear ago at thb tiaM- 
the grouad was oomplctdy covered with 
saow and no birds had appeared. 

Duriag the add weather of the last two 
weeks ia March the temperature rose to 
between 70* aad 80* oa four dajrs; bios- 
sooM aad leaves burM forth three weeks 
earlier thaa they did last I 



pushed aorthward in such numbers tha 
new arrivals were noted almost every awra* 
ing; the Vesper aad Field Sparrows aad 
the Fish Hawk appeared on early record 
dates, and Ruby-crowned Kinglets aad 
Yellow Palm Warblers (both early ia 
arriving) arc aow passiag through in full 
numbers, singing freely. 

Thus far in April there have been very 
few cold da>-s to interrupt the growth of 
vegetation and the migration of the birds. 
Chipping Sparrows have been here for ten 
da>'s. Bluebirds arc incubating, and the 
Robin has begun to build "hb adobe 
house;" the country presents a picture ol 
aUd-lfay with grass of \-ivid green, bios* 
somiag fruit trees, and many spring iowen 
in bloom, and today, the toth, appeared 
4n anomaly, a June-bug in Aprils- 
Wntoa M. Tylek, tAximgtpn, Mass. 

Nkw Yobk Region. — The end of an 
otherwise open winter was ptmctuated by 
a very heavy snowstorm oa Fdtruary so. 

A qocstioa which naturally arises ooa- 
ceraiag suauaer birds which liager here 
and there into a mild winter like the past 
one, U whether they actually succeed in 
haagiag oa until spring. A BrownThrasher 
observed at Bayside, L. I.. February 97, 
by H. E. Douace, and which had ben 
reported to Um ia the saaM locality about 
three weeks, aad agaia tea days previous, 
had weathered thb stem saccsssfaHy. 

The amst aotahle feature of the period 
uader coasidsrstioa was early and pro- 
tracted movsmeat of water^fowl, and ua- 
usual abaadaaoo of frssh>wat*r spedes, ia> 
dudiag records of rarer fonas (Overpeck 
Marshes, W. J. Giiscom). Caaada Geese 
' ' rd oa the B««th shot* of Loag Islaad 
nuaihen, width were safsatod ia 
February. A 6ock iyiag «vor seawwhat 
east of aorth ia adgratioa eras ehserrsd ia 
February (Bayside. L. I.— B. E. Doaaes) 
aad about March 10 (Miaeoia, L. I - 
Grbcom aad J. T. Nlchob). Up the Hud 
soa D«d» «tr« aaasasHy ai 



>44 



Bird - Lore 



Apdl I (RhiBcbcck~M. S. Cmby). At • 
corrMpoadiag date (April j) GriKom mmI 
Jaavria fovad the following wptdm on the 
Ovtrpcck I^ATkhm: Americaa Ifcrgmaicr, 
UaOui, BUck Duck. PiotaU. Gi 
«ii«ad TmI (4). Shovdlcr (i drake) 
ScMp (j4). Roddy Dock Cs). 

UMMlly •omti tpriac dMMCW nay bt 
olMcnrcd anMMf iIm bad birdi o« Loag 
IsUad by the cad ot Fcbniary. Tkb year 
aothiag oi tke tort was noticed in two 
day* spent at Mastic at that time, doubt- 
leaa due to tk* ttorm of the xoth from 
whick the ground was BtHI mow-covared. 
Ring-baled GuUs and Gitat Blue Herons 
kad dottbtkia been prcMttt all wioter. The 
UMW waa gone tka bfinning of Marck, 
and tka earlicat migrants came at about 
tkeir average datca. 

From tkb point, as regards vegetation, 
tke spring advanced witk unusual rapidity; 
so tliat from tke $th to tke loCk of April 
dwrry treea and Norway maples were in 
flower, other maples cominx into leaf, and 
shrubbery bcoomiag quite green. Tbougk 
there was not muck general acceleration 
of migration to meet tkese conditions, 
several species were akead of time and 
some notably early records of arrival were 
obtained. TIm Ruby«crowned Kinglet and 
Hermit Thrush were generally scarce, or 
late in appearinn, tkougk from tke Bronx 
a report of tke former on April J and of tke 
latter on April 4 kaa come to kand (F. F. 
Hougktoo). Among tke eariy records are: 
Marck so. Chipping Sparrow, and April j. 
Bittern, near Plalnfleld, N. J. (W. DcW. 
Miller); March ast Vesper Sparrow, 
Mineola, L. I. (J. T. N.); March a?. Pled- 
billed Grebe, Fish Hawk. Tree Swallow 
(s flocks). Vesper Sparrow, and April j. 
Yellow Palm Warbler at Englewood, N. J. 
(Griaoom and Jaavrin); Marck it,Pkcebc, 
Marck a6. Vesper Sparrow, Marck ag, 
Ckipping Sparrow, A|wil a, Ruby>crowncd 
Kinglet (M. S. Crosby), and April 10. 
Purple Martin (Crosby and Grisoom). At 
Rki n ebeck, Dutcfcem County, Cdwbirds 
became generally di»triboted toward tke 
end of Marck; April 14, SoliUry Virco, 
Central Park, New York Oty (Granger 
and Griscom). 



Robins were actively building at Garden 
City April It ' T Vir-Mrn* v^* 1 >«* 
CUy. 

WAanMCT<» Kr<.i 

Wasbingtoo. D. C. 

silent tkroo^MNtt T ici- 

tainly were not * an<1 

Marck. Moat of 

sochastkeCardir 

Titmouse, and M • >n%i nginjc 

regularly about lU ... ... i....'uary and 

continued in full song tkereafter. Tkey 

kave seemed it y active 

in tkia rm|K r««. witk 

I II utfHDHlOII ^ 

of year hna a 
tke song aao! 
it is intcrestir^ 

of tkis, as of other phases of their life his- 
tory, much is still to be learned. Their 
singing at this time of the year b greatly 
stimulated by warm, still weather, whereas 
a windy or damp, ooM day teems largely 
to seal the fountain of song. Sudden 
cfaangca in temperature or other weather 
eonditiona are more likely to cause these 
changca than gradual transitions. Suck 
variations in activities kave been par- 
ticulariy remarked during February and 
Marck of tkb year. 

Tke generally warm weather of these 
two months has apparently had some in- 
fluence OB the northward movement of 
early migrants, though not to the extent 
of bringing them here lone in advance of 
tbdr wual time, nor of breaking many 
records of eariy appearance. Thb effect 
may best be seen in the following list of 
arrivab that are eariier than the average, 
whidi b added in parentheses after each: 
Mourning Dove, o bee r ved February 6 
(average date of appearance, March 16); 
Fox Sparrow, February 19 (March 4); 
Red • winged Blackbird, February a 
(Marck I ): Killdeer, February a J ( Marck 7) : 
Towkee, Marck 7 (Marck aS); Belted 
Kingfisker, Marck 7 (Marck aj); Phcebe. 
March 7 (March ti); Pine Warbler. 
March la (March ji); Ospcey, March ao 
(April 11); Pied-billed Grebe, March ao 
(April 1); and Blue- Gray Gnatcatcher, 
March |o f.\f>ril &). It should be anted. 




The SeMoa 



US 



; tlMt aO cf tkaw csccptiag the 

Ittf flw orftkwully winter in thb rcgioB. 

One bird, Uie I Buiriim Wetcr-Thntth, 
wa* reported on March tj, by Mite M. J. 
Pdlcw, ia Rock Creek Perk, Weehiagton. 
D. C which is in edveaoe of the eeriiett 
previoye record, March ji, iqiS; but this 
b the only ^tedcs so far that has broken 
its recorcl of early arrivaL 

A aaaber of birdi, such as the Wood- 
rmk. Hcnait Thrush, Ydlow Palm War- 
bler. Vesper Sparrow, aad BrowaThrasher, 
put in their appearance at about the nor- 
mal time, while the Chipping Sparrow (on 
March 26) was a few days behind time. 
On the other hand, a few that should have 
arrived before April 1 have not yet 
(March ji) been noted. These are the 
Cowbird, Savaaaah Sparrow, Purple Mar- 
tin, and American Pipit. 

Comparatively few birds of bmw« thaa 
passing iatcrcst have been observed. Two 
HolboU'* Grebes, rare here, were seen by 
Dr. Paul Bartsch on the Tidal Basin, at 
Wathington, D. C, on March ft. No fur- 
ther report from the WUrtfiiff Swans that 
havr wtotared oa the Potomac bdow 
Washiogtoa has beca received, but a fk>ck 
of elevca was seen flying over GeofgetowB, 
D. C by Mr. WiUUm Palmer, 00 Marcht ft. 
This last record has a further aad melan- 
choly iaiercst, as it was the last or alaaost 
the last observation oa birds made by 
Mr. Palmer.— Hasky C. OssaaotSBB, 
BUUgksi Smrny, WAtkimgUn, D. C. 

Onsaun (Ono) Rmhor.— The migra- 
UoB seaaoa opied at Oberlia oa Febr»> 
ary t6, wbea the fU*t wave of Crows, 
Robias and Blaebirds appeared. The acxt 
wave was oa the sjd. with KUldecr aad 
Red-wiaged Blackbird as arrivals, and aa 
iacrease of those of the first wave. The 
third wave bcgaa oa March s aad taraii- 
aatad oa the sth, tavohrlaf 14 tifftdm aa 
arfivab aad the iacfaiM of tha «ulkr 
arrivals. Phoba ouaa oa the ftth, Towhea 
oa the toth. Plaid Sparrow oa the t*th. 
Veapcr Sparrow aad Woodcock oa the 1 3th, 
Baflchead oa t he 1 4th, Fas S p a r r o w oa the 
iSth, Baldpate. Pintail. ShovtOeraadPM* 
MBad Cfabe oa the t7th, Turkey Valtwt 



oa the iQth. This scatteriag wave was due 
to coaliaued awderatdy favoraUa waather 
over the period, aad tcrariaatcd wHh the 
comiag of less favorable weather. Yellow- 
bellied Sapsucker came on the jsth, but 
the next definite wave was delayed until 
the jd of April and was continued until 
the ftth. The arrivals during this wave 
were Hermit Thrush, Brown Thrasher, 
Swamp Sparrow, Pectoral Saadpiper, 
Purple Martin, Bittera, Ban aad Tree 
Swallows, Ruby-crowned Kiaglet, Upland 
Plover, Bonaparte Gull, Louisiana Water- 
Thrush, Savannah Sparrow, Myrtle War- 
bler and Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher. Imme- 
diatdy following this last wave, cold, wet 
waather arrived and effectuaUy checked 
aay further awveawat. The first aad 
secood waves were about ten days in 
advance of the average for this region, the 
third wave was nearly average, and the 
last wave recorded here approzinutely 
average, but with considerable mijdag up 
of spades aorasaUy bdoaging to other 
waves occurred. Thus the eacep t i o w a H y 
warm winter has not resulted la aay 
BUirked departures from normal ia the 
migrations, except that the three species 
makinx up the first wave were ten dajrs 
early. There is so much variation in the 
species makiag up the secood wave that 
the same resMrfc caaaot be aude to apply 
to it.— LYima Jowst, Oisr if a, (Mm. 

Cbcaoo Rboiom. — Siace the last repart, 
Chkafo ha* beca haviag Ita asaal ipciaf 
weather, cha aging from warm aad adld to 
cold aad storaRy a few days at a time. Oa 
April 9, there was a flurry of saow which 
chaaged to rain and, with f reeaiag weather, 
caaead soaw damage to the fruit tree*. 
The birdt, howavar, are arrhrlag every 
day la ipHa af Ika waather, a few eariier 
thaa VMiaL A Ranait Thraah was taaa la 
Jackaaa Park oa Pabraary so aad a Coot 
Pabraary a?. Mr. De Laabcafets reparts 
a Baaaparta^ Gall (March t6) at jackaaa 
Park, Brawa Thrasher (April •) BHtan 
aad Tree SwaUow (AprB 7) troai WIBow 
SpHMi. 

Tha ■■whw are af ipadal latsceal at 
tUa liaM ai Dacha aia very p ltadf ul. 



MA 



Bird - Lore 



IS ipMk* iMviag bcca rtpoctcd to date, 
tlM aoat aoubl* of wWdi an ft GrCftUr 
Scavp (D« LaMhtmM»)t mm ia Jadtaoa 
Park, aad Um Uia§-matk»i Ducks vUdi 
art very avawrow. Abo many Caaada 
GooM aad OM Saow Goo*' ibcD* 

fob) Moa at Hiaidalc. T> »eeiB 

to know that tbry are protectod aa tbcy 
.r«> »u(tc tame aad allow a clo«« approach, 
icd a Scaup oB a aoiall pond (or five 
minute*, wMk staadiag withia ao feet of 
It. Although I waved my arntt aad made 
varioua aoboi it did aot take alarm and 
oaly flew wIms a ttooe was diopptd aear it. 
Pird- billed aad Horacd Grebca aad Groat 
blue and Black-cfowaod Night Herons 
are hrginniat to arrive; a Pectoral Saad* 
piper aad Double-crested Cocmoraat (Dc 
Lauhoofcb) ware scca at ^lUow Spriags 
Aprfl s. The Killdoers and both Yellow, 
legs are here aad the Jack Saipe rise from 
the BHuah every few feet while the Red- 
wlags ooBtiaue thdr noisy matioK and the 
Marrii Hawks keep a sharp watch over 
the catirc swaaip. 

Lapland and Smith's Longspun are 
here in large flocks near Argo; numerous 
Tufted Titmice have been reported from 
diflercat localities, Thb bird seeott. like 
the CanHaaL to be citcndiag its raage to 
the north, as they are seaa nore conuaoaly 
every year. Beridw the commoa Hawks, 
s few Rou^b-lcggod Hawks have been seen 
in the saad-duacs. Most of the Sparrows 
are here in full song and many Kinglets. 
Browa Creepers aad Sapsuckers are to be 
fouad roaadag through the woods. The 
first Mjrrtk Warbler (Dc Uubenfeb and 
Ford) was seen If arch 20 in the sand-dunes 
aad b BOW com a wn everywhere. 

Mr. W. A. Lyons, of Waukegaa, is 
dotag SMoa very iatcrestiag trapping and 
eorfc aad aaMing other birds 
a Northcra Shrike (March so), 
caaght when It catered a trap after a 
Jaaoo, which U kflbd. 

Throe Bomod Owl acats were found by 
Mr. Richardson in the Mnd-duncs, aad 
Mr. Ford haa located a nundwr of early 
Woodcodt nests. The Sodcty now has a 
list of g6 9p9dt» aad expects to add aiaoy 
BKire during the aext two atonths. — Coum 



Caimuux SAmoBN, CMr m t m «/ ike 

KAMSAt City Rnoion.— All records for 
warm open wiaters ia thb region have beea 
broken duriag the past season. Trees 
begaa to bud ia add-Frbmary, aad by the 
end of the second week in March only very 
late fruit had not yet blossomed. Records 
of early arrivab of birds were beiag broken, 
aad BMMt uauaual aestiac dales were beiag 
recorded* when c\ 
a sudden staad»: 

during the wedi of Match a?, tnui »•»* 
killed generally throughout the region, and 
some damaKc to rgjc* and nestlings was 
noted. In the nest of e>'en so hardy a 
spadei as the Prairie Homed Lark two 
eggs containing dead embr)ros were found 
alongside a fully-fledged nestling. 

Mr. B. F. Bush, whoso meteorological 
aad botaaical aotes eitand back over a 
long sequence of jrears, states that once 
before (in 1889-1885) a spring-like winter 
had beguiled vegetation into a too-eariy 
awakening only t'- *•'-•• -.^»»»»'in? ».v , 
late killing fro»t. 

Is it worthy of rccora mai rrports irom 
scattered c orrespondents indicate that 
Bronsed Grarklcs were present 
flocks over the entire region t 
the winter. Thb b unprecei! 
winter records for this ftttrtin .ir ; 

far between. 

Meadowlarks suddein; api^ •• . m v.a their 
breeding- stands in full song on February 27 
and Red-headed Woodpeckers moved in on 
the same date in numbers, both species 
being far in advance of their normal times 
of arriving in force. From the middle of 
February to March i a great procession 
of Ducks and Geese was observed on the 
Missouri River by William Andrews and 
others. The abundaace of water-fowl dur- 
iag thb period doubtless accounts for the 
presence on February >s of the f ' 
Hawk seen In thb vicinity in b)» 
On February is the first large fioUi* of 
ndgratiag Robins were seen, and on the 
i6th and i;th numerous florkt of Canada 
aad Blue Geese passed through. Between 



The Season 



147 



Xhe ttth aad >8lh tlMW i M»d> of llaUards 
*ad PiaUik were puiiBg. »nd on March t 
MoUicr hMvy ttflit o< I>ork*. iodtidiag 
•cvtnl flocks of GftoHwingcd Ted, was 



Two Ospccys were teen oa llarcli j; no 
'--■— '-^al date tot this specks has bcca 
The Phcrhe was first noticed on 
MarU) 0, thoufh it prohahlyarrhrcd earlier, 
and on thb date Walter Cunningham ob> 
scnrcd and heard Lapland Lonfspurs and 
Pipits on the rific range in Swope Park. 
The fint Cools, a Iktck of about two 
hundred, were aecn on the 8th. For three 
da>-s following thb date Ducks and Geese 
were abundant on the river and a few 
Herring and Ring-billed Gulls were seen 
lAndrrirs). Gecse noted on the isth and 
ir>th imludcd a snail flock of Hutchins's, 
2$ Blue GccM and j fk>cks of Snow Geese. 
Scaup Ducks were first noted on the 13th 
and V>y the i6tb were abundant. The first 
( .TCAi Blue Herons were seen on March 15, 
on «hi< h date great numbers of migrating 
Sparrows were noted in all favorable 
localities io the Missouri bottoms. The 
most nuBBcrons species among the Spar- 
row* on this date seemed to be Lincoln's 
Sparrow. Pvrple Martins were noticed in 
ones and twos on March 1 j, thoogh earlier 
arrivals were doobllcM overlooked. 

Three nests containing full-grown young 
Prairie Homed Larks were found on the 
last two days of March, and on the 30th a 
•d of foor slightly incubated KiUdeer eggs 
«a* ■ ' *nn 500 feet of the cad of the 

Nvti ar line. Brown Thfasfccft 

rame in on a wave of Harris* Sparrow* on 
April 3, when the thickets and bedgca <d 
thr {>r»irte regions resounded with ^Mring 
muvr .\nnthcr of these characteristic 
wavr^ of Harris* Sparrows was noted 00 
thr ttth and irth, whn iIm birds were 
i>rr«rnt over the cntirt ■ o ut ha m part of 
the dty. 

The first local nwHin of iIm Sharp- 
shinacd Hawk that has evtr ban anda a 
matter of record was nolad «• April 4* • 
nni«y old female having baan flnsbad from 
her nearly coaipletad nest In a small clump 
of trcaa well wtehia Ikt dty limit*. In tW 
■nmc region, oa April 10, a set of ris Crow 



waa found. On the same date a Dove 
was found sitting on her two en*, and two 
completed nests of Migrant Shrike* were 
located. Fifteen Upland Plover and one 
Woodoodi were seen in the Waldo region 
on this date. Numbers of migrating Vesper 
Sparrows were seen on the prairie regions 
on the nth and irth, and on the 13th 
several Black-and-White Warblers were 
present in Swope Park. Downy Wood* 
peckers, Carolina Wrens, and Bluebirds 
were found nesting on this date. — Habbt 
Hakbis, Kamst City, U». 

DsirvKK Region.— At daybreak this 
morning (April 15) three native q>edca 
were singing near the writer's sleeping- 
porch, vis., MeadowUrk, Robin, and 
House Finch, and three other spedes were 
twittering or calling at the same time, to 
wit. Pine Siskin, a Junco, and the Flicker. 
That sentence seems to epitomixc bird- 
life about this region during the past two 
month»— most of the time a few species in 
evidence and not many of them. 

The Robin, House Finch, Flicker, and 
Siskin are busy just now beginning (or 
carrying on) housekeeping; Rohina and 
Meadowlariu have steadily increased In 
the regkm since February 13, but have not 
rome in large waves, as is so often the case. 
It has taken the MeadowUrk since about 
March t to penetrate from the dty's out- 
skirts to its interior parks. The only Juncos 
present in Denver, so far as the writer's 
observations have shown during the paat 
eii^t wacka, have been the Montana and 
the ShnfaUfii JoMoa. IHa mnkaa a 
nnllcaatils ilfflflfiK y of Juncoa for the 
season ji«t passing. Ordinarily, up to 
April 15, ona scea h er a a boma a conddar> 
able number of CWrlndte* {Mountain 
and I M^ tailed), CMppit Sparrow*, Lark 
BmsttefB, Say** Fbobe*, and Gaabal's 
Sparrowa. None of these bird* have beca 
noted here up to date by the writer. There 
baa bcea a striking abeeaoe of Dadta fraa 
the lakes of our park syHaai, oaly eae 
ipede* baviag been seen, a siafle Isials 
Lesasr Scaup oa February »4. It b faiter> 
estiag aad aoteworthy that as sooa as epea 
water waa e U a Mhb e d la oae mbbII park 



I4S 



Bird - Lore 



Uke thtn apfMUvd la it • Picdbilled 
Grebe, wkkh dng dosalsr to tW am ia 
wydi was IMI aa iadhrldaal of tW aaaw 
Mat of last jrmr. Perhap* tkc 
of bat aad tU» year are tbc aaaw 
ladMdoaL 

TWre have beea very f«« Bltwbird* la 
the dty aad iu outkkirt* eiace February 15. 
A Ratcbclder'ft Woodpecker renaiaed 
about my hoow aeigbborbood for two 
day* (April j aad 4); tkisbtbeiccaad tiaK 
the writer ha* drtectad tha ^Mcki ia 
Deavcr durias tbc last twenty-fve yaara. 
A RkbaidioB'f Merita was laea ia tbc 
dty oa Mardi as. A review of tbc writer's 
aoica shows that tbb little Hawk caa be 
depcadcd oa to visit tbb rcfioa every 
spiiag, aad oftca ia tbc fall, too. 

Tbc writer has had little opportunity to 
apead thue in the hills or on tbc surround- 
lag pbiat. 1 1 is quite likdy that his visioa, 
aMfc or leas reat rkt ed to the city and its 
imaieifiate eavirooa, has ghrca him an in- 
adequate and an imperfect pktare of tbc 
existing rcgiooal bird ooeditioas. Never- 
theleei, past espcricacc has shown that a 
fairiy good idea of the bird-life of a coo- 
siderabia area about Dcavcraui be gotten 
from a stody of that witbio Denver aad 
iu outskirts.— W. H. BctcTOLO. Dmmr, 
CtU. 

Sam FaAJicnco Rbciom. — Warm spring 
weather rcadMd as tbc last week of Feb- 
ruary, but it was aatidpated by Allen's 
Huauaiagbird. which was first aeea oa 
February t S. though a suapidou* bats was 
heard oa the loth and the tttb. Febru- 
ary sj, bdag a holiday, was speat oa tbc 
bay, aad one of the rewards was the dght 
of a fkidk of some three huadrcd Surf 
Scoters off Poiat Richmond. Tbc colora- 
tioa was so bright that I was decdvcd for 
a time into belicviag that I was watdiing 
Tufted Puftaa. The oaly other bird evcat 
of the BMBth was a iJKapM of a do eea 
Baad-taOed Pfgeoas as tbcy flew low 
directly over my head aad off over the 
brow of the Berkeley Hflb. March came 
ia like the provcrWal laa^ but did aot 
renmia bmbKke th ro ugh o u t its course. 
Rather was it like aa eaateia Aprfl with 



its frcqucat showers followed by 
lag fkvwers. A House Wrea was UMrrily 
dagiaf aa March 4, haviag beatca the 
LutsMeat Warbler agaia for aaoead place 
aamag ^Niag arrivab— tbb tiam by iv« 
days. As I stood watching the Latescmt 
Warbler oa the ptb, my atteatkm was 
attracted by an exquiaite warbling soag 
which souaded far away. I was much 
punded by the soag aad I was surprised 
aad delighted when I di s c ove f ed that it 
was being uttered by a TowaseaiTs Soli- 
taire, distaat aot twenty feet. Tbb whiaper 
soag was coaUaued for a full half-hour, 
bdag iaterrupted oaly by a couple of 
mcab whkh wsbted of five or six 
cratjegus berries hastily swallowed in 
Thrush fashioa. 

March 16 was one of the lamblike day* 
aad was spent on the lower reaches of San 
Fraacbco Bay where a gua dub has con- 
structed a fresh- water poad. A flock of 
seveaty Avocets were ia aa cxdted state 
which suggested the approach of the omt- 
iagseasoa. la addJtioa to these haadsome 
birds, there were 8 to 10 Yellow- l^rx*. 
JO Kllldecr. a Wilsoa's Saipe, a Bittern. 
4 Great-Blue Herons, 6 Black-crowned 
Night Heroas, 8 Tale Wreas, 4 Bam 
SwaUowt, aad a Tree Swallow, sufidcat 
reward, oae would say, for the rough walk 
over Buurshy cow-paths. For full measure 
there were added joo to 400 each of Pin- 
taib aad Green- winged Teal, about 
60 Ruddy Ducks, 50 Shovdlers, 10 Bsld- 
patcs, 10 Leaser Scaup, 4 Cfaaaasoa Teal, 
aad soo to 400 Pipits, briagiag the total 
up to 40 spedca aad about »,ooo iadi- 
viduab. 

Warbliag VIreos aad PiboUtedWarMers 
were seea la ClareflMmt CafloB 08 March >6 
by Mr. Storer, aad Western Flycatchers 
were quite coaunoa on April t. Tolmie's 
WarUcr was beard staging on April 11 
readadiag bm that a seoood wiatcr record 
for Uai was ande by Mrs. Kdly aad Mr. 
Baaeett on February >>. 

Oa April t i. a second trip to the Burshcs 
aad lower bay showed the aumber of 
Avooets, Ducks, Coots, aad PIpiU very 
much reduced, while Yellow- I.eK» had in* 
created froai 8 or 10 to 30. Spcdes not 



i 



The Season 



'40 



»wa oa March t6, bvt prcMSt oo April i a, 
were BooapartcS Gulb (40), Do«itchcr« 
(300). Red-UckcdSMHlpipen (13), BUrk- 
Mlied Ploirrr (a), and BUck-necked 
SUlu(ia). * 

N<»U found M> far thb icMon arc as 
foilow»: AUoi'ft llamiBer (March to). 
Rush Tiu (March 9. 18. and April 11), 
Titmouse (April i>. Flicker (Mr. Hunt, 
April 7), and Bam Swallow (April la). 
Although morr than a noBth has pasard 
Miicc the first Bush-Tit's nest was found, 
there arc still small (locks of them to be 
»eeo. It is very apparent that Quail arc 
ma tine or nesting, but a flock of about 
twrnty was seen on April it. 

Thr iollowins winter \-isitants were still 
l>rr%«-nt on April 11: Intermediate, Golden* 
irnwne<i, and Fox Sparrows; Pipits, Au* 
dubon's Warblers, Ruby-crowned King- 
|rt«. I.in..^ Ifrrmit Thrushes, Robins, 
anil H. The Sapsucker was 

rvcDrnrd lor tnc ui«t lime (Miss WjTthc) on 
February >i. Golden-crowned Kindts on 
March It, Mockingblfd (Miss Wythe) 00 
March 36, and Townsend's Warbler on 
April J. The last may ver>' likely »till be 
hrrr. Only one through migrant has been 
noted among land-birds' namely the Rufous 
ii,,,.,.».ng|,ifil (March 19) which was posi- 
nttted, even to the notch in the 
(All irainer. Tbcy an still loitering about 
the twinbcrry bloMoms, mMslyiitaa, and 
other nrctar-bcnring flowers. — AmuA S. 
Aii».N. B*fktl*y,CMf. 

Lot Amoslm Rboiom.— Midwinter tii|M 
•field have yielded somewhat mMftr m- 
tum» to the bird observer who appraises 
the value of hb day by the length of hb 
U»t. Alaska Hermit Thrushes, Foi Spar- 
rows, and (ioldcn>rrowns have been not- 
ably scarce. CaUfomia Purpla P l nc lrn, 
howcvar, have been in the vaUeys In moft 
than onlinary numbars. 

Oa February 9. a Townacnd's SnUteirt 
was saan among the saad-dunaa aaar 
Hyperion by Mr. L. F.. Wymaa. On the 
>3d, a fine observation of a Farmgteons 
Rougb-kncd Hawk was mada by tlma ol 
our mambaia. On Fcbraarjr so. Waatera 
Vflq»ar and Wctten Savaunb Spanvira 



were found in considerable numbers on the 
grasay hiUs of Sand CaAon on the water 
shed of the Santa Clara River. 

The first record of Pine Siskins for the 
season was made on March j, when they 
were found feeding on willow and poplar 
catkins In company with Green-backed and 
Willow Goldfmchca and California Purple 
Finches. 

Varied Thrushes were seen in foothill 
caflons March j and 8, and on March 16 
and 17, five or six were seen in the vicinity 
of Alpine Tavern, Mt. Lowe. The Grey- 
headed J unco mentioned in the October- 
Daoaasbcr report was again seen in the 
vicinity of Eagle Rock on March 8. 

Lewu' Woodpecker was noted near Cala- 
basas March 15, and on the same date 
many Mountain Bluebirds were seen in 
the San Fernando Valley. Western Blue- 
birds in small numbers have been occa- 
sionally noted, and the number <A Robins 
recorded has been smalL Cedar Waxwings 
have frequently baca Man in average 
numbers. 

Two Blue-fronted Jays have xisited the 
garden of Mrs. Harriet Williams Myers at 
frequent intervab throughout the winter. 
Pipits, Hornad Larks, and Lark Sparrows 
were noticed in large flocks on plowed land 
(March 14). The Pipits were obaervad to 
be sUU hcte April 7. Along the shore, bird- 
life haa baan more abundant. Fabraaryaa, 
at Alaaiitea Baach, 104 Western Grsbca 
were awamhlad in a loose flock on the 
ocaaa, apparently renting. Usta nrnda at 
White's Point in February and March in- 
doded Turnstones in large numbers (76 on 
February aS), Spotted Sandpipers, Ameri- 
can Mergansers, and Swf and White- 
winged Scotara. On Fabmary tf , Black- 
belliad PInmaad Rad-bMrkad Sandpipera 
ware obianrad to be doudagtwuMr plmn> 
aga. On March 16, ana Had bicfcad Sand- 
piper and aaa Plover weft tan to cnaflate 
suflunar dreia, and tkraa octor Plovar to 
varlona ategea of dmnga. Four Rndaoniaa 
Cnrlawt vara notad Fabraary at, and a 
few Marblad Godwita, WOlala, and Red- 
backed Sandpipara. NoollMrCwIawbave 
llwvgh iva ai^y trlpa bava 
to iIm liMra rfnca 



I50 



Bird - Lore 



Od« C«iiUa Tcra wa* Mca in rompaay 
witk CdUoraU «ad Rii^-biUcd C«lb •( 
Boh* CUca when Buuiy D«cks wtre !• 

ihclagOOM. MoM •MBCRNM ««• Ik* PUl* 

tail mmI ShovcDcr. On the occmi bcscli 
■MBjr baadrMl* id Galb were ■MrmWrd ia 
Urgelockft. 

Ob Mardi j. a frw dark brads wrre *e*n 
aoMMg the Booapartc'a Gulls at Plasra del 
R«jr, aad a pair of Rcd-breaated Mcf|aD»- 
cn obMTvcd oa the lagoon. March i6, 
Marbkd Godvita, Dowitchcn, Wotcm 
mulcts, aad Saadpipcra were on the tide 
flats ia large oumbcr^ but Curlew appeared 
to be wholly abaeaU Braadt'a CoraMwaata 
were ia brnndJng pliuaage March *4 and 
the Egrela lathe harbor district Bunbered 
>i. Gbaooaa>wiaged Gulls were observed 
leaviag (or the North, aad Black- necked 
Stilts appeared ia Nigger Slough. Scmi- 
palBMitfd Plover were aotad April t, also 
s Caspiaa Teras at the harbor, aad Cali- 
foraia aad Glaucous- wiaged GuUs were 
leaviag. 

The Northcra Violet Greca Swallow led 
the vaa of arriving land-birds from the 
Sovth, making his first recorded appear- 
aaoe oa Febraary 19, a full BM»th ahead 
of the Rafoos Uumaiiagbird. CosU's 
HuBuaiagbird poshed his previous early 
date forward by about three weeks, arriv- 
iag in coastderable numbers on February 
23, while the Rufous, if prcseat, was aot 
notirrt! until Mar< h i5( Cliff aad Bank 



Swallows arrived oa schedule time, and 
the wintering Tree Swallows had their 
BttaiU>rr» augmented by fresh arrivals. 
Farplc Martias took up their regular 
quarters ia Whittier aad Loag Beach 00 
March »7 aad JO, respectively. March 15. 
brought the first Ariinaa Hooded Oriole, 
but they were aot conaioa uatil tea days 
later, when Bullock's abo was noted. To 
date, only one Black-headed (irosbeak has 
beca listed, arriving March 31. The first 
Wertcra Tanacer was seen April 7. an 
eariy d«t ;i 1 

Black-Bc at 

Nigger SkM«)i Ird 

DowitdMis Ks. 

Aaioag the Ducks, Green- vrlnjied and 
QBBamoB Teal were noted in company 
with Pintail and Shoveller. Cinnamon 
Teal were agaia aoted with Baldpate 
April 7. YeUow-headed BUckbirds were 
seea oa the above fiate at Nigger Slough, 
where the Tule Wrens are nesting. Lute*- 
ccat, PilcoUtcd, Black -throated Gray, 
Calaveras, Towaacad's aad Macglllivray's 
Warblers have arrived, in the order 
named, while Audubon's is still here in high 
pluBiage and in song. Warbling, Casain's 
aad Least Vlreos are dafly arriving. April 7, 
a pair of Cabaais' Woodpecker* were seen 
entering a freshly excm\ n a tree 

on the bank of the San < • rr nmr 

Whittier.— FaAKCES B. tacmnxw 
AmgrUs, Calif. 




*^^ 



2^oofe J0etBSi anb Ctebietu£{ 



RiKDS or nil U v-u N • . N K > .; 1-. li . 
Mav r»(\. ii»i t'ki l*r-» r<«lM»j;^ 
Biolufi«al > .. ;< : . W i i::.^toO, Voi. J4, 

mthin the narrow UmiU of twenty-one 
pafct, Mb» Cooke has pUoed a turpriaing 
amount of laforaatioa coaoaniiaf the 
999 tpedcs and tubsptdca of birds known 
to occur within a raittiM of about so mUca 
of the Capitol. We kave first a nominal 
Ibt of the 43 Permanent Resident* followed 
by a fully annotated list of the 108 birds 
clA»tc«1 a* V'— frrrgular or Accidental 
\i«itAnt« two hybrids and two 

extinct »{iciirtj, while the remaining 
specks ar« ladndcd in a ublr of Regular 
Migrants sritk data cov< - r tpring 

and fall movements. Thi ^^a thus 

makes not only a useful and authoritative 
li<.i of WuldagtoB birds but, in this day of 

. vUagcosts, the method of arranv 
tnc-iii m^y wcU be coosidcfcd by prospri - 
tivc aalboffs of other local lists.— F. M. C. 

Club Reports and Bird Annuals 

Wrliume evidence of the steadily grow- 
ing interest in birds and of the value of 
organised effort in bird-study b given by 
the incremsing number of dub reports and 
bird ■nnuals which come to our desk. 
Space permits us only to record the names 
ol tke pttbttcatioos of thb class which have 
beea received recently. Copies of them all, 
however, may doubtless be secured by 
(hinr to whom, for ott* rmson or aaollMr, 
they may prove of aMistaaoa dtbcr la 
tcachiag or studyittg birdi. 

Th« Dcpartawt of Cw mi rs tiun of Um 
sute of Alabaom, vadcr John H. WallMe, 
Jr., im u M Its mmX aasttal 'Bird Day Book* 
(sddrsM Moatgomary, Ala.), aad Oiilo 
and niiaob both send admirable Arbor and 
Uird Day manuals; the first c o w p ikd by 
Anna S. Wlntars (address Departmnit of 
FubUc Instnictioo. Colnab«i, (Nrfo), tke 
sscood by Praads G. BUIr, 8«ptitetMd«it 
of FubUc iMtnKtIoo (addrcM Bpfiaf* 
fi«id.Ilb.). 



The Audubon Sodeties of lUiaob 
(address 1649 Otis BuOdiag, Chicago) aad 
of Indiana (addrem Frank C. Evaas, 
Secretary. Crawfordsville) have pubUsked 
moat attractive aad useful 'Bulletins,* aad 
w« kave also received the 'Bulletin' of 
tke West Ckcster (Pa.) Bird Club, 'Tke 
Murrdet' Official Bulletin of the Pacific 
Northwest Bird aad Mammal Club (ad- 
dress SeatUe. Wash.), and the 'Yearbook' 
of the Rhinebeck (N. Y.) Bird Oub. The 
latter contains an annotated list, by 
Maunsell S. Crosby, of the aa^ species of 
birds recorded from Dutchess County, 
wkick Biakes a snviceable guide aad check- 
Ibt for local studeats, as well as a valuable 
addition to faunal literature.— F. M * 

Tbe Ornithological Magaxiooa 

! HoBWBao. — ^The principal paper in 
the Deceasber, 1920 (Vol. II, No. a) issue 
of the ofgaa of the Ornithological Society 
of La PlaU (address Calle Peru, so8 
Buenos Aires) b by the Society's president. 
Dr. Roberto Dabbene. It b on the 34 spa- 
des of North American slnwe-birds wkick 
kave baca recorded from Argcatiaa. Dr. 
Dabbeae dasrifies tkese birds acoonfiag to 
tkdr Argcatiae status as foUowi: 

I. Abaadaat aad fouad la part duriag 
all tke 3rear: Greater aad Lesser Yellow- 
legs, Pectoral aad White-nuapad Saad- 
pipers. 

II. Coauaoa witkout being auaseroas 
aad fouad oaly duriag tke saauaer moatka: 
Baird's aad Solitary Saadptpaw, Goldca 
Plover, StQt Saadpiptr, Bartnua't Plover. 

m. Scarce: Kaot, Baf •braattad Saad- 

iv! Vary laia: Marklad GodwU, WO- 
soa's Pkakropa, Spottad Saadpipsr, Sead- 
palmatsd Plover, Hudsoalaa Curlew. 

V. Acddsatal VWtors: Nortkera aad 
Bad Pkalaropes, Carlaw S a a dpipsr, LoMt 
Saadpipar, 8arf Bbd. Ohm ikiifc 

VI. No lei«« okMrradt BikUaa Car> 
lew (tke spiriai oC lM> ipMlM rrfanad 



(ifi) 



»$-' 



Bird -Lore 



-- K 



•\» 



V^ 



taMi 




< III! i«>S' FLAMINGOES {rt»mU0f'*'m '^'■ 
• WITHOUT A NEST. IN A 

»■ ■ lA. I, 

to in the foot-note oo pafc 108, was col- 
lected by R. H. Beck at Mar dd PUta, 
SepCeiaber >9, 1914. It b in the Bremter- 
Saaford colkctioa at the Amerkaa— ttoC 
"Brooklyn" — muaeum). 

Dr. Dabbene prcaenta the known Argen- 
tine ttatut of each of the above-mentioned 
tpedc* and a detailed lUt of iu pobUahcd 
reoonu of ooctumcet bcBdea nasy ochcn 
baaed 00 aporiwei ddety in the Mumiub 
of Natural History at Buenoa Aires. 

The same author also contributca a re> 
view of the Rheas of Af|entiaa and tevcnl 
general notes, induding one on the nesting 
of the ChUiaa Flandngo (Pk mm k»pttnu 
(Mmiii) which b iUustimtcd by a photo- 
graph of awptiooal interest, and which wr 
are pcrndttcd to reproduce herewith. It 
was nuule In a lake near San Julian, Santa 
C rui, ' Patagonia,' presumably on an island. 
The eggs, as will be seen, are laid on the 
ground with no attempt at nest-building. 
This fact suggests that possibly, in the 
a b a en c e of tides or heavy rainfall, the 
truncate mud-cones which Flamiagoea 
uMmUy bdld u* aoC hart l u q u tra d, aad 



I F.AVING THEIR EGGS. LAID ON TBI 
STY LEAGUES FROM SANTA CRI^Z. 



that consequently these cones are needed 
only where the birds ' ^Uow water, 

or where tide or hcav • oeccmitate 

building to a height above the probabk 
high-water levd. 

A paper by Enrique Ljmch Arribalaaga 
on 'The Birds of the Chaco,' 'Notes on 
Nests and Eggi' by Pedro Sent, and several 
shorter communications complete the 
number.— F. M. C. 



free 
who 



Bird-Lores Wanted 
BlRi>-LoRR continues to offer thi 
use of its columns to kubKribers 
wish to complete their filet of tbit 
line, but hereafter these want oodrcs 
will appear in thu Department, as space 
permits. Herewith we list a notice from 
James Grant, Jr., R. R. No. ro, Bos 94. 
Van Wert, Ohio, for the iasuc of Januar)-- 
February, 1914- 

A Second Book of Bird Songs 
tor Children 

Lovers of bird music will be interested in 
a hook of birds' songs by W. B. Olds, pub- 
Mahdl by G. Schidrer of New York City. 



I 



Editorial 



t$3 



25irbllorf 

A Bt-Moolhly M.> . 
Di» wrt !• tb« tlw^y and ' " •<*• 

ovffMiAi oaoAH or n» * 

MM»« br FRANK M. v. .a. ;^^.^ 

CMtrltaMliWUtor.MABBLOCOOODWIIIOHT 

Pubii«h«tf kv O. APPLBTON * CO. 



:i 



jwMi.ttn No. s 






cmww iWb mm, tn vsamb «. cwyw 



MrM.M«r«l 
>l IM fa ifa Bmk h Wmlk 7W fa ifa Hmmt 



Few authon have been more intimately 

4i«ociatrd with their h«unts than was John 

liurrouich* with 'Riverby' and 'Slabtides,' 

and 'Woodchuck Lodge.' Among the 

thuuaands of his friends who have visited 

!>itn it '>ne or more of these placet, there 

) t lr«a few who have not hoped that 

• preterved a* shrine* for the 

i>:.tf. .k: . ir«ofthis,aa«cOasoffuture 

KeacratiaBS. It would indeed seem like the 

\(oUtioa of a sacred trust to permit 

- ■ >%ides.' for example, to crumble into 

riiiua, and the little valley in which it 

ttands become a neglected waste of brash 

tweeds. Norcanooeacc^thethooght 
: ) becoaiag the hooM of aooMOse wboae 
roergica were devoted solely to the grow- 
ing of cdery and ooioas. 

(HIbcrt White's home at Sdbome is 
now the residence of a manufacturer who 
has closed it to the public. Wliite died in 
1 79J. Mkl, as jrear by ytu his faose grows 
and the lesson of his life b ec o wes mon 
potent, OM rsslisss that his home skovid 
have been for all tIaM opca to Us foUovofS. 

So, too, Burrooghs' aatfsaca vOI la- 
>^rcaae, and though «c shall never agala 
«ee the almost endless line of pilgriass who 
Hiught his cordial hsnddasp and kindly 
greeting, so long a* his haunts exist, so 
long win they be a Macca to tlMsa who will 
ttnd John BurroaglM ttvlac foftver la his 
works. 

As a token of our love for Burroughs, as 
4 trihutr to Us — ory, aad a* a duty to 
I'vtrrii,. it b dear that we of today 



should spare ao effort to acquire and pre* 
fterve that portion of hb estate to which 
the nature- lovers of all tiaws seem the 
rightful heirs. 

Animated by this thought, some forty 
of Mr. Burroughs' friends met at the 
American Museum of Natural History on 
the afternoon of April is. to consider the 
desirability of forming a Burroughs* 
Ifeawrial Association. The meeting was 
addressed by Julian Burroughs, Mr. Bur- 
roughs' son and heir, by Dr. Clara Barrus. 
UsUtcrary executor, by Judge A. T. Clear- 
water, of Kingston, N. Y., executor of hi» 
estate, by Hamlin Garland and othrn, all 
of whom endorsed the object for which the 
meeting had been called. After a discus- 
sion of ways and means, a committee of 
nine was appointed to draft a constitution 
and by-laws, and proceed with the organ- 
ixation and incorporation of the .Associa- 
tion. While the 6rst object of thb Associa- 
tion will be the acquisition of Mr. Bur- 
roughs' he • i>nccivaUe that it may 
exert a «n ice in promoting that 
friendship with nature which was the es- 
sence of Burroughs' message to mankind. 
Provision, for example, may be made for 
Junior Memberships and for the forma- 
tion of dwpters or branches in the schools, 
and for the observance of April 3. Mr. Bur- 
roughs' birthday, as Burroughs Day, in 
the schoob as well as among nature-lovers 
everywhere. 

John Burroughs left the world not only 
a written record of hb life, but he left an 
example of it; aad thb example, as a 
deasonstratioB of the doctrine he preached, 
b BO lass predoos thaa Us written word 
Itadf. Burroughs, the bmu, will becoaw, 
thanfore, aa object of lacrsaalag iataiast 
to tkosa who will know him only through 
Us books, aad aaything that wr cab do to 
preserve the ibsbm aasoag wUdi he lived 
aad of whi^ ha wrote, wW add immaasur- 
ably to the value of the legacy with wUdi 
he has to ikUy tadowad the world. 

laforBMlioB Ib tufafd to the Bunough* 
MaaMctal AssodatlaB bm/ be obtatead 
f roas Dr. G. ayda FIthar, sacftlary of tka 
reflltaa far orpalaaHaB. at the AbwI- 
caa Muteufli af Natural Rlitory. 



Cfje Hububou J^ocirtifs; 

SCH<X>L DEPARTMENT 

■4H^ kr A. A. AU.BN. Ph.U. 
AMnm •■ tn ■■—lathi wtellw to IW v«rk of ikis 
4wutMM to tht l«tar. CMwl Uabmitjr. liWa. N. Y. 

SUMMER BIRD-STUDY 

The study of hirdn b taking an ever increasingly im|X)rtant part in the 
curriculum of the schools. It is natural that this should be so, not only becauMr 
of the resource iHuch a knowledge of birds brings into the life of the child, but 
because bird-study stimulates an interest in all nature. The bright colors of 
birds, their cheerful songs, and the many amusing little imi't.nt. that the 
child can obeerve, usually arouse his interest sooner than th' mated 

plants and trees, and when once hi.s interest in nature is active, he <(l 

into other rhannek. The very difficulties which beset the study ui aly 

stimulate the red-blooded youth to greater endeavor, so that he frequently 
outstrips his teacher. Of course, it is not necessary that a teacher know a 
great deal about birds before encouraging his sttidents to begin to study 
them, but if he does have a good knowledge of the fundamentals, it eases his 
mind and he is able to direct his pupils in their further study. At present 
there are comparatively few teachers who have more than a passing acquaint- 
ance with a few birds, and it is for this reason that this number of the 
School Department is devoted to a consideration of summer iv. 

The day is ap|MX)aching when every large school will have its lu. .... . ^dy 

teacher, and every dty its natural-history director. In some of the larger 
cities this policy has already been adopted, but its rafHd expansion is limited 
by the scarcity of teachers who are equipped to take up the work. The advis- 
ability of having a teacher in every school triio can devote his entire attention 
to this type of work has never been questioned, but it is quite another matter 
to find the teacher triio is pnputd to do it. 

Of recent years it has become more and more the custom of teachers to 
spend part of their summer vacation in study at some college or normal sum- 
mer school where they either 'brush up' on subjects which they are already 
teaclung or prepare to tcadi others. The boards of education of some cities, 
recognising the \'alue of such training, provide scholarships to their best 
teachers so that they can attend these summer schools. Realizing that many 
of BiBD-LoKZ's readers are teachers who may be planning to q)end a part of 
next summer in study, the Editor of the School Department thought they 
mif^t like to know where they can find instruction in the study of birds. 
Acoordin^y he addressed the directors ci about fifty of the leading summer 
schools, asking for short announcements of any courses in ormthoiogy or bird- 

(154) 



10 



Bird - Lore 



study that would br ipvro thb Muniner. At the time this foei to pre«, tone 
of these achoob have not yet been heard Irom, and, undoubtedly. '"-- ' <- 
counct in bird-atudy given in other {natitutions than thoae from wh 
ments have been received. The achoob here listed, however, represent the 
country (except the Far West) tiMy weU and give an idea of the types of 
instruction that will be offered. If anyone deddes he would like to take up 
bird-work at loaie other institution than the ones listed, he should addrem 

the director of that summrr 
school and he may dL«Mo,<r 
that a course in bird-study will 
begiv-en. Assurances have come 
to the Editor from many of the 
larger summer schools where 
iiird- work will not * -' 

\-ear, that courses 
IS soon as the demand justifies 
• I 'A !hat this year the ^lirit 
I -• ; f( iichment that pervades 
ill educational work forbids 
hem offering ll. 

It muM not be a«umrd that 

instruction in bird-study is in- 

g|ty^ ~ ^^^^^^^^^^U9ft' f rsor those 

-^. ^ ^l^^^^^^^^^^HAE Knowledge 

nally. A canvass of the 
llwl in thi 
> <»mcU I 
during the past few years has 
shown them about equ.tllv 
divided into teachers who i>! m 
to use the work in their schooLs 
and those who take it for th< ir 
own pleasure. The dass work, they discovered, crystallized what they alrra- i > 
knew about birds by systematizing it, and thus made it possible for them to 
progress mudi more rapidly. At the same time it opened up new fields to tin t. 
and introduced them to new friends. The learning of birds' songs, whit n > 
an almost endless task, b greatly shortened by having a teacher who is already 
familiar with them. Indeed so mudi does thb mean to s<> ' ' '< nt^ 
that some bird-courses, sudi as that at the University ' an 

dfsjgnrd primarily for thb purpose. 

Another advantage of class study is the inspiration of being thrown with 
pemos of kindred tastes. Too often the student of birds b oompeUed to work 
by himself and b discouraged by the lack of interest in those all about him. 




Sk^l 



In 



The Audubon Socieries 



157 



At the summer •choob he is surrounded by congenial companions. Add to this 
I he inspiration of a new environment and new birds, and what at first teems 
like work, in that it is 'going to school,' becomes a continual round of pleasure. 

In only a few of the summer sdiools is the work in bird-study designed to 
take all of one's time. There is usually opportunity to take work in other 
natural sciences, in literature, history, mathematics, or almost any other study 
t)ai one desires, althou^ experience has shown that it does not pay to try 
to carry too many courses. If one attempts too much he gets but little good 
out of any, for all university courses are thorough and require considerable 
|ireparation. 

For the benefit of those who have never attended summer schools, a word 
almut the customary organisation of the work in ornithology will be given. 





A.N SASLY MORNING TKIP POR Nt 
■lioMfldH of 4nm wt mtmaUf mC efaMrvvd am Md ttipt; co- 



mfort uk« int placr 



Courses are ordinarily divisible into three parts: lectures, Uboratory, and 
field work, the field work naturally playing a very nnportant part. The sum- 
mer term b dimible into weeks, and rliMft meet a certain number oi times 
each wedi, each meeting of the cUss being called a 'period' or an 'hour' whether 
it be for a fifty-minute lecture or for a two- or three-hour field-trip. Depend- 
ing upon the completeness of the course and the 'univenity credit' t^ytn. the 
dass meets from two to ten times a week. Ordinarily the daa^ 
for the lectures but is divided into smaller sections for laboraioi 
>*t>rk. The field work is often givn in the early monUng, or a cfai> 
offered, but always a definite schedule is followed so that one can sr! 
courses in the summer school and arrange his program of >» 
deems besL 



158 Bird -Lore 

In the Himmff Khoob there are ordinarily no entrmnce requirements such 
as those of the regular year, although since the work is dwipiwl 1 ire 

minds, children are not usually admitted. The buSdings and eqoipp he 

regular college year are ordinarily emplo>'ed in the summer and often the 
faculty is the same. Individual worii on the part of the students is alwa)** 
encouraged and often proves a most interesting part of the summer program. 
Anyone planning to attend one of the summer schools should write either to 
the director of the summer school or to the person in charge of the liird-work 
for a complete announcement of the summer schocrf in which he will find full 
particuhus as to admission, fees, living expenses, and the like. 

Announoeaents of the courses in omithokigy or bird-study in the various 
f^ff^ftiff tfhools follow: 

N'ATtOMAl. AsanrtATtON or AVOOBOM Socnmss. Department 0f Applied OrmkheUty- 

lafomaJ tr m btrd-»tudy will be given at the A - - ;>rrimrnl Station, 

•t Aoistoo, Ci" li K. Job during the month of Augu> .1 rmph.i«t« uitt l>e 

laid on motion picture and other pbotogmphy of bird*, method* oi «ttr \>, 

and methods of propagating game and water-fowl specie* Fnr funhrr n 

addrem H. K. Job. 6oi Waahingtoo Ave.. West Haven, Cor 
UmvBtSITV or \r\, Summrr BUd-Stmij Course. Junt :; to J 

The daaa > '■> 45 «»>H only a few places will be opm i<' 

Cincinnati. ¥■■ rdrr of names and <! 

will live during torin of the Ohio >i: 

Hill, a Ugh beautiful tuburb of Cincinnati. 

The purpoae of the course is the instant recognition of bird-songs. N 
knowledge of birds is required and the dass always consists largely of beginners. Bird- 
trips are from 6 to 8.jo in the mominn and 6 to 8 in the e>'ening. Group asaignmeats tu 
special bird-haunts are made for the morning hours and a lecture b given each day 
at 4. JO r.M. The afternoons are devoted to recreation. 

Those who take the examinations and pass with a grade of 60 or better will receive 
two university or profcmJonal credits. 

For further partkiilan aa to eqidpnent, expense, and the like, addicas Prof. Harri* 
M. Benedict, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, who b in charge of the course. 
Colo Srsmo Haxsob, Tke Bi«Ugksl L a htem lwy •/ tkt BrooUyn InititmU »] ArU amJ 
Scitmett. 

Summer school in the biological sdencr^ d at Cold Spring Harbor, Long 

Island. No forsaal work in ondtboloiyb give I Icsareprovidcdfor morning bird* 

walks. For further particnian addrcas Dr. Chaa. B. Davenport, Director. 
l^KivEBsrrv or CotoxAOO. Bentfer, Cafe. 

Summer Quarters. June t j to July ao. Work in ornithology will be given by Edna 
L. Johnson. A.B.. Instructor in Biology, University of Colorado. 

Special attention will be given to the orders and more important famOies of North 
American birds; life histories, stnictare, flight, ecology, economic importance, game 
prcaervation and propagstkm, geographical dIstributioB. Field work will be devoted to 
field Idcotificatioa, ncstiag habits, and the songs of the oomoMNi birds. There will be 
two lectnres and three field or laboratory periods of two hours each per week. Laboratory 
fee, $>. Each st udent U advised to have a pair of fidd glasses or opera i^aasca and Florence 
Merriam Bailey's 'Handbook of the Birds of Western United Sutes.' A complete an- 
it of the SunuBcr School can be obtained from the Director, llilo G. Derham. 



The Audubon SocMm ijq 

CouiMX Umvsasm. C«ttr(# 1/ AgrkuUm*. llkata, S. Y. 

Sumner S. ' ^ i to Augutt 12. Work in ornitboloicy will be sivm by Prof. 

-A. A. Allen, i .^n, A.b.. ajmI MUct D. Pimic. Two counc* will be (iven, one 

la gcacrsl oraithUocy sad 00c ia appUed oraithology. 

Tbe counc in (raeral oraitholofy b dcajgacd to gire aa iatiwiuctioa to the tludx 

of bird* aad a knowledge of the WMaaina qiedcs. Tbe lecture* will di*cuM tuch kubjccta 

•« rU«..,;r>. ^i;.>n, nugratioa, coloratioo, toag, ae*t-building, egg*, care of young, n>ethod» 

"i >irdft, cooooafdc importance, etc. The laboratory practice with bird-skias 

A ill ' *n intimate knowledge of the birds of eastern North America and faodliarity 

« Mr t 'r use of a manual The aim of the 6eld work i« the field ideatification of birds 

> •! ts< ir Mttgs aad obtrrvationa upon their habit*. 1 ' be three lectures, two 

• ry and two field periods a week which will givr < > Credit of three hours. 

'lent should be provided with Chapman's 'Handbook of Birds of F.astem 

\ rnerica* and with field or opera glassea. 

The course in .\pplicd Ornithology is intended primarily for teachers or students 
who plan to go further with the study of ornithology. The lectures will discuss the 
field open to prmpective ornithologists, methods of teaching, museum work and the 
preparation of specimens, bird photography, biological surveys, wild-life coMervation, 
and gama-farmiag. The labon^ory aad field-work will give practical ci e t det s akaig 
lhe«r lines. Thi* c«>urv b open only toatudents who are taking the first ooune or who 
have had its equivalent. There will be two lectures and two laboratory or field periods 
each week. Two hoars of University Credit are allowed for the conqiletion of thb 
course. 

For a full announcement of the Sununer School, apply to Profeasor Allen or to the 
Secretary of the College of Agriculture, Ithar- V ^' 

UaiVKasmr or Iowa, Ioim CUy^ Iowa. 

Two c o n ne e ia ornithology will be given in the second term of the sumnacr if inn, 
July >$ to August 26, by Dr. Dayton Stoner. 

( \'i.rie 105 S. Tkr Birds 0/ /mm (5 ktmrt; f .6 Cr«dU). Thb course b deaigncd to aid 
(Kr stiiilmt in idrnti(>-ing our coaimaoer birds as well as to give some idea of their 
luri'Umcntal structures aad the basb of classification of this popular animal groop. 
l^ectnrrs, rradiags, dam dbcussjons, aad the identification of bird-skins ia the labora- 
tory aad of birds ia the field wQl coastituU the bulk of the work. Thb covne should be 
pertlcuUriy valuable to thoae who arc teachiaf or wiM> cqwct to teach aatural scicace. 
The following (our»c, No. 106S, affords a fittiag compaaioa course. Aseistaat Professor 
Stoaer. 

C»mrtt toC S. AkrtudOruilhtUiyd ktmrt; t Crtdil). A lecture aad rcadiag ooarae 
which «i student with some of the amre practical problems coaaected 

with thr Such subjecu as the rdatioa of structure to the ecoMMaic 

>m|H';)!i !)• r .nomic value of birds. Icgielatioa relative to their protcctfaa, 

the tuaction < ». methods of eacmMigiag btmfkial ywiea aad 

of coaibatiag rmiul «iU be iMplnriMil AwJiHal Piafemw 

*»tonrr. 

A lull aaaoaacaowat of the Summer jirhool may he obtained by addrcariag the 
IMredor, Prof. C. II. WeDer 

I ~~TTT or MlCIUOAM, ^Mf«(ic«4 .>M4f«it «l f>w«fi«i i,(imr, JHum. 

• comiag iBisiaw of iIm Uaivwiity of Mickigaa Blelotical Suiioa. located oa 
the thorcs of Douglas Lake, Ckebojrgaa Coualy, Mich., a cowm ia oraillMlagy will be 
gives by Piof . Zcao P. lleCaJf, of tha North Caroliaa SUU CoBiga af Agikirftara aad 
faglaietlat. Wort Belelgh, N. C, la wkaai littara af teqalrx tMrwIat tha caaiae 
awy ba addfawed. The couim vfll caaecra llaalf with a slady af the omtc comaaM 



i6o 



Bird • Lore 



local tpfcki by omum oI bird-«kia«, Um raoofBitioo ol birds in tbc ftdd, obtcrvatiom 
of tbdr Imiimg Bad Modaf babiu by mum of Urd-bUBib. a study of UMir ocnkcical 
rdatkoAUps, mkI, aoar tbo doM of Um iiinn, tbdr atgralkMi mowaMats. Siioe tbc 
mmdam opow Joly $, Um tpriag ■ignUoa aovwM B U will have ben conplctcd, but 
•todaats will have aa csodlait opportodty to oboervc tbc nesting babits of nany 
«p«ciaa fcaovB ooly aa nifimBta fartlMr aoath. Bcfora tbe dose of tbc im bIob, August >6. 
rarfv aulumnAl micration movements viO bavc commenced. 




bi« 



'ft-\'\«««. 



I.MJYVII.I.K.- UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 
' ■ '"N. i*i«. ANl> THE SI •■'" ■■ '•*■•■ ■ • 



Opportunity Vill br givm tu quall6rd students l< <: j< i. rk . n i.ir<i» i III 

nature of tbis work will depend upon tbc training aii<! ii.> lin.kii>>n <•( ihr vtudrnt ami 
tbc limitatioos of tbe bird fauna of tbe fcgioD. A chnklUt <<i ihr Munmrr Itird* of 
tbc Douglas Lake ragioB baa been isaoed aa Occasional Paper No ; ;, arnl iu^> l>c bad 
on request from tbe Univcrrity of Michigan MuKuin of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Mirb. 

A full aaaottBcemcBt of tbe work offered at the Biological Station can be secured by f 
addrcariag Dr. George R. LaRue. Director, Ann Arbor, Mich. B 

MicncAii AcuctJLTrRAL CoixtcK, £*il Lmmtimg, Uith. 

Sumaer School, June 21 to August t. Work in ornithology given by Prof. Walter - 
B. Barrow*. ^j 

Tbc bird work b rwdwMrd bto tbe first two weeks of the Summer School consbting^ 
of fiftaca boon a week; five hours of lectures, and ten hours of laboratory or field work. 

This b foUowcd by two weeks in botany and two weeks of entomology. The r> -■' 

tbc work b similar to that aaaouaced by the other university summer school<i 

A full aanouaceaseat of the suanaar school can be secured by addwing the i> : : r, 
Prof. E. H. Ryder. 



I 



F 



The Audubon Societies i6i 



Obbkum Colugs, O^tHim, (Md: 

The •ummer work ia ornithology at Oberlin Collq^e U >o differrnt from tluU given 
by any ol tlM olber institutions and to intcrmini; that a mmmuni. Atinn frnm Pmf 
Lynds Joon, who conducts it, is given in full: 

"In 1015 and 1916 I took the riass by train td tnc toast 01 ^^asningion^ men tne 
war intrrrupied. In igig, the trip was nuidc with automobiles to the snme region. 
In IQ20, automobiles were used again, but we went into California. 

"Tht« summer, stArting on June aj, the trip will again be with automoUIes (mor« 
|ir.>|KTl> r..r. !•-'). It will be westward to Grinnell, Iowa, my old home, thence north- 
warti lo Lake Okoboji, thence northward into Minnesota to strike the Yellowstone 
Mishway west of Minneapolu. This highway will then be traversed all the way to 
Livingston. Mont., from where a side trip of four days will be made into Yellowstone 
Park. From LivinRston the route leads through Butte and Missoula, and past Flat- 
head Lake, t ' t entrance of Glacier Park. Three or four days will be spent in 
this park. W :i through Spokane, Wenatchee, and Snoqualmie Pass to Tacoma, 
Wash. From lAvuina a siiir trip will be made into Ranicr Park. After this we will 
run out to the oiran at Moclips for a short stay. 

"It is to be an eootogicnl trip, with rather more attention paid to birds than to other 
subjects, partly because they are the most conspicuous and easily studied of the animals. 
Stops will be made along the way for more intensive studies at particularly favorable 
places. My plan is to make these studies in types of en\ ' an try to 

cover the whole of the route. The life sones traversed « 1 r Austral 

to the .\rctic- Alpine. The upper zones can best be studied in the piirk* bc^jiuse there 
the bird life has been carefully worked out and there are guide-books obtainable. 

".New cars are bought for this trip, and are sold in Tacoma, the members of the 
party returning by train, each hu own way. The proceeds of the sale of the cars go into 
rebates to members of the party. The cost, exclusive of tuition, and including the return. 
i< about $iSO. 

"It i» a neven weeks' trip, six full days of each week being spent in study. A CoUcfe 

('mill uf rixht M-mr«ter hours is given as a maximum, but this Credit is based upon a 

luiwr Mhith is written after the completion of the trip and after assigned rending. 

Ill \ii\it thrrr were 14 woflBOinMl ^ men; in 1920 there were 10 women and9 men. 

I ) < .'X.I oi thrsc were students of OtM-rlin rollcirr. Iml in r.ii h tt.irls thrrr have been 

•> from other institutions. 

•' entrance requirements iui i lu^ 11 iji, n u m tn n > < ' t imii , .. 

icy or botany. It b desirable for the prospective sic vr had. in 

r in physiography, and familiarity with birds. 
. ■ * strictly camping trip. Kvcry night is »|>rnt nut in th> 
day b sc<;arcd at some eatiaf>bouse aloag the way, I 

are taken In camp. Each person provides himself wit ) , „ ■-■ 

are not used because of their weight and because they arc too cold. Each of the cars b 

made into a sort of pullman bed. Thus half of the pare -"• '<-- ^- nrs. The other 

half make their beds on the ground. Tents are take ut are iddom 

used because we have > ' >ke a 

good job of dranliv In , for 

the woman. 

"tif course, tecturet are gtvaa •• <' < ork 

c nn ris ts In taking the ■tudnnts to tb< t givim thoai such 

seem appropriate. Some blundar arou i. but all of them inA 

fairly accurate interpretations." 

For further particulars addreas Ptoi i.,»». Jom«i Obariin, Ohio. 



i6a 



Bird -Lore 




A r;(M»I> < MVN( K Hi >11I»V l.Kt>L<)t.V WHILK WAITING FOE DUCK HAWIl.S 

la mto%\ >^-v.-r.r; t. >,.,.,, „i.[..ft^nit> II «fl<>r<)r<l la tupplrmcot Ufd *ork witk co«r»c« ia Botaay Gcotocy. 

LaUMBotacy «( «llMr> o( iIm aatiml »ct— <r» 

UmvEBStTV or VitciiaA, CktrUtUniUt, V: 

Summer School. fir»t term, ... A courkc in bird-Mudy givai by Mka Kathleen A. 
Stuart, in coAprration with the National Aa«ociation of Audubon Sodetica. 

There will br lectures and fidd-tripa daily at >.jo r.M. StudenU should bring 6eld 
or opera glamcs, and aa tcxtbooka, 'Bird Guide,' by C. A. Reed, and the 'Handbook u( 
Birds ol Eaatcra North America,' by F. M. Chapman. 

A full aaaoancemcBt of the Summer School can be aecvred from the Dean of the 
Univenity, Dr. Charict G. llaphia. 



GREAT HORNED OWL 

By T, OI1.BKST PBASaON 



Cbr .national aModaften if Slteten >octrtirf 

KDUCATIONAL LKAPLST NO. MS 



!'<''>: I <» trie wilderness u so dreaded by birds and small 

I, : ii .1 ;;;. i.M.ti HumedOwl. To them it is the great ti|;er of the ni^t 
i; ;. itMoiutcly silent wings may appear at any moment. When its long, 
.1']' .lA- -ink into the back and neck of its victim, there b nothing more to 
V -,1.1 : i.iM ' nd comes swiftly. 

Over the K^' ■' irt of North .\merica it is the largest of the Owls com- 
monly met with, t rum the end of its bill to the tip of its tail, the average 
>[)ccimcn measures 2 feet, and the distance across its extended wings from tip 
(o tip is about 4>^ feet. Because of its abundant covering of long, soft feathers 
r h.is thi- a|>[^Haran» »• of being larger than its wti.' < als. However, like 

.1 ;■. I.i:::i l.ir.i-. iii.iividuabvar>*much in size. 1 are known to range 

' from 3 to 4^'4 pounds. 
i nr dnat Homed Owl is a bird of heavy timUr lan«l> and i«. M-Miim «^fn 
.it a ver>- Krtai •lt>tance from the woods. Like nn»i ()wl>. it i> n«H lurnal in its 
habits, and, except on dark or cloudy days or in deep shady forests, rarely 
comes forth in the daytime. Shortly after sundown its deep bass calls can be 




VOlNti OIIEAr I' 



R LCAVIXO N> 



1 64 Bird-Lore 

baud bmung from the iw»inpi or woodhnd*. Its notes are tot like 

the tyUablet, «Am, hoe 1100 koo, wkooo^ wkooo. Sometimes the t ' .1 

pierdng, blood-curdUng scream that is very disconcerting to the ir 'I 
perMn who hears it for the first time. These notes may be given as lo\ < < 
as a challenge to its rivals, or, again, perhaps, for the mere pleasure of U Auuii 
itself speak. It would seem that theie deep-toned notes, nrfUng through the 
silent night air, would serve to frighten into hiding all game within hearing, 
but I have known those who contended that at times the Owl hoots for the pur- 
pose of healing to discover its prey, as for example when trying to locate a 
rabbit which it has seen but a moment before, and which is now crouched low 
hoping to escape detection. The claim is nuule that the sudden hoot of the 
Owl so frightens the rabbit as to cause it to shudder or jump or make some 
other involuntar>' noovement that betrays its exact location to the keen-eyed 
watcher of the tree above. In any event, this Owl engages in much hooting, 
not only in the mating season but at other times of year, and in regions where 
the species are abundant, its weird and awe-inspiring serenades are one of the 
oomnKN) sounds of the wilderness. 

The Great Homed Owl lives well, for it appears to eat afanost every form of 
animal life that it can overpower and capture. It cats many birds, and in 
hunting them has every advantage, for it may come upon the Rolnn, King- 
fisher, Crow, or even laige Hawks while they are asleep. Uliat bird can escape 
its fearful daws? It b very destructive to game-birds, espedally the various 
species of Grouse found throughout the northern woods and the mountains of 
the South. It is vcr\' fond of visiting the vicinity of farmhouses at night and 
carrying off the hens and guinea-fowl, or even killing young turkeys that have 
been foolish enough to go to roost in the open. 

WhUe a boy, I remember one entering our poultry-house and killing a hen. 
She gave only two or three terrified squawks, but my father chanced to hear 
these and ran out to see what was robbing the poultry-roost. We had many 
robbers in those days— skunks, opossums, and sometimes human thieves—so 
when the scream of a hen pierced the midni^t gloom, it was customary for m} 
father to seise his gun and rush out to investigate. On this occasion he first 
dosed the small door near the ground by which the hens entered^ and then 
opening the large door and holding the lantern aloft he beheld an Owl standing 
on a hen that was lying on the floor of the chicken-house. Its great e>'es 
gleamed and winked in the sudden light, and it popped it^ hill, perhaps in an 
effort to frighten him away. IJ 

One interesting feature of tni& i>articuiar Owi 1 wni rt-nK-miK-r. It wax *< 
hi^y scented with musk from a dcunk. Perhaps earlier in the evening, or 
maybe the ni^t before, it had caugnt one of these black-and-white wood 
pussies. 

In the southern states, Great Homed Owk c^ure many opossums, and 
one of their easiest victims is the rabbit. In some parts of the country rabbits 



BO 



Great Horned Owl i6s 

do gremt damage to growinf crops and frequently girdle and kill young fruit 
trees. So these Owb in such places assuredly render great service in helpaig 
to keep down the increase of these rodents. All Owls seem to like rau and mke, 
immcnM: numlK-rs of whidi are taken about outhouses or farms, as well as in 
the woods and along the borders of fields. 

When a Hawk captures a bird it picks off the feathers and throws them to 
the winds. An Ovd^ however, does not take this trouble. It will swallow a 
mouse whole, and if a bird is not too Uu^e will consume it in a like manner. 
Nature has arranged the Owl's stomach in such way that this plucking is done 
afterward and the fur, feathers, and hemes which are indigestible are rolled into 
a compact mass and bter ejected from the mouth. Not two weeks ago I found 
where an Owl had been roosting. On the ground below were several dosen of 
thoc {Hllit s. This particular Owl had been feeding Urgely on mice, and the 
petleu were all of the same character. They consisted of a mass of fur more 
or less cemented together, and every one examined was found to contain the 
skull of a mouse. 

The Great Homed Owl undoubtedly occasionally builds its own nest, but 
a> a rule it selects the old nest of some Crow or Hawk to which it may add a 
f V w t w 1^. At times it lays its eggs in the hollows of large trees. In Fk>rida the 
hollow trunks of trees appear to be used almost exclusively. Very littJe if any 
nesting material is used, in such cases the eggs simply being deposited on the 
roitea wood at the bottom of the cavity. In some of the regions of the West, 
where suiuble nesting-trees are scarce, the birds often select crevices on rocky 
cliff?.. If ' <"' ' ' mia I once visited a ranch where the owner tdd me 
thai a ]>.> id Owls had made their nest and reared their young 

in the loft of his bam. We sUrted out with the intention of paying the OwleU 
a X i itassing a weird dump of small trees we were surprised to find a 

you «i Owl sitting on the ground beneath them. It had left the shelter 

of the bara only the night previous. The other young one had also departed 
but we were unable to discover it. 

It will be seen that the Great Homed Owl, like many other birds, builds iu' 
nest in a variety of situations, and the spot selected for the abode of its young 
must naturally depend on the character of the country in which the bird livca. 
In the southern part of iu range it has been known to begin iU family duties as 
early as January or even December. In New York sUte nests are found as 
rarly as February, and even in far away Alaska the bird turns iu attention to 
it» duties in April, where the ground b covered with snow and the kides nay 
be hanging from the trees. Usually two eggs are laid, although three and 
somettmcs four have been found in a nest. About four weeks are required lor 
the cggi to hatch. The jlbung develop very skmly and two and one-half or 
three months will elapse before they are krge enough to leave the nest, and 
they may be five months of age before the down of youth has eatirdy 
disappeared. 



i66 Bird • Lore 

By far the larger majority of the birds of our Western Hemisphere are 
miKrtior>'. That is, they move southward upon the approach of winter and 
return to their northern homes when warm days of spring again visit the land. 
The Great Homed Owl does not belong to this dass. Although it may wander 
some in quest of food, and when woodbinds are cut away by the advance of 
agriculture it will move on to other regions, these shiftings from one feeding- 
ground to another would hardly be classed as migratory movemenu. Wherever 
found, therefore, this Owl may be regarded as a resident throughout the year. 

In the aofilogical gardens it is very usual to find a cage fontafaihig several 
of these Urge, feathered denizens of the woodlands. The bird is so very striking 
in its appearance and its plumage is so handsome that when one is taken alive 
its captor often feels that it should be »(hilMted for the interest and admiration 
of others. In captivity many of our native birds, especially when taken young, 
in time becon»e quite tame and even friendly. This is true of many of the birds 
of prey, as, for example, the Condor and some of the large Hawks. The Great 
Homed Owl, however, scorns all friendly advances and its fierce, untamed 
nature is unsubdued even though the same captor may bring it food daily over 
a period of months and even years. Upon the near approach of a human 
intruder the Great Homed Owl will pop its bill and show fierce resentment. 
In a savage manner it will at times fly at the person iHio enters its cage and 
has even been Icnown to strike the hat and head of a man who came nnlv for 
the purpose of administering to the Owl's need for food. 

The Great Homed Owl b widely distributed through* • \ • n- 

can continent, and, as b usually the case with a bird of su > >n, 

the species b represen ted by many climatic x'arieties. ■ cr 

might regard the Great Homed Owl of northem Canada . in 

South Florida or Mexico as being identical, but a dose exar ow 

a difference in the shading of the plumage or perhaps the size of the bird. There 
b not space here to give the range of all the different subq)edes, but they may 
at least be named, and are as follows: Great Homed Owl, common in eastem 
North America. Then there are the Western Homed Owl, Arctic Homed Owl, 
Pacific Homed Owl, Dusky Homed Owl, Dwarf Homed Owl, Labrador 
Homed Owl, and St. Michael Homed Owl-^-eight varieties in all. 



Cfje Hubuljon Societies 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

■4iUd by T. OaJUKT PBASaOM. PraiMwl 



Ai ii wm tM c ii wy u tiiiii. ami mmi tM wlHiw, far 4m* ami emutbmiam, f 
Um KsiImaI AwcfailM •! Aadsbaa SadMin. t«94 Braadaajr, New Y«t CKy. 

T. GlUSBT FbABWW, ffUidtmt 



A. LocAS.. 



SAllon T. Cabtss. Jk.. ^Ilaracjr 



Aar p a w DB. cl«b. ackoalor cempaay is ajraipatky wkk tka o b jac u tA iMa Aaaadatiaa a^jr 

* "^Oaaaaa «< 'MaiaSanW^ la Um WatloMi Aaaodatiaa «f Aaavboa Sodaliaa iar tte Pncactiaa al WM 
BMiM4AaiaMlB 




Foaa or Bnvwr;— I 4o k«rabyj{hra aad bamaatk to tW Natfawal Aaaadatfa* af A«4«boa 
iMlatiaa lac tWPiatactiaa ti WU BMi u4 A^aab (lacorporatad). al tka Cky of N«« Yaik. 



JOHN BURROUGHS' BIRTHDAY MESSAGE 



Joat • ahort Ubw before he died, John 
Borroofht^ «arid4MBo«« nUofmlbt, anoCe m 
)>irthd«]r nKMafe to the boy* and girb of the 
Audttboa SodeUca. The 



The Joy of Life 

Uy Dtmr Ytumg Friemii pfth* EwrryCkiU's 

Amdmh^m Socirty: 

Aa the tine dnvni ncmr for my etithiy- 

foivth birthday. I look huii down the laag 

road of the ycait and think what a food Jour> 



ney it has been. If I could live twice at kiof 
I coold not exhaust the beauties and wonde ra 
of thisbcstofallpoMibleworlda. AOntylife 
I liave been trying to find out what I coold 
about this bif globe of ours that b s w i—ii^ 
through ^Mce and about its inhabitants, 
hunan and otherwise, and this knowledge has 
helped me to feel at home on our planet. I 
hope each of you will learn to fed at hone 
and be happy in the learning of the wanders 
of our world. Your friend, 

JoB( Btnaocoai. 



LAW REGARDING THE SALE AND WEARING OP 

FEATHERS 



In owat of ihr citir* fW the United st.itrv 
<od partindarly in New York, the plumes of 
the Bbd-ofPkndiie are dkplnyvd for «k 

hala. PreqaoMly thrir Mk b ndvwtiacd in 
ncw^iapers. The tnAe la Umw faathccs 
Mwns to have bean on the teemw the paat 
>-ear. Our oAce raoeivcs MMWOOS InqdriM 
(ram people who tdl as ol iImm thtafi and 
*ute. "The law b bdng ii^tintly violalad. 
\\T»v do you not do iniUhh^r Asamat- 
t r r . .( (act, in to far a* the Mb and wuaving ol 
thcae plwam b to n mn a d , the Uw b not 



ix iti;' iMUicd, for the bw does not peohibit 
ibcK things. It b af^nst the bw to tell 
aigfcma, the phnncs of the wWte Egret, but 
once they an In private pMMHiaa tkcfeap> 

being worn. In the caae of Pandbe plnmw . 
kowover, the only iwtffctien b the United 
SlnlM bw cmbodbd in the Tailf Act of 1 1 .1. 
which pfkSbk a Ikt impmttHm of the ieathets 
of any wiM birds into the UMMd Slain for 
rn—Bwi bl purpoan. TMt b the bw that 
b bahm **lagraallj- viobldL** 

Uadedhladlr the aleck of Paiadbe faath. 



(167) 



i68 



Bird -Lore 



i9i3 < ■ M rt y «<|kt ywn tfor- 
•uddwplaMi 
MMtcntafailjr 
flnllMn ihftt Imw ben Hnm^M* t f mf*M^ 
ton of the Cwtoai OAcm have mmAt a laift 
aiUBbcr ol frifum, aad in Umm colunnM wt 
hftvc fnm timr to timr rqiorted the taking <d 
tPBM* qf thtwilliMil fffodt iiwi thT i tfT p**t t! hw 
MdeoltlHa. 

This AMOcklioR pknaed to adi the pcfl^ 
est ifiiin of Cdagrm that b lovidag the 
Tariff to aoMwl tlw kv is Mich a way aa to 
prohibit abeolutdy tlie Mie of PamfiM 
pluMa. Juft before the date tct by the 
Chainnan of tlie Ways and Means Coounit- 
tce for the President of tlie AwodatioB to 
apfwar before the Congw man having tliis 
i ns ^ ^f> in ih a igBt it vas l e a r ned that tlw 
United Stales IfiUincfy f^-it*»^ of Oini* 
■Mm had a bin to propose, and after a con* 

90VCOO9 ftSQ flSOCM ^iBUuCVftKSQB IC WBft Q0CIO0Q 

to back their bin, and tUs was done, not only 
(onnally before the Ways and Means Com- 
■ittoe on February ii, loai, but subso* 
qwntly by other means. ThU bill makes it 
{Degsl 10 sell the plumes of Birds^-Parsdise 
or other smuggled (eathen unlem the seller 



can produce iryjrtsncs lo satisfy the ooufts 
that the isatfciw wan brongHt >nto 

this ooontiy before tha Tsrifi ,is 

hsciwa effectiva. This is now uatkr oon- 
sidcratioa in Congress, and if it becomea 
an item of the Fedend sututcs it will vir- 
tually mean that the hut batUe of the war 
waged by the Audubon Societies since 1886 
• g^iwt the i fr<*«Ht feather tafic shall 
havabasa wol 

Of oouaa, Rcardkm of how striagMt the 
laws amy be nmde, it b prohable that feath- 
ers for ndOinenr decoration wffl continu a ll y 
be smuggled into the country. Despite the 
Association's warden- fo rc e , Egrets in the 
southern swampa wiU continue to be killed 
because of the high price that the ^umes will 
bring, and becaoae there will peiiist a certain 
type of fenrinine mind that win be glad to 
posssM and ediMt feathos too costly for 
thair nctghbon to procure. 

The fight haa been a long aad hard one, 
and a sncoessful issue has been long defared 
for two reasons: one, man's lust for nwney, 
and, second, woomn's love for ador nm ent, 
and these two pamJnns may be ranked as 
among the strongest that fovcm the human 



NEW JERSEY BOBOLINK LAW PASSED 



On April ft, there was successfully oon- 
stmimated a result for which the New Jermy 
Audubon Sodety has been earnestly striving 
for the last five or six years, when Governor 
Edwards affiled hb signature to Senate BUI 
80, according to the BoboUnk a place b the 
list of song and hu ect i voro M S birds, with 
permanent protection, and removing from 
the Ibt of vuBa4dnb the name of 'Raed Biid.' 

Until **— «^ the last ntAw ifiit, prospects 
for tha suocam of thb meaama wars otremely 
d is co ur ag in g. The bill was latndnoed Jan- 
uary ji, and was not reported fram the Sen- 
ate Coeamittee on Gama and Fisheries until 
March 7, reaching a vote in the Senate on 
March t6. It passed that Houae by an 
afiramtive vote of eleven, eaactfy the neces- 
sary number, and with four oppoaition votes, 
one of which waa cast by Senator ADen, 
of the Senntc, who also spoke 
thabOL The hoi waa fovotahly 10. 



ported by the Assembly Cooamittee on Game 
and FIsherim on March jo, despite a very 
reliable previous statement to the effect that 
it had been pasaed in the Senate, with the 
distinct undentanding that it was to be held 
in the Assembly Comndttee 00 Game and 
Fbherica. Under su s pension of rules, it was 
passed by the Assemdily on the same date 
that it was reported, by a vote of forty-two 
to nothing, and was transndtted to the Gov- 
ernor. WhOe in hb hands, it was discovered 
that there was a legsl error in the tittr. and it 
was recalled by SemUor Case, « cd 

it, amended and rcpaased in lu .—u 00 
April 7, and in the Assembly on April 8, in 
the very bat minutes of the final day of the 



Thb hill probably esteblbhpd a record for 
mea aurm of ite character, in the conaiders- 
tion that was accorded it in the last minutes 
of the session, when it was ammdnd and r»- 



The Audubon Socieriet 



169 



^udi cowkferatioB b unally r^ 

for bOb that Icfblaton cooMdcr 

nfiBit4)moniMpaftaat thaaUiey ate wont 

> ooMidBr wfld-life ooaMnratiaB wtmam. 

Krom its iotradactkia to its pMMfe, it mant 

the BMSt c on t h iw os sad stnauous effort on 

tlM port cl its i poBsor s , wlw cBllitad the 00- 

otimtiaa of the Junior Audubon Cls» inen»> 

. the tdiools, the Sute Fede r ation of 

' <1uIm, and every available agency 



of peogicMiTe dtiMttririp in this fight. The 
poMage of this bill b a triuaph (or Audubon 
worli and rem ove s a long-standing stain ffoni 
the (air name of New Jeney. 

Hearty congratulations are due the New 
Jersey Audubon Society, and espedally its 
Secretary, Bcecher S. Bowdish (or thb splen- 
did victory in the interetts of the much- 
persecuted Bobolink. 



QUAIL AS A 'SONGBIRD' 



In MOM sections of the country an errone- 

"M idea appears to exist as to the attitude of 

- ■« National Aaoctatioo of Audubon Sode- 

<« toward the Qu&il, some people thinking 

' hat the AsKtdation desires to see the Quail 

lit on the 'song-bird list', and thus perma- 

withheld (ram the realm of field sports. 

■ . th thb there b given a copy of a letter 

written by the President of the Association 

to Representative Simon F. Zook, of Pcnn- 

is, who rrcmtiy was fathering surh a 

•.II iQ the Irgiililiiri ol that state. Thb 



letter may be regarded as rrpresentin g the 
AsBodatioo's attitude toward the subject. 

Ma. SiMOM F. ZooR, 

House of Representatives, 

Harrisburg, Pa. April 1, igti. 

My dear Mr. Zook: 

Your letter of March ti, inviting me to 
appear before the Game Committees of the 
Ponsylvanb House of Representatives on 
April s in stmport of your bill to put the 
Quail on the 'song-bird list' reached me thb 
morning. 

The National Assodation of Audubon 
Societies does not advocate the placing of the 




h ^wu-vAtt ^ua a(at>9 ufcaiuNKU ani> ora^MArau a% io^iu^u ft. hWAix 



IT© 



Bird • Lore 



QmU OS the 'Mi«bird Ibi' and tld» b Um 
•lUtwk it ha* •!»•>« held. A* hiiUiric cvi- 
doK* ol thr (act that «« nfaid thb Uid at 
tlrktly a faaMshird I my wwHioii that ia 
theold*ModclU«'pf«|MU«dbydwAMfkMi 
OraHholoiiMi' Vnkm, and wUch, aa a rtMlt 
of cawpafaa laatitutcd by workcn o( thb 
AModatkia. waa adoptwl ia (oity<ooc states, 
indudinc PniMylvaBia, the gioup of Unfe 
to which the Quail belonp b ipecblly de- 
clared to be gMne-biida. fa aM»t tUtcs this 
bOl was kaowB aa the Auduboa Bill and in 
maay placea today b kaowa a* the Auduboa 
Law. 

If the oidiaafy «afcfu*n{« thmwn arooad 
a gaaw-biid. Mich a* bM icdthoot- 

lag leaeoB. aoa-eale, an< i»ital piv- 

caatioaa do aot prove wiilKteni ia prevcai- 
lag the auBibcn ol the ^icdcs froai beoiew 
iag unduly depleted, then it thould be pro- 
tctibd by a ciaaed tcaaoe of a few yean' 
duratioa ia oider to allow the bird to re- 
cupwate la ataabcn. 

A bw placing the Quail oa the long-bird 
Ibt. or ia other wonb civiag it perpetual 
doied icaaoo, b likely to aave a teadcacy to 
defeat the very object for which the bill was 
enacted. The dam of peoptr that ha« takea 
BMMtlatcreBtiathbbiid ; - latei 

b the ocgaaiaed sportaiT' itcs 

these bo&s, w p rt a tating tnuu^anui^ ui K«od, 
worth-whik dttaeas, ia older to peipctuate 
their opportuaitbs to go afbU with nun and 
dog, have e ip ea d e d much time and Urge 
suns of Biaaey ia feeding Quail during peri- 
ods of heavy mows sad have abo beea re- 
for the introductioa of teas of 
t of Quail for the purpose of restock- 
ag deplftrd oovcys. Maay of these orgaai- 
aatioBs are abo active ia apprthendiaa aad 
reporting those who kill the Quail by illegal 
methods or at unerneonsbb times. 

It b my opfaUoa that, cqwdaJly in many of 
the aortaera aad ocatral slates, the Quail 
today would be almost as rare a* the Pastea- 



fer Plfson if it had not baea for the efforu 
of the game protective omabatioas of 
^wrtsmra who have loag San the chief 
active force ia secariag aad aaeaangiag the 
ea fu tfoae a t of bws for Its jMtMnmnea. If 

la attamptiaff li> nmlrvt Ouail the bird i« 

removed (or - 

that may evn 

from it the i<Jkit«Mta i 

of the oQc large cbm of <> 

oe BMSt for its pratcctipn > 

TMs Aamdatioa has auir ^rith 

ortsoMa's orgaabation- - 
whether the BoboUai 
■If) 



' bir^ »Imi 
birds. Ho«< 
orpuiLmtinn 
their ar^ 
aricsof t 
My< 



(air dcgf^ «» 
the guae-pfoi 
aa utcaseprr 
tioa of the sfx 

If it COBH 

proprietorshii 
uwnrfv on <*f*' 
to i 
th< 

Mcun<iJir> » M! 

a little differ, 
beimtof thel 

You may • 
of thb organi- 
powcra to SI 
ooatiaued €x\ 
aad if thesis 
detnandsacl- 
to laanre its ; 
lcndowMp|>- 

Regfcttai^ 
accept your it 



ri of 

ind- 
•-»irr 



'■ me to rvnisln,] 
T. Giutktti I'feABsuN, Prtiidtnt. 



THE WYOMING ELK SITUATION 



The oAdab of the GovanuMM BwMW of 
Biological Survey slate that a good lacnaae 
from the survivals of the touthera YcUow- 
stoae elk herd b knked for thb year, ia view 
of the uaanaHy fsvorsbk wiatcr juit pasL 
Last year's nslaa, it b said, produced a pkali- 
fid growth of feed oa the raages, aad as a 
resoh the dk are reported to be la end- 
leal cwaBtion. with the prospect of oaly 
a aonaal death-rate, iastead of a repeti- 
tioa of the heavy aiortality of the wiatcr 
of tQio-so, due to bck of forage aad a 
•evcre wialcr. 



kriwirts fr>im rr|>rr'»mtativo of ihc dc 
partmcni cnR^Kcd in ihc wurk u( Mcinfc to the 
wdfare of the elk my that in the diktrirt 
tributary to Jackaoa Hde, induding the 
Gras Ventre and Buffalo Fork \'slk7ii, the 
dk now remaiaia^ of the southern herd num- 
ber about 9vOOO, having beea rrduccd to ihi* 
auadicr from alawst 30,000 in 191Q. Thrrr 
was such a shortage of (erd in the winter of 
1919-20, resulting from the •e\'err drought of 
the previous wnimer, that in addition to bay 
pwchaaed aad fed by the tute it was abo 
for the Federal Goveraaieat to 



I 



The Audubon Societies 



«|inMi •ImhiI $36,000 for hay lo *avr fiart • 1 

lhi« hrfil from «(.>r\ alion. 

Thr trrm<-n<liiu« [om IImI ha» rcrctltly 

oturrni 111 thi<i hcfd ouiBat be attributrd 

to a uniilc I Au»r. The one mo»t r«pans{blr. 

lio«rr\-rr. i» thr almokt total lack iif kuilaMr 

winter ranicr in (.io\-rmmml ownrr«hip. 

Wmr Ihrv wintrr rangr^ within ihr Natitmal 
iiicm wouki Im- «itm|Mnilivriy 
• uMth «|i«««.|rti«i« 111 Ihr o4-ltlrr« 

MlJk- 

it.ir trr now 

UrKi... ... ,..._:. - --, a tmly lie 

•<<ruml fur uae by the dk by punha-v tir 
M»n»r othrr arranRrmml with th^- ..--,-' 



Ihr arnuk within the fomOa ini»t Miilaliir 
(t>r wintrr ranitr for the dk havr bren wt 
aftidr f«>r that pur|ioiie aa a tonporary esipnli- 
rni. but thcMT ama arr ndthrr wdl tuitnl 
nor lotatrd to meet the objects drtirrd. K.\ rn 
with thi* auMiktance the dk are only able to 
ikurxive mild wintem, ami when a Mvrrr 
«ra9on utcurs Kmart fmm fttanatiun arr 
afipallinK. It muat inevitably fiillnw that 
ihift herd will mmmi br rrdiM-r*! in ihr numU r 
fur which hay can Ih* pr<>' - wintrr 

ran|(r» arr immrdiatrly | ' ' r thrni. 

It i» nut too lair tu prtaervr thr rik in 
Kuudly numbmt; but ihrrr muM br a thur 
uuKh rrciifcnitiun of rr»|iun!kibility an«i a«lr- 
r;;itr tntc :in«l Krdcral Irj^islatittn. 



NKW YORK LEGISLATION 



.\t the 1.1 
!."!tnfr. *»»• 



A \ ork l.«T(iv 

rTn-«l. :ini(-nd- 

. of 

..,lly 

<T\-ation 

...ivr l»rrn 



(Irtrimmlal to thr intrn 
»n ihr »uir id Nrw York 

salaried ipune-warrim*. Thrsr mrn have 
Im-i fi irjinnt with Kft-ut «arr fur their dutir«, 
ittij for ***n\e M.ir< ri.iM- lirm uniformcil, 

• •n. 
..-.1 



the numlxT of {hit> at live, >iiLarit-«l fonr of 
KanM-prntrctors frum 1.^5 to go. 

(jovrmur Miller al»u ha.« wrn fit to rrlrav 
(•rurKT I). I'nitt fmm the {Mxition of State 
Conarrx'ation Cummiwiuner. There a|>prarx 
to have liren nu rxprrvml dii»ati«factiun 
rrxardinic Mr. I'ntt'ft admini»trati«in. Hr 
wa« rrimn-ed kimply tu make room fur a 
IMtlitiial frimcl uf thr (kivrmor. Such thinir^ 
«»ftm ha|i|)m in a rqtublican form of Kovrm- 
mrnt tiich as that under whiih vtr tlouri&h. 



YELLOWSTONE PARK AGAIN ATTACKED 

v-nator Wal«h, umliMnaynl b> thr defeat 

of hi* lull in the b*l «r»»ion uf (*«in|{m>», Ita* 

jKJin tindrrtakm to imlurr uur Fnirrat Uw- 

in.ikrr> In |m rmil ihr lUmminK uf thr \'rll<*W- 

-v» out «if thr Nrl 

. jtrm t»fr n.Tirr for 



Ntll iiKlit thi« new effort of Smatur Walah, 
jimI \u\ <>ihrr« who attempt to dr«|iuil the 
^ .iti..fi.il I'jrl*. with all thr %trm«th at our 

• •>mnuiwi I .If •..■rTu ri.i-^.ii )u li..- Ktoi'tnl 

llir iiti.i.u-il MM II... I ..I H.lr..< ,. i>.,' Iiill 

I li. 111. .• ,i. 

rrad* a* fuilowx 

i4>- vt • 11 .. t. .M.^ ti,. <N< tuir .iliil lloUMof 

..fAmer- ahaH 
.ir U Munlana to aiMHUti< 



rrrt t iii.l 
»toii 


1 tn.iliil.iiii .1 


li.ini Ai r<>so 1 


llir Vrlluw> 

it. 


nut 
ofL.. 

•rrvii.;- 

I., I. 




ilrt 
• «• 
-ii.1 
Ihr 
at 


' ' < \ ■ 






1 ■ . 






• a» 


ihr 

wal. 

alH>^ 






.lar 
no 
lin 


'■ 1 












(■«' 






vol 

i»r. 
'.im 


bi-l 

•• 1 





I7» 



Bird • Lore 



by It, UMl tlw rtabt to llw om of tht 
tuiiwrfl tJuovpi MididMi ihah Mvcr be 



tbflMMI • 

Mtbotted by tSe «id State occpt by tbr 
qialliid wBtcr man o( IniiMte dhtikt*. 
Tbc iow ol the wstw thran^ the flBid ika 
Uiall be nfttbtad sad coBtralM by the add 
. ofMontaM. 

tic fight lo Mrthoriar the we. for ibr 
... > . lopiacnt ol bydfodectric cncmr. of aay 
ttl the iratefs uw w in re d by meuH of the Mid 



d»M, h hewby r wwvod to the United Stafy 
but aay iwrnon derived ifoflu mch roMived 
uee iniil accnie to tlic state of Mootaaa for 
tlie beaefit of the laid state or the ifT%atioa 
district or dletricto aanadM the cbarfe far 
the coMtrwlkM of theiyddaiii. 

"Nothkif herria matahwri ihall be oon- 
anied to autliariie tlie cooHnKtioa of diver- 
sioo or conduit or other worfcs mw «aid dam 
withia the Yrllcnrvtase Natiooal Park " 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS 
Enrolled from March 1. 1921 to May 1. 1921 



Hincham. UlUkoi, Jd 

Black. Mn. Clifford 

Bfiettger, Thco. 

Boultoa, William B. 

Biicfc,Glea 

(lialfaat. Mi« InbrlU C 

Cliapin.Charie»M. 

Cteavra, Edwin 

I'omrtt, (iardnrr 

(*riltcodm. Mt%. Amelia (Mivrr 

l>uwnRian, R. li. 

Karquhar, Arthur (In Mrmoriam) 

Ktahcr, F^dwtn A. 

Fowler. Mb* Claia M. 

Hammond, Mr^ < ' < ' 

Jcnkim, John 

Jordan. A. H. b. 

Lee, Joacph 



l^U, Arthur 
Lockhart. Jamr* H. 
MrUemv 
Mather, W 
Millrr. M. Annir 
Nc»bit, .\brani (.. 
PrcKtitl, Mr». Hmr> S. 
KuMcU. William A. 
Scott. R. II. 
Sharpr. M 
ShHdon, j 
Smith, JanR-^ ii. 
Strm, Arthur I. 
StrauH, A 

Sturgca, 1 .-^..4.. — Jr. 
Watcr». Fraads K. 
Wright. Grille 
Yatea, Harry 



NEW SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
EnroUed from March 1. 1921 to May 1. 1921 



Acker, Mt%. Ftnle>' 

Adama, Dr. Cbarlca 

Adama, Mn. Charin 

Adama, Mia. C3iarln, Sr. 

Agar, Mrs. John C$. 

Albefa. Dr. Frederick M. 

Aadrewt, Mra. W. l^ 

AepiawaU. Sooi-ill 

BcrabciB^ Bernard 

Bird Hub of Waahii«ton (The) 

Black. Mr». Lrmuri 

Hlorh, Arthur 

BkMHkfLF. 

Boit. Mr». John K 

Broaks»Mf«.Frcdcn.l 

Brooka, Ml*. Hario« 

BvcUia, Mia. Waller 

BaidHn,Mn.k. H. 



BurgcM, Thornton W. 
Bummgha Nature Si 11. K flnh 
Butler, (ieoife T. 
The (amdcn l4brar> 
Cane, Mr». H. R. 
Carttcna, A. F. 
Caatner, SamuH j 
Caatle,MooUr 
Chr)'«tie, Dr. \\ 
Clothier. Mar>' C. 
Hyde. Mi». B. F. 
Cobb. Mt%. Mdvill. 
Colquhuun, Mim Mar)^4rt-i 
Conklin. j. Howdl 
Co... P. 

Co|>. .K«r 

Crawiurvi, Mtaa Dana C. 
Crcaac. AUrcd P. 



I 



The Auduboa Sod«tiet 



173 



NKW tUtTAININO MBMSSKS. c*Mt«wd 



Mtt» Mary \\.««l 

Oowim, mUiam A.. M. I). 
I>yckniui, Mt%. Frank II 
Eftlni, Walter K 
Ehvyn, Thoma» l-«h^.i 
ErdiMU). Mrs. Ilmr, l> 
Etnng^ Ffodcnc 
VmM,lmmr 

Fdl, Da 

FcfxVMa, Ur. Albert h. 

Fence, Mbi Annir i *'»» " 

FooBw*. S. Wa>-n< 

FUwr, Maixarrt NnotNi v.^iiv>; 

Fiaher, Tliamas, Jr. 

Fitx. Charica E. 

Mu, Miai Louiie 

Fknrrr, Mrv Anaon R. 

Foot. A. R. 

FoK. Mb* Axon K. 

Frmnckc Mrv L. J. 

Frkadi of Our Native Wild Life 

Fdbr, B. A. G. 

G^r« Mn. F^ E. 

Gannett. Mn. Thonuu B. 

(iihHNi. Chark* 

GaU Un. WiBkm I).. Jr. 

Griftth, Robvt If . 

GrbiraU, Prank T. 

Gtiitcman, Mhl Iv- • ) 

Hadaor. Rae S. 

Hall, Mr«. J. Bannt*(rr 

Hartnn. Mf». Pembroke li 

lla)4>rnuck. Roawell 

llriler. Mn. E. S. 

HcKkM, Mfa* Gcotik 

HOlMwae. Mn. JuM» 

IfoDaday. .Mrk ClMiln R. 

Holom. Ilelrr T> 

||«lmr», K. N 

lloiiyaa. Ml» laabcUa F. 

lladHm. Mr*. AHn P. 

Ivory. U C. 

Jadi.(-.M.WWlidd 

Jarkann. Mr». Arthur L. 

Jauie*. f'l-^.K N 

Kwfer. > 

Keen, t^awin > 

K««i,Fruik H 

KcBy, Dr. Howard A. 



Kpp,S.C.Jr. 
Koka, Dr. Barnard 
Ijuudiaa. Mn. piarln M. 
Ij nm ta d ter, Aamn 
i at ham, LeRn>' 
Lathrop, Loub A. 
UMoyne, F. J. 
I^ewb, M. H. 
Ijooom, Ctxiy 
Loonm, Mkk Myrtie V. 
Lorcni, Mis. Leo 
Lovejqy. Mrs. Ebie I'. 
Lymaa, Mi» Julia 
McAlpin. Dr. Kenneth K. 
McLanahan, Mr». .\ustin 
McNeil, f. P. 
McSwmin, Mn. Walter 
Madeod, Mrs. hJdon 
Mahaii, Mrs. S. (;. 
Marco, Mrs. ElU B. 
Marshall, Charles A. 
Mcfuntkook Cam{M 
Mhooo, Mrs. John Beli 
Middkbraok. Curtis .M. 
MaUkcB, Mrs. .Arthur .\. 
Mitchdl, Charles D. 
MHchdl, John F. B. 
Monroe, Frank C. 
Moclcy, Cliarles S. 
The Nature Study Cluh (low a I 
NdKm, Mr». HavilamI 
Nirhois. L. Nebon 
NoUnan. Howard 
(/Day. .Mrs. Danid 
(yNcill. EdwaH F 
Patcnon, Edmund T 
Pcabody. Mrs. John K. 
PkaHpa, Frank B. 
PUiipa,Mr».Thoa.J. 
Flatt, Un. O. H. 
Poal, ojrlvwiaf 
Pmcott, Mn. C. R. 
Ponly, Miw Maud H. 
Ralaa, Mim Mary I) 
Rayaoad. Mn. C. K. 
Ridifld. Mrs. Henr> W 
R«d, Mn. H. D. 
Riflljr, Mrs. Frank 
Mn, Mn. P«ar 

r.Jr. 



Dr. Harry 



«74 







Bird • Lore 




HBW 


SUtTAlNINO 


MBMS 


BBS» ■•■I1MM4 


Koo'^l ^l-^' • l^'^ ^^ 








Tliaajr.HcrticrtT. 


S«n 








TlMle.Mf» J. R. 


SCBV< V 








TttrnMigt, Mrk K. kdlon 


Scqiiv I 








Tuttlr. Ml*. J. II. 


-' , . M- ■■ A. 








TwTcdy. Mia* Alic« K. 


\W Ui... C. 








riman. jtuwb A- 


Villiam 








V«lmttn< 


sink Arthur M. 








Vinrcnl. ' 


Smitli. Luther Kly. jr. 








VuOIKXIi 


Smith. Mrv tirHirn W. 








Walker, v 


Squibb. hUiward II.. M. 


1). 






Warner, Geo. II. 


StrlMns Miw MiltiiTiit 








Wubbura. Hrt- " 


StrphnMnn. Rabrrt S. 








Wa>hii«tan. < 


,r- W 








WataoB, MiM LLua i( 


t, W 








WfUet, Robcft 


Mu«i<*>>k>r \|t 1 \I 


.1' 






Wilroi, IxMcm 


TaUt \!.^ \l .r 








Vamidl. Mr*. L. P. 





1 rtJi -U . MAIX. DIUUiii'k 

t rvui KL^.. MAUt. rvmru 

B rcRTLX i.aA< Ku:. rcMAUt 

« rtORlUA UUAl-KUi. MALB MITTLI 
». »»OiaEKt> OKACKLS. MAUC 



25irb=llorc 

A M-MOHTHLY MAOAliNK 

OBVOTSO TO THE •TUDY AND PKOTSCTION 09 BIIU» 

OvMC««L 0**A« or Tmc Awow*«« •eCKTilS 

VoL XXin July— August. 1921 No. 4 



The Yellow-breasted Chat and the Cowbird 

Ry WILSUK T. SICtTH. S««th Ner^alk. CwM. 

IHAVK been rr-rvaciing Dr. A. A. Allen's aitkk on Warblers in Biri>-U«kk 
for March-A|>rU, 19IQ, and especially his experiences with the Yelkiw- 
l»rmMr<l Chat. Dr. Allen tells us that he has never kmrn-n a That tu 
haiih out a Cowhird's egg, and I find in the 'Warblers of North .\mrrica' the 
following quotatiim from F. L. Bums (M.S.): "The nest is watched very 
»l«»>rly. ahhout;li ■ r is seldom flushed fn»m it. while a disturiie<l not 

will almost invarut icserted after the owner has pierced or broken it> 

eggs. While the Cowliird fretjuently deposits its egg in the Chat's neat, it is 
>at destroye<l by the bird with her own." 
1 uch a positive statement as the last, some ex|icrifnics I have 

liad with the Chat lake on an added interest, though |)erhaps I am overliold in 
'-n» to be an accepte<i belief in the Chat's su|ier>keenness in 

„ : ' bird's cfKfWh><^li^^l>l(<'li<-*ir"^n- 

\xX me first fortify my position by quoting a fellow bird student, Mr. Jesse 
Mreker. who writes me that "oo June 2, \qo2, at Milford. Conn.. 1 found a 
1 hat's nest with three Chat's eggs and one Cowbird 'scki? a n< I thrChai fluNlu-tl 
from the nest. All the eggs were slightly incubated.' 

The only Cowbird 1 ever caught in the act was seen iJipping from a Chat '^ 
nest, and I removed the newly laid Cowbird't egg and photofpaphed'the nest, 
with the three Chat's eggs, and know that they all hatched aiKl the young 
were raise*!. 

In tyfMcal Chat lountry, an abandoned field overgrown with Inishcs an<l 
vines, I foumi a Chat's nest with one egg and one Cowbird't egg. It was built 
in a tant;l(- of rsca|ie<l honeysuckle vines and was not at deveriy concealr«i a^ 
is ftencrally the ias«v I ha<l only recently been reading of the Chat's abihty to 
drtrct the alien rgK whu h i^ mi like its own. and a doire pone wed me to lca\T 
'tint's eKg in the nest and icc what would happen, if the Chat waa •» 

1 had tircn led to believe, she would dcwrt the nest anyway. whUe if the 

iinislini b\ itig her set of cgp and hatched and raked the Cowbirtl's «umelhtng 



176 



Bird Lort 



wuuM havf hem learned. Be»ide», the (rientUuf the mtmII t»ir(1<> have ne\-er 
made the Cowtiird the outlaw he de!ierve« to lie by removing him fn>in the pm- 
tectkinof the Connect itut law. and 1 rould naive my conaciemr with the ihoiiehi 
thai 1 wa» »trictly olieying the law in leaving the egg in the ne»t. 

'Vhv next nHiming there wa> a Cowliird';* egg in a (*hi()|)ing Spamm ^ m^i . 
about fifty feet fn»m the ('hm"^ ne*t. and a •trcoml C*owfMr»r* rgg in the Chat's 




TWO VOUN'U nmhikWN in i tui ^ nlm. a \UtNO CUAI Ih cKuUl>i.U 
OLT OF SIGHT BV THE COWBIKDS 
PiMacnphMi. iwi Mm lnvi« tlM IM. br WMw r. tallk 

ne»i. iK'iii v^iiiiti the female Chat flushed at my approadi. I vi^iici ..u- ue^t 
evcr>' morning. No more cggi were laid, and the Chat began incubation the 
sune day the second Cowbird'» egg appeared in the ne$t. At my a{>proach she 
would s\\p off the nest and glide through the tangle like a shadow, but I always 
could feci that she was watching me, while she herself remained unseen. 

.\f ter several days' incubation I photographed the nest and eggs, and though 
1 had to disturb the surroundings somewhat, she was on her nest as tuual the 
next morning. All three eggs hatched, and it was the old siorv- of crowding and 
clamor, greed and starving, and thou^ the young Chat managed to exist and 
leave the nest, it was 'out of sight' beneath the larger and stronger Cowbirds 
when I |>hotogra|>hcd the nest just before they left it. 

These Chats were completely deceived by the Cowbird and were m deTote<l 
to the alien interlopers as any other Warbler or ^mutow or Vireo would have been. 

While it may be argued that this nest was an exception that proves the 
rule, it can just as well be claimed that far from all the Chat's nests are disoov- 



The Yellow-breasfed Chat and the Cowbird 

cred, and there b no way to tell to what extent the Chat is imposed on by the 
Cowbird. However, it does not appear to me that the Chat is as 'touchy' aUiut 
having its nest discovered as some writers believe. 

Kirdcraft Sanctuary b vbited by several thousand people each year, and 

among its summrr bird residents, for the past four years, has been a pair of 

( ' hich nest among the tangles of bush and briar. Three of their nests 

; beside a mtidk-uaed trail, although there were plent v of ^rchiflrr) and 

equally desirable places without a bird tenant. 

OncChat became so tame she would not leave hfrnr^t.iMn wnm mv w;ir<un 
wa^ mowing the trail with a noby lawn mower, only a few feci away from her. 
\nother nest, on the way to the 'Overlook,' was in a tangle of cat briars and so 
mar the trail that it could easily be touched from it. hut the bird frequently 
reiiiaiiu-il on the nest as the warden and myself stoo<i in the trail in plain sight. 
I photographed this nest and eggs and it did not dbturb its owner, save for the 
t imc V *uT fn»m her eggs. 

I >i re year> the Chats raised their brood, but the fourth year the nest 

was destro>'ed, and, as the Chat's song ended at the same time, we have 
ilwa>'s Im; ' ' I certain bird of prey caught her, as it had been known 
<» catch I' ^^ birds. 

There b an air of peace and quietness brooding over Birdcraft's smiling 
' i- we hope that the Chats have sensed it and <le|»rted fr»>m 
Mnd, we lielieve, rather, that there is variation in the habits 
I the Chat just as there b in those of other birds. 




N II \T \\t» Tit 





MoiiRxist; iK>vr. ash vorvr, 

Pbal««n|iW<i by W. J. lUaOtM. Jr.. mmt R«a«|M. N \ 



(I7t) 



The Mockingbird of the Arnold Arboretum 

By C. H. BARLY. •oston. M»« 

IN THK early spring of 1915, when I was walking along that part of the 
Bostcm park system known as 'Arboruay,' my attention was suddenly 
the topmost part of a small cherr>' tree near the Forest Hills 
rntr XmcM Arboretum. From a point of xantage which no one 

could dispute, one of our feathered friends was pouring forth a melody so sweet 
'I wondered how others who were passing by at the time 
f it. 

\s I ha<i liecn for some little time a follower of the bird-life of southeastern 
M.< 'ts. I knew that the notes coming from that musically devdoped 

thr< not those of a turd common to this locality. M first the song 

was a series of warbles, full-throated, and containing many crescendos and 
dtmnacndoB; then it resolved itself into a series of short snatches of aoog 
resembling the sonirs of a numV>er of our resident birds. lM>lh summer and 
permanent. 

The Blut I iiul ihc tuneful, Ixll-likc./jr-fW/K^, 

i,rrtd-lHp, an-! wi:.. . i t;;. R. !l^< loirc, viz., his alarm call, hb *rain' 

call, and his ordinar\' song, were very frequently imitated. Other bird-notes 
w« ' jKirticularly those of the Song S|)arn>w. the Baltinwre Oriole, 

I hi a. of the Flicker, the noi.sy chattering of the English Sfiarrow, 

and occasionally the loud call of the male Ring-necked Pheasant 

.\s I often had heard that the Blue Jay ' I the songs of t)ihcr Wirds, 

and as this bird use<l the Blue Jay's notes n icn than those of the other 

birds. I was inclined to believe that I had met another unusual Blue Jay. 
With •^•mr «litTi< u!'\ f. >r the bird moved at my approach from tree to tree) I 
Koi tictween hini ami tiic sun. which was at that time vtxy near the horiaon 
and discovered that I was being entertained by a real Mockingbird. 

^ lys later I visited the Arboretum and saw him near the top of a 

lar^ .L <>ak tree. Later that day he was on the ground, exidently feeding 
• >ri insecta. He seemed more willing to be approached than he was on the even- 
ing > tint made his acquaintance, for I was able to get within a few 

>ar ;n. 

Almost rver>' time when I have visited the Arboretum during the past liz 
Nc- ry much in e\idence. He keeps, for the most part, in the 

vi< . :. ...1 pcHMis and along the road leading to the Jamaica Plain 

tnt ranee, althotudi he wanders very much beyond these limits at timca. Many 
•>( ' '- Arboretum birds are (^ the opinion that he fonakcs hb 

u>u.. ^ the months of July and August each year. Sudi Is not 

the case, however, for I have seen him several times during cnch of tbcte 
months, in the years of 1918 and 1919, and once or twice during July and 
Ku^usx of 10.^0 On nearly all of these occMiom he has poured fnrth his usual 

(179) 



i8o Bird - Lore 

x-mrirty of tong. During the above monlhs he often rqnirs to the collection 

,.t ..,v^ -.^t <•' "'^ the automobile road near the Fore»i Hills entrance, but I 

.It he visits his favorite haunts some time during each day. 

As a songster tht» particular Mockingbird has, to my mind, no superior, at 
least in thb locality. His best exhibition was given in May, iqiq. when he 
■ang in competition with a Brown Thrasher and a Catbird. The three bird^ 
had dioien the topmoat parts of three trees for their respective outpDurinir' 
of song. Each waa, no doubt, trying to outdo the others. Such muMc I hatt 
never heard before nor have I heard any like it since. Many times I have 
listened with delight to the vesper wngs of our Thrushes, emanating from an 
almost prime\'al woodland. I have frequently enjoyed their nSatin songs and 
have mar\'eled at their liquid quality and their flutelikc character. But the 
oombincd music of tlieae songsters who were extending themselves seemingly 
beyond their ordinary faparifir* had an awe-inspiring effect almost beyond 
the power of description. When I first came within hearing distance I was 
certain that there were three Mockingbirds singing; but as I got nearer their 
open-air theatre I was able to identify one of the trio as a Catbird who was 
leaving out his cat-caUs and doing his best to outrival his competitors. On 
approaching nearer I discovered that a Brown Thrasher was pouring forth 
the best that was in him, even to the point of almost bursting his throat. The 
Moddngbird, howe\'er, was singing calmly, though effectively, in his own 
inimitable way, easily out -pointing his rivals in \'olume, variety, and melodw 
At times he seemed almost derisive and occasionally he would stop in hi^ 
production of song to go through a few gyrations and somersaults apparently 
for the edification of his rivals who were beginning to show signs of fatigue. 

Ever)' winter, as well as each of the other seasons of eadi year since the 
spring when he was first seen, he has kept close to hb adopted abode. One 
day during January. 1919, when the thermometer registered 6 degrees above 
aero, I found him feeding on barberries. He kx>ked none the worse for thr 
siege of a4d weather which we were having at that time, and had had f(>r a 
few wedu previously. I saw him many times during that month and during 
the subsequent months of that year. Near the end of Februar)* he expressed 
himsdf in song. It was not the song of springtime or summer. It was more 
metallic than he was wont to have had it and Ucked the \ibrancy of his music 
of a few months Uter. 

Last winter, particulariy after the snowstorms of January and Februar)*, 
which storms will bng be remembered in these parts, I felt that the supreme 
test waa in store for our friend who had been more used to sunnier climes at 
that season of the year. I looked for him quite often and usually found him 
near his fawrite haunts, looking the picture of health and activity. 

I visited the Arboretum twice during January, 1921, and on cam uc- 
caaton he has presented himself to my view. On Sunday Januar)' 23, I found 
him feeding on the fruit of a PheUodemdron chinetue ^Mrimscmlmm, a \-ariety > 



The Mockingbird of the Arnold Arboretum 



i8i 



tree nativ-e to Central China. On Saturday, January 39, 192 1 , the day on whicfa 
this article was written, I visited the same locality and had the pleasure of 
teeing him on the ground near the sante tree. He looked sleek and well- 
groocncd; there was iK>t a feather out of place. He «ras more pltmip than at 
any time when I had prrviously seen him and Icwkcd fully able to withstand 
thr riifitrs of many more of our winters. 

i trust that he will continue to care so ably for himself and that he will 
enjoy his hermit lif^ (for hermit he surely is) for numy years to come. At 
l<*v ■ hr will livr a bird-life of such extension as would be in 

k.1' , _ --;:ih of the name of the tree «>» vih«>«u« fruit he is gu j qi ng 

lu» Mivtrnance at the lime this article is written 




The Bird Bath in Molting Time 

By aiAlO ft. TMOMS. VcnirilUM. ft. D. 
«Mk PlMM«npl» by tkr Aaikof 




A MOVR.N 



SKS WHILI 



WHKN wc Icfl home in 
early August for a 
month '» v'acation. the 
vard wa» alive with birds; when 
we returned, the first week in Sep- 
n-ml>cr. not. a hird was to be seen. 

"Where arc the birds?" a 
friend inquirt*<l 

They wen* jjoi ' 
licvc<l thai \^f t«»ii '" 

Uick agaiti 

The binl-lath.whiih ha«l held 
no water during our abscm r. was 
iilled and kept full, and the hose 
was freely used to r- 
nra» and give the bu8h< 
We knew that water in a bird- 
lath had a rcllit ling surface like 
.1 mirror and could Ik* st-cn by 
birds in the trees for a consider- 
a!.l( <liManrf. Moreover, we be- 
luvtil iliat birds could actually 
smell water: and so, after filling 
the bath and watering the lawn. 
we confidently waited. 

In a few days a flock of a 
dozen Robins came to the lawn 
and for a whole month literally 
made the bath their own. Two 
<.r ihrtc Flickers came, and a 
couple of Brown Thrashers; sev- 
eral Mourning Doves camped in 
the garden; Blue Jays were fre- 
quent visitors: and at least one 
Catbird and one Cuckoo nuule 
r appearance. <"d 

v.iackles were ov... ••>- 

iru.sive by their numbers. Thus 
it was abundantly de' ""d 

that the birds had Wf i ' v 

for lack of water. 



fiSa) 




The Bird Bath in Molring Time 



i«3 



The bPlP Med of water in the molting acuon explains their rather sudden 
duappearance in late Augual or early September. At this time they are 

t : i^ weak, silent, almost 

i-ir strength b expended 
m KTuwing new feathers; and 
itnr will lind them in the trees. 
shruhlicry, and willows beside 
streams, rivers, and lakes. 
Thr '-■ and drink deep! \. 
(■\( vhile, and literally 

xoak themselves in water. I 
ta(;crly watched those that I 
h^id enticed back from the 
xxwt, some four bkxks away, 
and fr.und thai their conduct 
at the Ivaih ilitkrcd from their 
ordinar>' conduct in several 
respects: 

I. They had no figlU in them. 
Half a dozen Robins would 
|icr( h on the small bath at the 
>an)c time, literally surround- 
ing it, while two or three would 
the bath together 
' iy, except with ratlur 

vtHing birds, a passage at arms 
would instantly ensue if a 
second bird hopped to the 
bath while another was 
drinking. 

J They simpty C4mU nci be 
^attttud with water. They 
MTmc*! to lie burning \^ 
fr\ rr. After drinking and Ki 
inK to seeming repletion, they 



again, some crowding the bath, 
hers surrounded it on 
>ind and waited im- 
patiently. 

\. DijfrrrnI \pritr\ u.'uJJ 
drink (ontrntnUs l»(flhfT .^itur 



»vti »<>|itN 




tU 



Bird - Lore 



thing not e\*en attempted on Mich a tmall bath at other tinnes. Mourning 
Dovca and Robins, Brown Thraaher» and Robins, Flicker* and Robins. 
Crackles and Robins, would drink tof^lher. One day a Robin anH - ' ■ Vrr 
were actually in the bath at the same time. A truce seemed to be t <i 

because it was mohing-time. The only exception was the Blue Jay, which 
would not permit any other bird at the bath with itself. 

4. Dus$-hatkiMg birds maw became wtter-balkmg birds. Ordinarily the 
Mourning Dove and Blue Jay do not bathe in water but take dust -baths 
instead. Now they could not get water enough. Their awkwardnr ■- 'he 
bath, however, was apparent, and that of the Mourning Dove almost 
Other birds, such as Robins, Catbirds, and Thrashers, seem to have acquired 
an impulsive wing reaction which sends the water flying. Jays and Doves 
want to roll in water as they do in dust; but while the moltinp frvrr i* on 
them they must haxT water 

5. Toward the end of ihr m m nrs rif^or hfcov., nu;ni ri 1 he 

birds came less frequently to i).< .i!i<l <lrank an>l Itathcd less when they 

did ooroe. They would not permit each other on the bath with the same 
contentment as before; too dose proximity engendered hostility. DifTerrnt 
Bpedes on the bath at the same time was a thmg of the past. They were now 
more noi$>' ; and even a snatch of song from Robins, Grosbeaks. Wrens — and 
Meadowlarks in the nearby meadow — was not uncommon. The Flicker even 
r ene we d his courting antics and {noposed a new mating until the \'tnous perks 
of the female reminded him that the mating season was over. 

When full vigor had returned and the birds had become their 
again, the premises were soon abandoned, for the simuner resi' 
taken iting for their southern winter home. 




The Cowbird: A Parasite 

By HARRT B. B1.0UI. MooUmII*. Ia4. 

THE common name (or the species generally known as the Cowbird 
varies with different people and with different sections of the countr\'. 
Cow Blackbird, Cow Bunting, Uay Bird, Brownheaded Blackbird, and 
other appellations are among the synonyms in use. Whether roost appropriate 
or not, usage seems to be crystallizing upon the term 'Cowbird,' for the reason 
tha! ' rs of the species are 90 often found among cows in pastures. The 

Tvii-^ IS association with cattle is not exactly known. Some writers see 

no relation between such association and the life of the bird, while others 
\trVH'\ V that insects, driven from the grass and weeds by the cattle, furnish the 
loumiation for such a habit. 

It b as a parasite upon other species of birds that the Cowbird is most 
'ng. It m ' In a nest of its own, it does not incubate its own eggs 

ikesnoci' <ver of its young. Its eggs are deposited in the nests 

ctf other birds, usually smaller than itself, and the foster parents incubate them 
and feed them along with their own. Most* <^ that the Cow- 

bird deposits its eggs directly in the nests of i *-ss than ninety- 

one species, according to Bendire, are victimized in thb manner. Since its 
egg is, as a rule, larger than those of the rightful owners of the nests, it receives 
roost of the body heat during the period of incubation and frequently hatches 
a day or two ahead of the other birds. This gives the young Cowbird the 
a<!\>antage over his nest-roates, with the result that he geu the greater amount 
• •t the food bnm^t to the nest and soon starves the others or shoves them 
entirely from the nest. . .According to my own observations the number ol 
Cowbird eggs in a single nest may range from one to three, along with from 
one to five of the rightful owner. Greater variaticms than this have been 
reported. The Report of the New York Sute Museum for 1Q12 sutes that in 
rvrrv instant r the Cowbirds dcslioy the ri^tful owners of the nests. Barrows, 
in Michigan bird Life*, however, sUtes that the Song Sparrow frequently 
rears one or two of its own young in addition to one or more young Cowbirds. 
Nfy own obser\'ations show that this b abo true a( the Field Sparrow, the 
lowhee, and the Catbird. 

Ilie ofaser>'ations upon which this paper i» based were made in the vicinity 
of Winoaa Lake, between June 14 and August ao. igaa A report of these 
observations «« a whnir and of ftfiecifir in«itan<-nt will make clear the nature ol 
the Cowbird 

On June 17 1 w.i !■■:'.: .r. < ■ ■ ■■,■.. 1 ■ ■ . . ',,•,,,•( lijiin.- f,.',;t 

r|tjt>. all ver>* muih alikt. Ifiitt \^tit while -.m!?! iviMi-ti hf-wu j-.t- \\«ii 
•liNiributed o\-er the entire surface and one was slightly brownish with the 
Apots not so pfonoanced as in the other three. They were all to nearly the 
<jimr Mzr nlmut K hv .6c inches, iha! frtim thr ecffi alone no one could have 



lib Bird - Lore 

»utcd dc6niidy whether they were of two differenl specks or merely \mrtation» 
uflhcaan -.%. 

The t r .1- matter was revealed by the subsequent history of the nest. 

By June 73 three of the eggs, including the one <rf slighiJy difTercnt color from 
the other three, had hatched. (The other egg never hatched.) .Ml three young 
birds looked very much alike at fir»t, but. by the 26th, difTcrences begui to be 
noticeable. Two of them were covered with a down of grayish cotor and had 
white-rimmed mouths, while the third one was covered with a darker down 
and had a yellow-rimmed mouth. The first two were devdoping more rapidly 
than the latter one. By June 30, when the young were about ready to leavr 
the nest, the differences %irere ver)' evident. The two were much more 
completely feathered than the one. They were of a brownish gray cobr 
above and light underneath, with darker stripes becoming visible. The 
one remained dark. The result deariy consisted of two Cowbirds and one 
Towhee. 

While we do not dass the Cbwbird as a pnecodal bird, the above example. 
as well as others observed, indicates that it develops more rapidly than other 
altridal birds. This b one characteristic which greatly aids it in tirinf; extra- 
ordinarily successful in its parasitic life. 

While I observed only the one Towhcc s nest, 1 niKat. iK a a 1 . n** 
feeding yotmg Cowbirds during the latter half of June ant i ii,< ;,r-; i..iii •>: July. 
The Cowlitrds in every instance recdved the entire attention of thdr foster 
parents, there being no young Towhees present. They readily accepted all food 
offered them and continued to call for more. On several occaaons between 
June 16 and June 25 I raw the same pair of Towhees feeding two young Cow- 
birds — the male attending to one and the female the other. Although my 
observations covered only a short period of time late in the nesting season, they 
indicated a high percentage of Cowbird parasitism among Towhct - 

Some writers contend that Cowbirds are cardul to Un ' 
where there are already eggs of another spedes. Others ai 
by dting instances of nests containing Cowbird eggs only. It seems to me. 
however, that all the circumstances which produce such a condition have not 
been considered. For example, it is not always possible to tell iHiether a nest 
has been used in raising a brood of birds or whether it has been deserted. I 
doubt very much whether one who did not know could have told on Jul\- 1 . 
after the young birds had Idt the nest, whether the Tondiee's nest refcrrcft m 
above was one which had been used or whether it was a deserted on* 
there was one unhatched Cowbird egg, at least the hollow shell ' 
ing in the nest. Whocouldsay that it hadbeenlaid inancmpi. V^ain. 

on July 6, I found a nest, apparently of a Song Sparrow, containing one Cow- 
bird egg. It did not seem to be in use. It was impossible to tell certainly 
whether a brood of Ijtrds had been raised in it and this egg had failed to hatch, 
or whether it had been deserted because the Cowbird egg had been found in it. 



The Cowbird: A Parasite 187 

s ot knowing the complete history at the case, both a»uaq>tiom are equally 
robable. Two other similar nests were found late in July. 
One other observation proves coodusively that only Cowbird eggs may be 
und in a nest without having been deposited originally in an empty nest. 
':i June 1 8 I found the nest of a Warbler containing three eggs of the Warbler 
and two of the Cowbird. On my next visit to the nest, June 21, 1 found only 
the Cowbird eggs remaining in the nest. The others had been destroyed, and 
: at least one of them was lying on the ground near the nest. This, 
III auuitii'ti to giN-ing light on the subject in question, b circumstantial evidence, 
at least, that the Cowbird sometimes destroys the eggs of the rightful owner 
i the nest. Unless the Warbler eggs in this case were destroyed by the Cow- 
-' -A-hy were the Cowbird eggs spared? The same two eggs were still in the 
;i June 36, when I last visited it, but they were cold, and numerous ants 
' IV ling about the nest and upon the eggs. Evidently the destruction 
' . J mused the desertion of the nest. 
1 .;. ' . .'luend that the Cowbird always htys its eggs in nests containing 
her eggs. There is evidence that they frequently do otherwise. According 
> Barrows of the Michigan Agricultural College, "The Yellow Warbler is 
•nstantly victimLzcd by the Cowbird, and in places where this parasite is 
Uundant many deserted nests are found containing from one to four ^gs of 
: tie Cowbird, with or without some of the Warbler. ... As is well known, 
t)u> Warbler not infrequently covers a Cowbird egg with a new Uyer of ma- 
terial in the bottom of the nest, raising the rim of the nest correspondingly, 
and instances have been known where this has been done a second time, making; 
3 three^toried nest." I have in my possession one two-storied nest of this 
;iecies, found on July 6 in a raspberry bush just north of Indiana University 
• <!< >vnr.i! ^t.ition. The Cowbird egg is almost completely buried in the bottom, 
i !t;i t .so -tones of the nest are very distinct. Undoubtedly a brood of 
^<i^ A:t- r.ii <<1 in the upper story while the Cowbird egg remained in the base- 
mrnt unincubated. 

(>f three other nests of the Yellow Warbler found in use, one contained a 

•iwbird egg. Owing to the fact that after the birds hatched the nest was 

" ' T did not observe the struggle for eristence between the Cowbird and 

icrs of this nest. One Kentucky Warbler's nest, found June aa, abo 

totained a Cowbird egg. but this nest was robbed before any of theeggi» 

aatched. Out of a total of ux Warbler nesu found, whose history was certain, 

four had been contaminated, indicating a very high percentage of parasitism 

A' the Cowbird among the Warblers. 

On June 17 1 found the nest of a Scarlet Tanager containing one bird and 
<vo eggs. The egp never hatched and on June sa when I last mm the young 
ird, it was evident that it was a Cowbird. Aooordiag to Amos W. Butler in 
is 'Birds of Indiana,' the nest of the Scarlet Tuiager is a frequent rs o s p ti cle 
or the cni of the CofwhinL 



i88 Bird - Lore 

A nest of the Wood Thntth wm found on June 99 containing two tgp> of 
the Gmfaird and none of the Thrush. What had bcome of the Thnnh eggs, 
if any had been bid, could not be determined. On July a, one egg hatched and 
on July 3 the other was gone. On July 10, the young Cowfaird, fairly well 
feathered, left the nest, oonstituting the entire brood of one of our most bene- 
ficial birds. 

A second nest of the Wood Thrush, containing two eggs of the owner, wax 
found on July 14. On my next visit to this nest on July 17, one of the Thrush 
eggs had beoi picked, evidently by a bird, and thrown from the nest. Two 
Cowbird eggs had been depoMted in its phure. This, again, is circumstantial 
evidence that the Cowbird destroys the eggs of other birds. By July 38 all 
three eggs had hatched. All three birds thrived well until August 5, when one 
of the >'oung Cowbirds was found dead, from some unknown cause, in the 
nest. It was removed by its foster parents on the same day. The other two 
birds, (me Thrush and one Cowbird, continued to thrive and left the nest on 
August 8. Although the Cowbird was a little more developed than the Thrush, 
both probably survived and reached maturity. 

There is every reason to believe that the Sparrows suffer heavOy from the 
Cowbird. Of fourteen nests observed, ten of the Field Sparrow and four of 
the Song Sparrow, all contAined one or more eggs of the Cowbird except three 
nests of the Field Sparrow. In two of these three nests the young were raised 
immolesied. The eggs of the third nest were destroyed before the period of 
incufaaticm began and the nest was deserted. The fourth nest, found June 2q, 
contained one tgg of the Sparrow and two of the Cowbird. By June 30 one 
more Cowbird egg had been deposited. The period of incubation now began. 
On July la one of the Cowbird eggs was found missing and the Sparrow egg 
was found on the ground near the nest with the young Sparrow almost ready 
to emerge, apparently a little prematurely, from the shell. I refdaced it in the 
nest, but found it dead, the Cowbirds dead in the shells, and the nest desertefl 
the next day. So many tragedies ci thb character are found among the birds 
that one wonders how we have as many feathered friends as we have. 

A fifth nest, found June 30, contained one egg of the Field Sparrow' ""'' -v- 
of the Cowbird. Persons wbo had observed this nest, previously, 
me that one Cowbird had been hatched here but that it had disappeared imm 
the nest a few days after hatching. On July i, my sixth nest of the Field 
^Mtrrow, containing four eggs of the rightful owner and one of the parasite 
was found. By the 5th all the qgs had hatched, two Sparrows and the Cow- 
bird having appeared as early as July 3. It is interesting to note that the 
Cowbird had one or two days the start of at least two of the Sparrows; also 
that one Sparrow had been crowded out before July 7 and another befor^j 
July 12, when two ^mutows and the Cowbird left the nest. The seventh' 
eighth, and ninth nests of this tpedm were found during the second half of 
July and each contained a Cowbird egg or eggihdl. The previous history is 



The Cowbird: A Parmsite 189 

unknown in all three cases. The tenth nest, found July 19, contained three 
Sparrow eggs and one Cowbird egg. All four eggs had hatched by July 30, 
hut the nest was robbed and the birds destroyed, probaUy by a Hawk, on 
.\ufnist 3 or 4. 

The first Song Sparrow's nest, found June 28, is interesting because of the 
largr number of eggs and its subsequent histor>\ Mlicn found there were five 
S|iarruw eggs and three Cowlnrd ^gs. By 4 o'clock p.m. of the same day, one 
Sparrow egg had disappeared. By July 7, another was gone. On July 10, when 
I \-isited the nest, I found two young Sparrows, two young Cowbirds, and one 
cfig of each; on July 12, three sparrows, two Cowbirds, and one Cowbird 
egg; on July 13, one Sparrow, and two Cowbirds. On the morning of the 
15th the Sparrow was found dead; one Cowlnrd was found in a similar condi- 
tion on the i6th. The remaining Cowbird, now receiving the food of the entire 
hrvKx), grew very rapidly and left the nest on July 17 or 18. The other three 
nests were found late in July, after the nesting season was over, but each con- 
tained one Cowbird egg. Repeated observations, between June 33 and August 
18, of Song Sparrows feeding young Cowbirds tend to confirm Barrows' state- 
ment that "probably this spedes rears more Cowbirds than any other species 
which we have." 

On July 19, a nest of the Acadian Flycatcher, containing one Cowbird 
about to leave the nest, was found. On this same date a member of this same 
spedes was observed feeding a young Cowbird which had left the nest. The 
small, frail, shallow nest of this Flycatcher makes it almost certain that it docs 
not raise any of its own young in the same brood with a Cowbird. 

In addition to the birds which I have found nesting which were \'ictimi2ed 
by Cowbirds I have noticed several spedes feeding young Cowbirds which had 
Idt the neat. The young Cowbirds, usually alresdy much larger than their 
foster parents, were always calling for food more frequently than it could be 
found and carried to them. Indeed, after they were well able to fly. they fol- 
lowed their foster parenu about and almost incessantly repeated thdr hunger- 
calL They were, undoubtedly, fed long after they were able to care for them- 
selves. I have seen Vireoa, Maryfamd YeUow-throau, and American Redstarts 
imposed upon in this manner. If these birds had any offspring of their own, 
I <id not Me them. The>' gave the young Cowbirds their undivided attention, 
while the adult Cowbirds flitted merrily about, probably spying out new victims. 

Daring the period of my obaervations I saw at least ninety different wptdn 
of birds. Thirty-three of these were dther nesting or feedUng young whkh 
had left the nest. Thirteen of these thirty-three were victims of the Cowbird. 
In other words, afanoat 40 per cent of the tptcm found netting or feeding 
young birds were rearing young Cowbirds. Probably, if the entire truth 
were known, the figures irould show a still higher percentage. Consider- 
iag sooie ai^ ^mcIss, such ts the Field Spanow, Song Spurow, Towhse, 
YsBoir Warbltf. and Marybod YsDiNMhroat, there is evwy rsMOtt to 



190 Bird - Lore 

believe that in tone localitiet the percentage of parasitim approacbct 
very nearly loo per cent 

The ttatut of the Cowbird cannot be determined without viewing it from 
an fffmiwnk ttaadpoint and noting its relation to agriculture. Four questions 
mnsl be answered in doing this: (i) Of what does the food of the Cowbird 
cooiist? (a) Of what does the food of iu victims consist? (3) How does the 
food of a single Cowbird compare in kind and quantity with that of the brood 
of birds it has replaced? (4) What, if any, service to man does the Cowbird 
p er fo nn that cannot be performed by victimised species? 

According to Barrows, in 'Michigan Bird Life/ the food of the Cowbird is 
33 per cent animal matter and 78 per cent vegetable matter. Of the as per 
cent of animal matter, ao per cent oonsbts of insects as follows: grasshoppers, 
tHdch during August furnish 45 per cent of the food of the spedes, 10 per cent; 
weevils, a per cent; caterpillars, including cutworms and army worms, a per 
cent; and wasps, bees, ants, and miscellaneous insects, 6 per cent. The vege- 
table matter consuts mainly of weed seeds and grain, the former predominating. 
The latter is largely waste grain, but some is from neiHy sown fidds. I have 
also seen young Cowbirds accept wild fruit, such as mulberries and raq>berries 
from their foster parents. Undoubtedly, the food habits of the Cowlrird are, 
on the whole, benefidaL 

In answer to our second question above, we learn from Barrows, in 'Mich- 
igan Bird Life,' and Butler, in 'Birds of Indiana,' of what the food of some of 
the birds commonly victimised by the Cowbird consists. The Towhee feeds 
mainly upon weed seeds and insects. Although it b fond of wild fruits and 
eats almost everything' from strawberries and blackberries to wild cherries and 
grapes, it does no damage to cxiltivated fruits and plants. Owing to the nature 
of iu haunts, it is not as beneficial as many other wptd». In view of the fact 
that it frequently raises two <Mr more Coi^Nrds along with one or more of its 
own young, it is questionable whether much ec ono mic loss results from its 
victimisation by the Cowlmd. 

All the Sparrows, with the exception of the En^Ush Sparrow, are very 
henefidal in their eating habits. Weed and grass seed, an immense number of 
injurious insects, and small wild fruit constitute the bulk of their food. It is 
easy to see the harm done by the Cowbird when we know, for cnunple, that 
the Song Sparrow raises more Cowbirds than any other species and that, as a 
ru!e, one Cowbird is raised at the expense of an entire brood of Sparrows. 

The food habits are uniformly beneficial They consume largely insects, 
spiders, small wild fruits, and insect eggs. They usually make use <rf food most 
cadly obtainable. Forbes has shown in one case that idiere an orchard was 
infested with canker-wonns, these larvc formed two-thirds of the food of the 
Ydlow Warbler. While Cowbirds are voradous feeders, and one of them un- 
doobCadly deatroyt many won harmful insects than a angle Warbler, the good 
dooe by one Cowbird by no means balanoea with that aooomplished by the 



I 



The Cowbird: A ParasJt* 19s 

entire brood of Warblers at wfao«e expense it easts. In addition to this oon- 
uderation, a comparison of the esthetic, sentimental, and educational value of 
the two groups places the CowlHrd in exceptionally ill repute. 

How docs the food of a single G>wtHrd ccnnpare in kind and quantity with 
that of the brood of birds triiich it has replaced? This question has been 
answered partially already. In kind, the comparison is favorable; in quantity, 
unfavorable. One Cowbird certainly does not consume as many injurious 
insects and seeds of noxious weeds as the three or four song-birds whose place 
it has taken. 

^^liat, if any, service to man does the Cowbird perform that cannot be 
performed by parasitised victims? Edward H. Forbush, in 'Useful Birds and 
Their Protection,' says: "This much-maligned bird is, neNTrtheless, an essential 
part of nature's (Jan. Birds that rear their own young are confined by neces- 
sity to a certain radius about their nests; but the scattered bands of Cowbirds 
form a wandering, unattached light squadron of insect destroyers, idiich all 
summer long can go where their presence is most needed. In the warmer 
months of the year they feed almost entirely upon insects, but during the 
colder months they Uve on seeds." From my own observtitions, however, 
pUces are rare where we find the Cowbird in which we do ix>t also find species 
of more cxrmplar>' habits just as capable as the Cowbird of consuming insects 
and weed seeds detrimental to human welfare. The numbers of these species 
would be e\Tn more numerous if Cowlurds were exterminated. I doubt 
whether the "unattached light .squadrons" of Cowbirds cover any more terri- 
tory than is covered by the various spedts of birds working out from their 
nests as centers. 




The Migration of North American Birds 

SBCONO tKRJU 

XVI. PURPLE CRACKLE 
Compilad bjr Harry C ObtrbolMr, Chlctj from D«u in tb« Biological Survey 

Thb ipccks b the well-known Crow Blackbird of eastern North America. 
In some one of its several forms it occurs north to Labrador and Mackenzie, 
west to the Rocky Mountains, and south to the Gulf of Mexico. It is divided 
faito three subqiedes as fdlows: 

The Florida Crackle (Qmsealus qmisada gmtscwlay is resident in the southern 
pan of the southeastern United States, and breeds north to the coast of South 
Carolina, to southern Ceorgia, southern Alabama, and southern Mississippi; 
west to eastern Louisiana; south to the coast of the Culf of Mexico, from 
eastern Louisiana to southern Florida; and east to the Atlantic coast <rf 
Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. 

The Purple Crackle (Quiscalms quisada ridgwayi)^ breeds north to southern 
Rhode Island, southern Connecticut, southeastern New Yoric, and north- 
eastern PennsyK'ania; west to central Pennsylvania, extreme we st e r n Mar>'- 
hmd, eastern West Virginia, southeastern Kentucky, central Tennessee, and 
northern Mississippi; south to central Mississippi, central Alabama, and 
northern South Carolina; and east to central North Carolina and the 
Atlantic coast from Virginia to Rhode Island. It winters south to southern 
Louisiana, southern Alabama, southern South Carolina, and probably 
to Fbrida. 

The Bronaed Crackle iQt$isc4Uus quisaUa ttneus) breeds north to central 
Labrador, James Bay in northern Ontario, Fort Churchill in northern Mani- 
toba, and to southern Mackenzie; west to southwestern Mackenzie, western 
Alberta, western Montana, western Wyoming, central Colorado, northwestern 
and west central Texas; south to central southern Texas, northern Louisiana, 
western Tennessee, central Kentucky, central West Virginia, southwestern 
Pennsylvania, southwestern and central New York, northern Connecticut, 
and northern Rhode Island; east to eastern Massachusetts, eastern Maine, 
Nova Scotia, and eastern Newfoundland. It winters south also to southern 
Louisiana, southern Alabama, southern South Carolina, and probably to 
Florida. 

In the following tables of migraticm the records marked with an asterisk 
refer to the Purple Crackle, all the rest to the Bronzed Crackle. 

• TW ttmam ia (Iv timMe mum of %Mt net. akhcrngk mi jrrt Ufcca ap by tW AaMricM OnkkalatttU 



iiQa) 



I 



The Migintton of Nonh Americmn Bir<lt 



«93 



sritiN'G 


MIGRATION 




MKAUTY 




Aiw— i4rt««< 


■M«iM4Uto( 




II 


FcbnMfy33 


February ic. 1887 
February 18, 1909 




U 


Match 3 




JO 


February >j 


Rare, winter 




a6 


February 24 


Rare, winter 




iQ 


MaichS 


February 17, 1917 




at 


Maicb 19 


MATCh 4. IQOJ 


N J 


i8 


March 3 


Rare, winter 


^' J 


9 


March 10 


Rare, wintrr 




34 


Match 8 


Rare, winter 




i6 


Marchr 


February it, 1898 


^ 


i> 


Match IJ 


February 34, 1915 


1 tin 


»i 


Match 14 


Rare, winter 


1 f I 


33 


Match 9 


Rare, winter 


,, .. 


lO 


Match 18 


Maich8.i89lt 


!, 


M 


Match 18 


Rare, winter 




7 


Match 14 


Februaty at, 1909 
Februaty aS. 1909 


. 


13 


Match 14 




19 


April 3 
March a8 


Match 19, i8q4 




6 


Match aj, 1008 




13 


AprUa 


March 13. 1908 


' 


II 


AprU4 


March 34. 1889 


'JC 


i6 


April 9 


March aj. 1898 


r 


9 


April a8 


.\pril 15, 1809 
March 19, IQOJ 


s .< 


19 


April 8 




U 


AprUia 


March 19, 1903 




5 


April 3i 


April 17, 1894 




i 


April IS 


April 4, i8qo 




February 2j 


Februaty' 6, igoj 


Mo 


II 


February 24 


Rare, winter 


Mo 


lO 


March 9 


Februar)' to. 1914 


, 


8 


February a6 


February 18. 1890 


1 


39 


Match at 


March 7, 1908 


h^ 


• 5 


Februaty 37 


Rare, winter 


iiid 


•9 


Marchs 


Rare, whiter 


:.. 


36 


Match6 


Rare, winter 




<3 


Match 14 


Rare, wtetcr 




IS 


March 9 


Rare, winter 


! ';.t.. 


14 


Match 18 


Rate, winter 


I ■ ' >nt 


'i 


Match ai 


Fdiruary it, 1906 




Match a8 


March 8, 1907 




17 


Match 13 


Rare, winter 




14 


Match as 


Match 4, 1910 




31 


Maichai 


Maidi ft. 190a 




17 


Match 16 


Marvh (. loio 




11 


Match 36 


Ma ^4 




30 


Match 37 


R«>- 




3 
39 


.%prUi8 
MarchM 


.\pril to. lift; 
February aj. 1919 




9 


Match 18 


February 34. i9t; 




4 


Match 14 


Maich 19, 191 1 


tidtoh* 


8 

33 


AprUs 
April 16 


March »L 1919 
April 1. ift9S 


MwUloU 


i 


AprUie 


Aprils. 191 a 


.hi ApiNitr. SuJi 


1 '• 


April 35 


April (. 1910 
1 wtatcrcd. 1905 


^»^ K.s-r. Mack 






April 38, 1908 


\ i!T14. ( mIo 




April aj 


April IS. 1909 


iltSVCTfColo 

Gtnt Falb, Moni 




April 33 


Aprfl 16, 1908 


IJ 


April 37 


April 7. t9io 


Fl^plaf . Albwu 




April t J 


April «. 1910 


Hbbiidi, AKmu 




April •! 


April 1. 1910 



194 



Bird - Lore 



FALL MIGKATION 



LOCALITV 



ScMdl Ukt, N. B 
MoMfMl^Qur 

PMlnd.M^ 
StJohMbtti. . 

PlOVIQflKVy K. I 

G«wv«.N.Y 
•SlHltw labad. N. ' 
•Htm York, N. Y 
*DcaMf«t,N I 
*MorrbtowB.N:j 

RcBOvo, Pa. 

Bcavcr.Pit. . . 
•Phfliidilplifa. P> 

nnriiiiiniw. d. c 

O tt«w», 0^.. 

Toranto^ODt 
LoadoBfOBt 
VkkabMgJIkii 

W«t«rloo.IiKi 
KidnMBds liMi 
GhkMo.Itl 

CaBOMdk,Mo 
AtlMM,Taui 
St. Viaccat, Minn 

Minn 



Kcokak.Io«m 
Oa'AppcOc, Saak 
Awcae, Ifiinitob* 
Skms Falb. S. D 
OiMfi,K«» 
Yhm, Colo 



lO 

t 
> 

7 

•4 
tS 

4 

>i 

5 

>6 

7 
4 
ID 
7 
9 
9 
7 
9 
5 



3 






4>M«r 



October ii 
October 6 
October 7 
October m 
OcIoIk 
Octoix 
Novciulicr » 
>J 

IS 

Novcflibcf o 
Novcsuwr 10 
October jc 
November 
November 
November 
November 
October n 
October 3c 
October js 

Octol»cr ;. 



October 2: 

fVtnhrr 7- 



Utlobcr ; 

October 3< 
October 13 
No\'embcr 4 



\'»vanber j, 190^ 

< K tuber >3, iSg; 
( K tober }i, iQij 

< >. toJjrr i8, IQIJ 

\ . • ■.V.^'TT . ; IQI t 
.NuVCtttiiCf ii', IQM 

NovMobcr aa. tou 



irr 

r u. iJW: 

' • ■ 100: 



iter 

irr 



trf 

r g, 18A7 
r ai, I9l.t 
trr 

K>i 

10 

/0< 



■1 -.- 




Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

ttXriBTH PAFBli 

By PRANK M. CHAPMAN 

(Sm FroaUtplac* 

Purple c- " \ ■ • (•,■ ; ". s 

arcalmo>; ,,,■,, ::;•:,( ■,v:r;^- a:.: mu. 

) Auf;uNt this plunisKc is t I. by complete molt, for the ^otty dress 

.' molt and the sU^t differences bet\^ ov 
<> wear and exposure. The femsle (Fig 
^ smaller in sixe and duller in color than the male, somewhat duller, even, than 
ir figure. 

Florida Grackle (Quisailms gmiscmla aglmtu. Fig. 4). The plumtfe dyusges 
I this bird are similar to those of the Purine Grackle, from which it may 
usually be distinguished by its smaller sixe, purple-violet breast, and bottle- 
irreen back. 

Bronzed Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula ttnrus. Fig. 5). The nestling plumage 

1 this spedes resembles that of the Purple Grackle, and, as in that ^ledes, 

he plumage of the adult is acquired at the fall (post-juvenal) molt. There is, 

however, a more pronounced difference between the color of the winter and 

ummer (Jumage in the Bnmxed, than in the Purple Grackle, the shining brassy 

ack and abdomen of the fall and winter Rronzrd Crackle becoming dull seal- 

ronze in summer 

{},, Hr ' /. .; M , . . the I'urplc and Florida Urackks by the 

alrscns-c <-.i Uit iriitiv.Lni IjM: v ;.i j. whether exposed or concealed, are present 

n the back and abdomen of the other two birds. 

The Relationships of Our Crackles 

The reUtiondiips of the Bronzed, Purple, and Fk>rida Crackles is a classic 

rohlem in North .\merican ornithology. The case has been stated at length 

'ir writer in the Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 

4, 1897, pp. 1-20) to whidi the interested reader is referred. Briefly 

here apfiear to be two vptdti of Crackles in this small group: first, the Bronaed 

•rackle, an exoeptioDally stable form, which, throu|^N>ut a breedinf raofe 

(tending f r* >m southern Texas to Labrador and west to^ Rockies, apparently 

how« no grof^raphic variation in color; second, a variable spedes of which the 

Florida Gradde is the southern form, the Purple Crackle (Ftg. «) the northern 

form, \\1ien. however, the range of the Bronaed Crackle touches thai of the 

Purple Crackle Ia5 it does from southern New Enghuid, the upper Hudson 

Valley, am! isouthward along the Allcghsnies at least to Alabama), the two 

ntergradr pr»<iu< ing a bifd with a brsMy green back (Fig. 1), which b found 

reeding only in this oomparatively narrow area of intergradation. 

■Uimtr, Tiw CM Im M rM tan mi^ mm hyUMA. a 7. CmmlHm m mmmimmm. 

<«9S) 



ig6 Bird - Lore 

The constancy in ihc charactcn» u( ihc lin»n/c<I (ira«.kli- thr 
CQonnouft breeding rmngc, the fact that it \aric> in culur un y wiicrc . 
rcadiet that of the ruq>le (irackle, and the further facts that without regard 
to locality, whether in MaMSchutetU or TenncMee, its intergradar 
that ^ledes b always acoNnpUibed through a tiiiiilar color character a.. i 
thb area of intergradation is not one in which geographic or dimatic bter- 
gradation is known to occur among other birds — all indicate that the Bronzed 
and Purple Crackles Intergrade by hybridisation. 

The case is an exceedingly interesting and important one and presents a 
rare opportunity to the field ornithologist who may set thr question <>f ' > 
exact status of these birds at rest by a study of their distribution and relation 
ships during the breeding season in the lower MissisMppi Valley and particu 
Uriy western Louisiana where it is possible the ranges of the Florida and 
Bronzed Crackles may come together. 




/5otc5 from iFielb anb ^tubp 



Birds and Salt 

In reference to tbe tntcrcttiag aotc» on the 
above in BiBO-Loss, by Esther Recks and 
Fred. J. Pierce, I wouM like to add that I 
have fouMi Fine Siskins and CraHbOb food 
ofMlt. One year, about the middle of April, 
we had bnam curing in sugary brine in a 
large tub placed on a back vcimnda. Theie 
was a leak from this tub onto and between 
the phnking of the 6oor and both apedes 
came in ooaakkrable numbers to enjoy the 
encT Wit e d salt, and cvta picked away and 
swallowed small (ragmcats of wood wtursted 
with tbe brine. 

A (ricad, when tmppiag in the moMntaina. 
spot some salt outside his cabin door and a 
few Piae Siririai aU it ravenously. Somedays 
later he accidentally dropped a small quan- 
tity of strychaiae, which he was uaiag in a 
bait dose to the cabin door. Whether i 
Plae Siskias* already aocualOBwd to 
there lor mit, mistook the sirydmiae for that 
iiihilaare, or perhaps thought it grit, a few 
larfortuaatrly were poisoned, and were found 
dead on the Mtow tnitsidr the cabin. 

Many biid isacfafs years ago used to warn 
people sgaiiist giving mlt to their cage birds, 
c a n si deri a g it poisonous.— J. K. H. Kstso, 
M.D.. Bd^mmd, B. C. 

Scarcity ol Nightbawka 

As the wimmm peas, I notice, with io- 
rrieriag sp|irrhsast<w. that the ranks of the 
.V%hthawk beeome smaller and smaller. 
This biid, which a few years ago was quite 
pisatiful throHghottt the lummsr, has aow 
became so mrc in the vidaity of aqr heme 
that the sight of it b a matter of 
faManal. A few yean ago the i 
higs were rsrdy complete withoac the sharp 
aotm of the Nighthawk ruttiag the air as 
they drded about ia quart of airial iaaects, 
sad the (an ailgmtinn of them was oflca liie 
most tpectacular eniliMlngioil lealwof the 
year. I neO mMabir ene frft afleraoaa, 
•bout 6ve yean •§» (anfertWMldty, M nnct 



ever seen. For a period of fifteen minutes or 
OMire the air was literally efne with Night- 
hawks; almost as far as oae cduU see they 
fiOed the sky. I briieve they numbertd, ap- 
pRMdmatdy, ten thousand, but it is, of 
course, very hard to correctly estimate so 
Bttny individuab at one time. 

In igto, I taw the firtt Nighthawk of the 
year in Crdsr Rapids. Iowa (35 miles south of 
W>"inthrap).on May 35, and thbwastheoidy 
date I secured for my spring migFation record. 
None were seen again uatil August aj. whca 
two were seen at my home. A flock of about 
twenty-five was teen August s8, 1919. which 
was apparently migrsting. and ao more were 
seen that year. 

Thb year (1920) a lone Nighthawk a|>- 
peered May 10. and not another one was seen 
until August JO, when I saw several. Oae 
more appeared September tr and thb was 
the bst one seen. I have spent practfcally 
every day t hr o ug hout the suouner out of 
doors and fed qtiite sure that very few Nl^t- 
hawks appealing dtviag the day and e\-cttiag 
passed tmnetirr d Ifofeovcr. 1 U\-e gone 
through my leooids very carefully to make 
sure that ao aotes of its apprarsnce ka>T 
beea overlooked. 

Ia comparisoa with the brge nuaUMrs of 
Nighthawks which formcdy were fonad heee. 
the few visitants noted above seem, to ow, 
to indicate that sonw seriotn bctor hea pre- 
vanlad tbdr rBtnn in even a HaaO meaanrr 
of their fonaer abnadaace. Iwoiddbeglad 
to hear from bird students ia other parts of 
the country in regard to the numbers of 
Nighthawks they have obserrod ia the last 
few years.— Fua>. J. Pmcs, Wimtknp. 



Birds' Love tor Color 

One day I tied three new door-keys to* 
gith« with abont a yard of bdgkc led mtia 
ribbon lof lieMBt ■ynltiigin, lapmjr ertlh. 
A short IhM aflmvard they hod dbappeaind, 

evet^nefMee, HMy 



do?) 



I0« 



Bird - Lore 



iod. The incidcal iru toon 

aspairoliUiblmkMl 
- ^Kt a BCM la the topOMMt 
bnacbM of A Ull aaple tree UmI stood at 
tlM back at the houM. We watched then 
carrytag owd, honehair. and quantitica of 
cottoa tteiae, aad wImb tiMir Iwow was tm- 
lahad we taw a lo«f rad alwiaw gafly «av- 
la« from it la tlM viad. 

All MUBBwr the bright pcaaaat iutterad la 
evarjr btaaae. The Robia* naral their 
braoda~~oae followed by aao^het. I of tea 
w w ide i e d what the red flag was that was 
flauated to boldly high above our hcada aad 
•o far out of our readi. 

Atttttouiauae. The birda had flowa. Thea 
oae aii^ the wiad blew a taifible gale, aad 
the acst BMindag I found that a large bough 
had beea brakea off fnaa the oMple tree. It 
waa the oae that hdd la iu forked braachea 
the Robiaa' aert. I picked it up, aad, wovce 
ioto its adobe walb, along with twioe aad 
hortehair, waa a bright red aatia ribboo, aad 
reMlag la the bottaoi, thickly covered with 
ooCtoa, pieoaa of twiac, fcathen, aad aiore 
ribboa. waa Helea'a buach of keys to which 
the ribboa waa attached. 

I would aot have believed that a Robia 
oodd cany aoch a heavy weight as three 
door-keya— oae a bcasa oae ha d I aot the 
proof podtive before asy eyca. — Roa»i.«a If. 
fMZtOrt f m. 

A Kingbird's Nest 

Duriag the summer of 1919. a pair of 
Kiagbirds deaerted their usual abode in 
the orchard aad built a shaky aeat ia a 
dead tree growiag ia the lake. The k>ca> 
tioa afforded no protcctioo whatever, aad 
was ia plaia sight of all who weat up or 
dowa the body of water. The nest was but 
five feet high aad ao iaaecurely faatcaed 
that every storm l ooaeaad it da ag e r o u a l y. 
The atteatioa of those watchiag the strtK- 
lure was much taken up ia keepiag it from 
falliag lata the water. DcapiU the pub- 
licity the aeat received, from the kaowledge 
of its loca t ioa, three eggs were laid aad 
jcalooaty guarded from all iatnaders by 
the beaks aad wiaga of the elder birds. 



DurioK iocubatioo pUturts wrrr i^km jn<i 
several lusty pecks suataiaed in tlic .>}>cr j 
tioa. Wr were aot the oaly oaos to receive 
taps from the lord of the house, as auay 
small birds deserted the aeighborhood on 
accouat of their quarrdsooM aeighbors. 
If a tyrant ever lived it b the Kingbird, 
fightiag his fellowawa aad avcrythiag else. 
He b aot exactly a ooeravd either, for I 
have seea him attack birds twice his sixr. 
though the reason for this may be the larger 
birds' lack of speed ia fUghU 

In a few day« the sheOs burst aad three 
young birds emerged. But little time wa« 
given to the elders for the seeming pleasure 
of fighting, as food was needed. The youoic 
deve l oped rapidly aad were ready to fly 
whca oae aight a storm blew the nest on 
aa aagle of forty>five degrees. Oae younn 
oae huag by its daws babedded in thr 
material of the aeat. The other two piled 
up on the side of the cup, cr)-ing for help. 
The parents flew about uneasily aa we 
straightened the home, but when it was 
adjusted we were attacked as of old. That 
day they left aad aM>re thaa one person 
waa happy to see them leaving.— Don II 
ROMICSON, Scr*mt0m, P». 

StarUag and Heoslow's Sparrow In 
Oaurio 

Oa the moraing of May 15, 1931, several 
BMOibers of our Bird Club motored to Port 
^kaaky to apead a few hours with the birds. 
We fouad them very auawrous aad ia the 
sheltered aooks the air waa fidl of soag. The 
priacipal item of iaterest waa the fiadiag of 
three Starliit^ ahM« the lake-froeL Our 
atteatioa waa attracted by tkeir harsh, gut- 
tural notes, aad although they flew away 
several tiaaea, always returned to the tall 
dead tree where we firat noticed them. This 
b the first record for the StarUag for our 
vidaity. Forthebeaefitof Aaicricaaraaden 
who may aot be familiar with Caaadian 
geography, we adght my that Port Staaley 
b oa the aorth shore of Lake Erie, directly 
aoos from Oevtiaad. Ohio. Loadoa, where 
most of our Bird Qub m ea d wr s live, b toate 
thirty mflaaialaad. 

We have aaothar iatartadag visitor to 



Notes from Field and Study 



199 



report ia Bcailoir'a Sf»rnm. It was fint 
oolktd oa If ay 4 and rctnatnrd in tbe mbm 
Md for tea days; ia (act, it may tdU be 
there, but Kingbirda aad BoboUaka were 
making to much racket (perbapa thb b a 
barah word to ow with refereaoe to tbe 
BoboUak) that we were unable to catch the 
iaiigBttcaat aoag of the Heaakm't oa our 
last vUt or two to the fidd. This b the 
Mcoad fcoord for Ixaidoa aad the bird haa 
oaly beea itported from three other places 
ia Oatario.— E. M. S. Dalk, Fnsidtml^ 
M<Itm*Uk OntUkaUfk^i Club. Umdtn, Oni. 

Louisiana Tanagcr 10 Massac hus«<t« 

Bird u ba cr vers may be iatcrestcd to know 

that a LoaUaaa Tanagcr was observed at 

the foot of Mt. Toby, in Le\errtt, Mass., on 

I — . . -nciompaay with three Rose-breasted 

There rould be no doubt of its 

tor it was watched through field- 

. i«« observef* fur soae time, aad 

<«istratioo and 

' North Ameri- 

> by Chapman and Reed. Of 

i;iis bird was way out of its range, 

but it has beea seen and taken in Maiaarhu 

«rtts before, according to a statement of Mr, 

Forbusii, I>irvctor of Oraithology in Masaa 

chusetts.— Etbkl M. SmTa, Amktra^ Mau 

YeUow-throstcd Warbler at Lake 
Oeorge. N. Y. 

While on a viait to Lake George, I found a 
dead bird b>' a wooded path. It by oa a flat 
flieac aad it was ia fooid coaditioa, Mve the 
tail, which was partly aiiasiag. It c o iad d ed 
• lib thedaKriptiaaaad plateof theVaOow- 
throated Warbler (the fcamle). I wi 



to get aayooe to skia it, to brought it hoow 
and Mr. Waldo Rich, the prcaidcat of our 
Bird Qub, ideatified it as tbe Ydkyw- 
thraated Warbler without a doubt— <Mbs) 

ABCLAIDB L. DKMTON, Vkt-Prttid^m S^tra. 

t0f Sprimgt {N. Y.) Bwd Omb 

An Albino Redstart 

Oa S ep t em b er 1, 1911, while out lookiag 
for fall laigraats, I visited a pasture lot 
whidi was partly grown up with t m derfar f h 
and thorn apple trees, aad fouad atmerous 
Warblers flyiag about the treca. Whileidca- 
tifyiag several vmrietics with the aid of my 
fidd-glaaMs, ray attention waa called to a 
sudden flash of white in a tree sone distaacc 
from where I stood. I at oooe praoeeded to 
iavestigate, and had a surprise that b rardy 
in store for the oraithokfist, that of fladiag 
a perfect atbiao. Upoa doaer ub st n ra thMi , 
thb oae proved to be a Redstart, aad the 
haadsomcst albiao it has ever beea my good 
fortuae to see. It waa of the purest white, 
with the exoeptioa of its wiags, which were 
of a canary-yetlow, adding beauty to thb 
handsome bird. Its tail feathers had the 
faintest shade of black, juat enough to show 
the markiags of a noraial plumage. It was 
feediag with several others of the tame 
tpedes. As I reaiaiaed quietly obeerviag it, 
it ouae, at one time, within sii feet of me, 
and waa where I oould eauaiae it dtmdy for 
fully five adautea, thea, with the others, it 
flew to a nei g hb or i ng wood and was lost to 
view. Upoa rcportii^ thb to the Biological 
Survey they stated that it was the fint ia- 
ttaaoe of aa aftiao Redttart that had beea 
rtpoitcd to the Ptpartaient.— S. R. laosa* 
aoLL, Beffiisa Sp*, N. K. 



900 



Bird - Lore 



THE SEASON 
XXVI. April 15 to June IS. 1921 



Boanw Rioiok.— At the doM of the 
period oovcfM uy tbe kut lepovt, too mbmmi 
«M hi 1b advaaoe of llw avcfaie; blnb 
BomoDy dot hut durini tJM (bit week of 

#klAy VPCW C0O9Q8BUy vSD0dCQ OB VflOf 
O9O0QiBC"CroUttQft lOQff DCM)W UtBIf ttMHU 

dotce of arrival; aa April Oriole was a powi 
biUty. Tbe weather, however, chained ttad- 
dealy; (or ncariy a monih the wind blew 
(roai the east and. chilled by couatlcas ioe> 
beris. held bach vegetable growth and io- 
floowed the birds dther to retard their north- 
ward p ro g i u s or to seek an inland route of 
migration. Late in April and eariy in May. 
day after day bioaght no new arrivals, or 
only a single iwBvidual of a aperies not re- 
corded previoudy. For a month there was 
w liitk movement of the migrant birds that 
it tcrrocd u if the spring migration were over, 
although the Krtat May fight was stiU to 
the sooth of tn. 

Birds already on their breeding-grounds in 
the first part of April responded to the ad- 
vanced state of the •caeoo by commenci ng 
to breed at eariy dates; Mr. GeorRe Nelsoa'* 
records show that the Bluebirds and Robins 
began to build in Lexington as eariy as in 
any year during Us long e ip e r ieii c e; Wood- 
cocks disooBtiBaed their twIUi^t airial songs 
before their nomal time.af year. 

Another instance of precocio us nesting is 
furnished by a breeding-reoocd of a Brown 
CrcqMT in Sharon. Mas*. Mr. and Mn. 
K. N. Fullcrtoo. of Stoughtoo, kindly inform 
me that they taw the bird building on April 
8 and u. and that "the young had left the 
nert by May 1 1 ." This reooid seems to me 
of nnmnal intcfCM in showing that a northern 
bifd, finding suitable oonditiaBS lor breeding 
well to the south of its nomal range, was 
able to take advantage of the advanced 
seaaoo and breed more than a month earlier 
than the dates indicated in the rare previous 
records lor this state. 

The fight of Wariden in May wns a disap- 
pointment; they stiagiM aloQg during the 
fim half of tbe month ontfl the 15th when 
the chief wave ramr, which nunpriicd few 



indivlduab of the rarer spedas (very few 
Tcancaaaaa, Cape Mays, and Bay-brsasu), 
and in which the BladtpoU was represented 
in very smaO nunihcn, compared to recent 
yean. A good fight of Canadian Warblen 
brought up the rear of the spring odgration. 
which was practically over on June 1. Thr 
abundance of Purple Ffawhes and the con- 
tinued increaae of House Wrens b worth re- 
mark.— WiMSon M. Tylks, Uximglm, Ifaij. 

New Yonx Rsokw.— The most interest 
ing omithologicBl phenomen on recurring an 
nually during this period b the wave of 
migrants from the South (summer reaidents 
and transients en route to mote northern 
nesting-grounds) which arrives more or let* 
coincident with the Icafing-out of the trrc». 
This year, on about April to, tbe foliage wa> 
fully two weeks in advance of its usual con- 
ditioo at that time. It might have been ex 
pected tliat the miff ■ r\ 

esoiptionally eariy sri- 
there were very early records for a ir 
vidualsofsomeoftheapeciea. Tbrn (< 
weeks of cool eastcriy weather, unfa 
for migrstian. during which few birds *r < • ^ < . ■ 
though the leaves continued to unfold, thr 
general impression now being that bird* wrrr 
lale. Their arrival was far bdiind the vrgeu 
tion and slightly behind the normal dates. 
The main wave of birds arrived and pa mod 
through an in a bimch. May 10 to 15 

To compare the arri\-al of the birds wi 
the eariy vegetation the writer spent con' 
sklerable time in the 6ehl at Mastic. Long 
Island, from April ij to May 10. Thb i* an 
dceOcnt locality for f ffftmrr resident ywiff. 
but reoMitc from any spring migration route, 
ro the aboenoe of any particular transient 
spedes b not significant. For purposes of 
disc umi oB he present* herrwith dates of 
arrivaL Mastic ton. tofrrther with the earli- 
est date for l/'ng Isk nd in pervious yeai>. 
and the normal date of antvaL the latter ob- 
tained by avenging Long Island dates in the 
tables in Eaton's 'Birds of New ' 
April 24, Brown Thrssher (eariie»t .\, 



?1 



The Season 



MI 



normal .\pril aj-^; PffBoa Hawk (c. April 
\pril as)- April »$, Soiiur 
•« n April ?8': B\mr\ 

May 

S«i(t («. April 34. D. 

s(r. April 10. n. May 

e. May 1,0. May 6); 

11 -'S, n. May i); Prairie 

W.ir* ,r . \i J. n. May 4)- May a, Yel- 

\!>ril 18, D. April jo). May 

'.irrow (c. April ii, n. Hay 

ril 15. o. Blay 9); Wood 

13. n. April joi. May 7. 

Mk thmtrd Blue Warbler (e. May 4. »• 

■ - ^' • •<. Kiofliinl (e. April ai. n. 

• rd \lfco (c April 99, a. 

. itiur «tngcd Warbler, (c. May a, 

11). May 9, Hiunmingbiid (e. May 

a. May ij). May 10, Least Flycatchcr 

May 5, n. May 11); Bahimore Oriole 

April aS. n. May 7); NaahWlle Warbler 

May 4. D- May 9); Magnolia Warbler 

May St B* May 11); Oicrtniit-tidcd 

Aarf^rr r May I. n. May 8); MaryUnd 

N- -at (e. Aprfl ao, n. May 7); 

..:..; w .-),:.■: le. April jo); Redstart (e. 

' ^1 . - In tmarrivab from April 

hree days ol the 

• an ..; i>r ■ tn this and within 

(wo days o< tJie earliest, two are still earlier. 

^'^perthrel y four and five days ahead of 

rrvious records, and only one intermediate 

-^twcea earliest and normal but approachiaf 

< tlher In sixtceB arrivab from May a to 

10. twelve are widUa three days of the aor- 

msl three (Cirisshopper Spa r row, Parula, 

tumaiimbird) earlier thaa this aad 

irdiate between CBillcet aad aorami, 

it it would seem that for just these three 

■o late a aormal had beea obtained by 

it method. Oac. the Kfam^iid, b six 

'lays bchlad the aormal. Spaet has beea 

takta for the above detailed statMca, 

"-cause they iadkMe the hwportaaffe of 

taal caleadar dates la the aorthward 

movcmeat of these birds, aoc oaly the aor- 

r^l <Uir. but appaieatly tin earlicet date 

•ipiUkaace. This shouU be aa 

.,-...... Hf iadple la lateipnciag adpatioa 

It can be deialldjreMaMMMd. 



The warm night of May ij a heavy flight 
of birds reached this latitude. Eaoooatering 
thick, showery weather over the dty the 
caeuiag dawn, they beouae coafueiid, aad 
amay were killed by striUag the McUo- 
poUtaa Tower while others descraded to the 
city yards and unail open squaics.— J T 
NicaoLS, .Vop fork Cky. 

WAsamcTON Rsoiom.— Bird adgration 
about Washington daring Apiil aad > 
19a I, was decidedly uausuaL Thewri.ii > 
paitkabrly dwlag the latter half of Ainii 
and the first half of May, was generally cool, 
part of the time more so than is ordinarily 
the case, while the very few hot days occurred 
only at intervab, thus reversing ooeditioas 
obtaining la the preoediBg aMaths of Feb- 
ruary aad March. These awte o r otog i cal 
conditions had ^tpanatly a very peculiar 
effect on the m o v ements of adgiatory birds 
in this region, aad thb peculiar mjgmtioa Is 
the moat notable ornithological hap p enin g 
of the present ipring. 

Notwithstanding the geaeially cool 
weather, the arrivab of a number of adgraats 
were in advance of aormal, some of them by 
many da>-». Among the asost important of 
these are the Grasshopper Sparrow, which 
arrived on April 3 (average spring appear- 
ance, April li); Rough-winged Swallow, 
April J (average, April 10); Henslow'* Sr^r- 
row, April 7 (.April 19); Black and \N 
Warbler, April 7 (April 16); House V^nm. 
AprU s (April 18); Yellow-throated Waibkr. 
April I a (April t8); YeUow Warbler, April 
IS (April a2); White-eyed Vireo, April is 
(April a a); Marykad YeOow-throat. April 
IS (April at); Greea Keroa. April is (April 
ai); Wood Thrush, Apiil 19 (.\pril >%); 
Loi«bilkd Marsh Wren. April aj (April jo); 
BlackthroatNl Blue Warbler, April h (May 
i)i Magnolia Warbler. April h (May i); 
Ottva-bacfcad Thrwh. April n (May 4). 
NtAvOb Warbler, April a6 (May 1); aad 
CfcMlaiil sidid Waibler, AprU s6 (May >). 

Qse tpedea, the Northera WatarwnMMh, 
was detected eaitter thaa ever beleet to the 
iprli«. by Mbs M. J. PeOew, oa the Aaa 
oeilla River, near Waahiagtoa. April t6, lu 
eaittcat prevloas raooid beiii« April §8, ipso. 



Bird • Lore 



T« lki» iwwiB/ Mily arrival ol aprteg 
t tlMVt WR tocM Bocablt caoBDliow, 
Mtkt Pwpk IfaitiB. which «m int 
ohtwy<d M April to. whcfm* it* ummI Uow 
ol apfMaraBccb March J9; the Bam Swallow 
fnt MHi April u (avcrafr, April u); 
Nil^Mhawfc. May 8 (May j); BalUmorv 
Oriok. May 9 (May t); Bobolink. May « 
(May t); Roac^bitaitcd Grwbcak, May to 
(May 5); and the Aider Flycatcher. May ig 
(May ij). 

Ib the cMe ol the great majority ol mi- 
gruitt, particularly thoae that arrived earlier 
than umal, the bulk ol the epedee Ugged 
OOQBlOflnUSiy DttUWM ftOQ addcawq cvco 

■Mich later than oommon, thii icmhiag in a 
oooaparative tcaidty ol birdi that was 
throughottt prutically all the 
[fldgratkn. At wbU riioald have beea 
the height ol the oiigratory movement, the 
■eather suddenly became very warm (or a 
few days, and evidently the birds passed on 
without tarrying. As a conscquia ce ol this, 
many transients did not at all reach their 
ofdimuy abnndanos lor the spring season. 
This warm spell, howev er , does not fully ac- 
CDuat for the (act that few birds, particularly 
winter visitois, ramained beyond their usual 
time, sinoe it oc cur red after many had gone, 
having departed even during the cool weather. 
Yet some remained beyond their ordinary 
time, as estabUshed by records ol past years. 
Among these were the Hermit Thrush, last 
seen on May to (average date ol departure. 
May 1); Ruby-crowned Kinglet, May g 
(avcmge. May 4); American Coot. May 18 
(May s); American Merganser, May 15 
(May 4): Purple Rnch. May 19 (May 8): 
Chestnut-sided Warbler, May a6 (May as); 
Tree SwaDow. May 18 (May 14); Bonaparte 
GuD. May 18 (May 9); mmI OUve-bached 
Thrush, M^ JO (May a4). 

Furthsfmore. two species icmained as late 
as ever befoR -the Solitary Sandpiper, seen 
by Mim M. T. Cooke, near Bbdt Pted, Va.. 
on May si, the latest previous reoord of 
ediich b May at, 1906; and the Black- 
throated Blue Warbler, ohaerved by Mr. 
Joseph Kittredge. Jr., near WasUngtoo, on 
May JO. which is the latest recorded spring 
data since May jo, 1888. Two species re- 



mained later than csxt bdorv^ihc Blark 
Dock, seen by Mr. K. A. I'rrble. near Dykr. 
Va., on May 18, its previously latest spring 
record bdag May ti. 1917; and the Rcd- 
breastad Mergsnser, found by Mr. Joerph 
Kittredge, Jr., near Washington, 00 May 10, 
whereas its p revio u sly btest date b May j, 
19S0. 

Among the few trmnMcots that reached 
their normal abundance was the Myrtle 
Warbler; and the Blue^winged Warbler, 
always a rsre bird about WasUnglon, seemed 
to he rather more olten in evidence. 

.Many famiUar species, particubrly Iran 
sients, were present in unusually small num 
ben. Among these might be especially men 
tinned the Purple Finch, which was wn 
seUom observed, the Cape May Warhler 
Tennessee Warbler. Bbckbumian 
Chestnut-sided Warbler. Raee4»rea 
beak. Tree SwaUow. ^Ibon Thrush, UUve^ 
backed Thrush, and Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

On the other hand, the Bonaparte Gull 
and the Rii«-billed Gull seemed to be ex 
oeptionally common, and remained in ooo- 
sidenhle ntmdierB up to the odddle of May, 
especially on the Potooaac River bdow Wash 
ington. The Laughinx Gull was very much 
in evidence some 40 to 60 mUcs down the 
Potomac River from Washington, and wa» 
seen abo not infrequently within a com- 
paratively short distancr of the city. Kither 
it b grsduaUy cxtewfing its regtilar range up 
thi* river, or obeu I'tts have recently been 
• more attention. 

1 <uck» that were present abundantly 
on the Potomac River daring the winter re- 
mained throughout a o on si d en i b l e portion of 
April, and the Lesser Scaup Dudi was numer 
ous until at least the middk ol May. On 
May 14 three flocks ol White-winged Scoter*, 
totaling some joe birds, were seen on the 
Potomac River about IS mUes above Colonial 
Beach. On the same day. along the river 
between Colonbl Beach and Washington, the 
(ireat Blue Heron was frequently seen pur- 
suing its favorite pastime ol visitipr <^'' >>*' 
potmds to obtain the fish imprisonr 

Three Common Terns were fount] <>> .^i r 
Joseph Kittredge, Jr.. on May and to. 00 
the river near Washington. The American 



The Setson 



203 



Bittcni, wUch Menu to be KiawwiMt ia- 
ovMiag la Domben •bout Wa«hinKtoa. wa» 
raportcd to be bfccdioftnol far from the city. 
An al«ay» iatcrestiaf bifd, the Protbaootary 
Wubler, was three timm Men durii« the 
q>riB| migratioa,— CD April 27, at Dyke. Va., 
by Mr. L. D. Ifiaer; oa May j. in the aame 
Uality. by MIm M. T. Cooke; and on May 
Q. «t Millrr. Va.. by Mr. L. D. Miner. 

U htlr in many respects the tpriat adgia- 
tkm ot 19J1 was imsatiActoty, partkidarly 
in the unall nosriicfs of bMs ptceent, cepe- 
ckUy Warblen. the psrdiarifW of the 
aovcnenu of the vaiious ^wckh mon than 
■Mde up in interest for the Kardty of 
both ^Mcks and individuab observable. 
— Haiky C. OBsaaotau, BiMfkst Smney, 
ttajkmgl0m, D. C. 

Obi vijN (Ono) Rkciom.— The outstand- 
iHK feature of the period was the continued 
oold and unfavorable weather until almost 
the end of May. There were no larfc move- 
nents of the birds at any time. Most of the 
specks were rrprescated by fewer individuals 
than ever before in my experience. But 
whik many of the birds were late, the folis«e 
was at least two weeks ahead of icheduk. 
Thoa, wbca the Warblera and later Sparrows 
and FlyxntdMn did come, it was dUBcuh to 
■Mkc then out in the dense foUaffe. Many 
of the Warblers did not go on north until 
the fint week in June. On June s there were 
six Ruddy Tumstooes and one Sondpafanated 
Plover feeding aloi« the shore of Lake Erk. 
near Huron. ThJk b the latest rseotd for 
these two specks.— Lvms JOMts, OlsrMs, 

CncAOO RnM»(.->Whik the warm win- 
ter kept a number of ^wcka in thk region 
which Kmemlly winter a few miles south, it 
did not affect the majority of the lalar mi- 
granu whkk paassd through abont the mmal 
time, some, of cmtrM. a littk earUer and some 
a littk bter. 

Thiny.tkree ipedcs of WaiUsm mn rc^ 
ported, including a Kentucky (Mr. Nathan 
LmpoM, Jr.). a Prothonotary, found sittgii« 
In Garikid Park, In the csntar of the ««( 
•hk of the city, by Mr. Bei^Mnta T. Gnnlt. 



and a Pine Warbler taken at beach. May 7. 
by Mr. Sanborn. Other rucr ones are the 
Cerukan, Wkaa\ Gokkn-wfa«ed and Blur- 
whiged; a nest and six eggs of the bttcr were 
found by Mr. Edward R. Ford in the mme 
pbce that be found them seven years ago, 
and b the second brceding>record for thb 
regioa. A few species stayed bter than usual, 
a Bhck-and- White and a Canada being seen 
June 5. at Highhrnl Psrfc by Mr. Sanborn 
and a Connecticut and Mourning were found 
dead the 7th and 8th respectively. The 
migntion was at its height May 1 1 to 15 snd 
so to ij. 

Mr. Gault has observed a number of inter- 
esting shore-birds, Scmipslmated. Still, and 
Baird's S andpip er s being seen in Grant Park 
May 9, and Sanderling, Red-backed. Turn- 
atone snd Bbck4>ellied Plover in Lincoln 
Park May 24; the Red^Mcked were seen 
again June 5. Mr. Ford found a large dock 
of Semipalmated Plover in the Skokk Marsh 
west of Fort Sherkkn May 23, and Mr. Sui- 
bom a flock of Least Sandpipers in the same 
place May 15. Dr. Kifrig abo found the 
Least and Senupalmatcd Sandpipers at Addi- 
son May >6. 

Other interesting records for the region are 
Cby-coloced and Lincoln's Sparrows in Grant 
Park May 15, and a Harris Sparrow in Hum- 
bolt Park May 14 (Mr. Gault); Turke>' 
Vulture April 24. and Lark Sparrow May S, 
in the Dunes (Dr. Lowey); Osprry May is. 
in the Dunes (Mr. Ford), and an Orchard 
Oriok May 19. In Jackson Park (Mr. Wat- 
son). Sbort-bflkd Marsh Wms have been 
reported from a number of phew south and 
west of the dty and a colony of Dkkdsmb 
has ftflpped for the «■—■•> In the Skckh. 

I>r. Kifrig reports from River Forest, west 
of the dty. Pheasant and QualL prob^dy 
breeding; Red bellkd Woo^ecfcer May 1. 
and t4; Mockk^bkd May at. vhkh sinyad 
around hb boms aO day; Iwdsbns Walar> 
Thrush May 1 1 . and a Barn Owl was brought 
to Um dead May 9^ from Maywood. A 
Bewfcfc's Wnm «■• ssen Aprfl jo; these 
Wrens w«r« abo reporlad from the IHmes 
(Mrs. Rkhar^oa) AprU a and at. 

Twenty sight ^Mdss have bssn found 
to dtto, a Inr of whkk might be 



»4 



Bifd-Lort 



Mr. Ford foowi • MM of Wood- 
cock Itttcbcd ia Ibc mow April 17. Dr. 
EiMg raportod two mM» of th« Mipaat 
Skrike »l Addiaaa April iS. umI • young bird 
was cmoslil by Mr. Cook ia HlgUaad Park 
Jtnc 7. No bir^ hod bwn Mm by citber 
Mr. Cook or Mr. Soabon pftviooft to this 
tiaw. w it «M • Mrprite to ted • yooBf bird 
bappii« about tbe yvd. Dr. Kifris fooad 
i$o aatt of tlw Btacfc-crowacd Night Heroa 
ia • oobay at CMaado May iq. Mr. Ford 
reporu the PIpiag Plover lircrding in the 
Duaca agaia tjik year May 14. Mr. Hunt. 
May 8, found a aot aad four «ni of tlie 
Savaaaah Sparrow in the Dunca, aad Juar 
S. ia Uaoob Parli. Mr. limtiii fouad a actt 
of the Spotted Saadpiper. 

The Society aow baa a liit of an ^wdca 
aad hopes to be able to rtport aoiae intcrert- 
iag acats ia the ecst paper.— Coloi Camt- 
BKtL Sakbobx. CAaaroMM Reptrt C tm m i UM , 
CUesft On$ilktl0gifti Stiitly. 

MiMKKAPOLic Rbcion. — The weather 
duriag the period covered by this ar- 
ticle baa beca charactctiaed by rather frr- 
qucat aad abrupt duuigea ia tcaaperature 
which have disturbed the noraal p rogr eas of 
tbe spring's devetopment. Tbe cmily awalc- 
eaiag of vcgetatton and premature activity of 
aaiaMl life that resulted iron the unseason- 
ably adld weather of March aad early April 
waa checked soowu^iat by cool aights and 
cold aorthctly wteds ia bite April aad early 
May, but occasiwisl hot days duriag that 
tine aad ooatiaued very warm weather whh 
ffcqocat rains from mid-May on. stimulated 
the wtwwflands. meadows, aad fields to such 
aa exieat that suauaer ceadhioBa were 
aatidpated by f uDy two weeka. 

The effect of the early aad irregular spring 
upon bird^ile hi this locality was to break up 
soBMwhat tbe usual sequence of events. Most 
of the aaitter adgrsats caaw ahead of sdwdtde 
but thoae J o ur ney ing from afar were in many 
instances ddayed uatll. for a tiate. it seemed 
as though we were aot to ea perience the 
gmt May movement, so eagei|y awaited by 
an bird-lovers. Aad whca it did finally oonw. 
on May 19. it was deficient both aa to species 
and number of individuals and paamd by so 



quickly that ia two or three day* bbbiIf all 
traces «f the adgratioa were goaa. PiBvians 
to this date some of the comason sununer 
residents had a p peared in very limited num- 
bers, aad it was aot uatil this 'wave* of 
aortb-bouBd aiigraata came aloag that the 
adssiag quota was siqipliwl from laggards 
tavcUng fai iu ranks. This, the only brge 
and the final 'wave' of the season, reached 
the viciaity of MlaaeapoUs oa the osomiBit 
of a warm and beantiftd day immrdhiteiy 
(oUowiag a spdl of cold aad stormy weather. 
Great aumbers of birds must have berr ^-*-< 
up so mewhe r e ia the add-Mississippi \ 
aad when thgr were released they basirnrd 
to their deatiaatioes with greatly increased 
speed. 

A brief statement of actual weather oondi- 
tions win give a better idea of just what the 
bird-travelers had to encounter herra^Mii* 
though it b probable that cn o di t io m 
south had more to do with irregulantii^ •■■ 
thbfauitude. Mid- April presented two days 
with freering tcraperaturr. thin ice (omdng 
on the nij^ts of the tsth and 16th. The 
remainder of the month waa oool at nighi 
and warm, or even hot, at aooa. May came 
in with three days so ooM that ice acarly an 
inch thick formed oa bird-baths out at > '^'■ 
Minnrtonka on the night of the jd, ai 
flurries of snow occurred oa the i*t. ii<>< 
days aad warm nights followed until 00 the 
I jth to the 16th it was again so cold that 
liKht frosts occurred, this kind of weather 
extending over a wide area ia the upper Mt«»- 
isaippi VaUey. In northern MlaacsoU it was 
stiU colder, the mercury dropping to r? de- 
grees at Duluth and to freeriag at Farxo. 
From thb time on the weather became in- 
tensely warm, with the rm ome t er reMfiags at 
timca over 90 degrsca at aoon. This ha* 
oontiaued with but little iatcrrupCioa until 
the present date. 

The progrem of the seasoa will be most 
clearly aad caaUy shown by arranging the 
dau in the form of a nature calendar. I havr 
agaia to thaak Mr. aad Mrs. F. W. Commoot 
for Uw fCMrons use of their spriag notes 
wbidi form a not inconsiderable part of the 
foUowIng record. A few datea have also been 
supplied by Mim Fetter, Mlm Humlston. 



The Setson 



»o5 



and Mr. Orcutt Fratt. mrmben ol tuy bild 
AM, aad by Mr. >^lUuin KilRorc, Ji^ FInt 
ardi b iulin. 

>ril t$. A completed Robiii'* not. 

:. YtUtmlmiti BheHM, t nul». 

'•flW Oi*r; BiMifw. Many Ilerrinx 

— Vcfetatkn hM advanced 

|iiag tree* egMtthrdy. In Uoom: Dutrh- 

man « lir 



•rtit Wmhtm$, Ctmhirds, Ltoms. 

jw-hMded Blackbirds, all maka: 

t he niaka arrive ten or twdvc davs ahead 
•t (be female^ Kuatv BlackMrdt mi- 
c r J t ins in aonberft. \l'nit^-breaated Nut- 
^Af hbufldlag. 

i Tmrktt, auU; Wkiu-tkratled Spat- 

>ri) 15. Rur anemone and beUwort in 



s'ipd/ffir. Spcntm Htmk, Lesser Ytttm^ 
fv. Lntisiana Watrr- Tknuh. The W 
1 hru4Jiwa»Mcnattbesanie«potwh< 
nest was foand two jreart ago, the omv 
place where tUa spedcs has been encount- 
rrrdia thbvidnity. It was a pret^ sight 
t< ) M« the bird walking oiiDdagly awng in 
thr fthaUow water. toMittf thr drad leaves 
thit wav .\n<{ thai, and da. ' tr u{> 

thr rr-.iri', V.r.% water CTTa' iT-ir 

« Spedcs arri\ t 
in advance of 
> transieat in the tuuinrrn 
■r. \ POeated Woodpcdtrr 
lestiag-hole in a dead stub 
rn thegrooDd. 
rrr flowrred gettm, ground 
marigold, shad 
"IT slraood, aad 
^*age laavaa 

V blOMOflBS 



aiy. 

s Sparrow baOdlng. Vla- 
■fl Bktt H«HM and 

••«nnMl» oa an islaad 

'«. The birds ate 

>««. There an 

t«. During the 

.-r rim — 1 Trarr 
. - ihe result o( their 



brtHK CH t u|iirfl hy the bir(l». Twai' , 
were couaicd in one such tree. 
Blue ooboah ia hloooik 

May ». FmpU J/«rM*< 

May 3. Turkey VuUmr 

.May 4. Trnrntiift Warbirt, Hour \\ kh. 

May 5. t^fk Sparram, Amrruam Pipit. 
Black Trrn (many). H'iJsam's Pkaiarop*. 
IjtasI Samdpiptr. 
Wo(>d» now quite dense. Oak» in Moom. 

May 7. Strra Thrrr has sermrd to be a 
grrat Manity of this bird tht» year. 

May 8. BaUimorr OricU, Rotr-brraslrd Grot 
hrak, CkimMfv Su^/I, Stflit)tr\ S^ituipibft 
Lilacs in b(iM>m. 

May 9. Veilmc Warblrr. 

May to. KimibirJ, Vtery, CeMri, Red- 
headed Woodpecker. 

Red-berried elder in bloom. Wood and 
rue anemone at their best. 

May II. Comwum Ttm. 

May I a. BoMimk, YdUnr-Uteoaied Viree, 
Pirn ltd Black amd WUte WtrkUrs, Gear- 
ekeeked Tknuk, SemiptUmkd Pieme. Eight 
Wiboa's Phahuopes in pairs. Lark Spar- 
row's nest just cxMapleted. 

^iay 13. Re d eyie d Vireo, Warbiimg Vieee. 

May 15. (hem-iird. 

May 17. MapuHa Warbler. 

May 18. Ltasi Plyeakker. 

May 19. The one great bird 'wave' of the 
season came today. Foliage doMe, Uke 
suaimer. NasktHU, Cfcr rtaat itfi#. Black- 
pall, WOsam's amd Camads WarUan, Red- 
start, Maryiamd Yettam-tkraal^ Grimmeir$ 
WaSer-Tkrutk, ScaHel Tamaftr, Black- 
kiUad Cuckoo, Rubf-tkroaled amanmimMrd. 
Crested PlycaUker, Wood Ptwee, Solitary 
Vireo. Wood Tknuk. Olhe-kacked Th^k. 
.Many Rose-breasted Grosbeaks. Whitr- 
throated Sparrows, Tree Swallows, aad 
oChcr bffiatrd birds rai n^ today. 

May so. Country appears Uke sunuaer. a 
very rapid advaaoe b vegetatioa blciy. 

Mav It. YtttmmtdCmekaa. 

M . . t . Youag KIDdeen Just hatched; Bit- 
i< in* nest, oae egg. 

SbmU white aad small ycUow cypri- 
fwtnana ia bloon. 

J . Bird *«ave' o( igth has pa«ed; but 

QOffthem ■rigraate left. liehMnit 

w..ule boildlaf. Male Rceebiaarted 

Griwhwki tghtte fwioa^y. Watched 

Sapeartrer vWtlMlta 'boriafs* dosely fol- 



May as. ^ii thorn a^ppb la fuU bbom, 



of Brawar's BhKkhird- 

TUs bird, foraarily tare 

hi aaBbeis 

It 

It mm ta 

Oiwbaak'e aeel, 

Youaff Maadowlarkk out of Beat. 




206 



Bird - Lore 



May JO. L0MI Suidpipar ftJD h t n fack 
of to. 

Mav ji. BoboUak't MM, 7 «Bi; ^"«»d 
'Huwh't BMl, 4 «IP. Aa Oa wMrA 
FI)rcaldMr, • bd tte d wIpMit. 

June y YooBf POmUmI Woodpcdun in nc*t 
found Aprfl a6 lar(e tamitjk lo conw up to 
the bole to be fed. Both msm ftadlBf m 
b ummU witb the Woodp e dt e w; tripe 
ralber inffequent, tbe iaterral ■BWrtlmw 
■a hour. A eecoad ne»t of thb wmntfcablf 
bifd was icportcd in tbe vidaity of Minae- 
apolb tbe pcfocat tcaiim. 

June 7. Young Mignuit ShrOu* Jutt out of 
nest. 

June 10. HuBuaingbird building nest. Laid 
foundation of foidcr-wcba as apparently 
do BMat bifdt Ibat saddle tbeir nests on 



luuNU. lavoira ■aBBUuniu oomi senicaeo 
tot beee ia vaia duffing tbe hiwiing season, 
but bas very evidently been merely over- 



June II. Rdfcd Grouse witb diidu onlv 
two or three days old. Both parents with 



Tbe Bob-white is more than usually 
numerous this year in this locality, iu 
whistle being bcani oe all sides, sometimes 
within the dty limits. The harsh call of tbe 
RtnR-nedied Pheasant b becoming a rether 
frequent new note in all the oonatry rouad. 
Tbe past mild, nsowlem wiater bas probably 
favored the iacrease of these two birds. — 
Taoiias S. RoBBm, JMKsf*^ Mmsetm. 

KAMtA* CRT Rbokw.— Tbe uBosualop- 
pofftuaity of viewing uaiataniytadly a ^iriBg 
Hg— **^ baa been enjoyed thb season by 
the writer, aad caough iatcresCiBg aad valo- 
sbte data has accumulated to fin several 
times over the space allotted to these brief 
aotes. Particular attcatioa bas beea paid to 
Bfff^m ittHit «"4fh f ptH al rf hn a t f to datw 
of l^fiagt ■M cnct ialofMatioa RsganHag 
over loffty nwcbs has beea reootded ia thb 
locally aariectod dnartaMBt. 

Eaoowiged by the nadlng 01 addnioBal 
evidcaee last year of tbe local breedfaig of tbe 
Blur Grosbeak, a systematic aad extcaded 
•earth has lately beea made for the nest of 
Train's Flycatcher, with the result that ei^t 
nests have been kKated ia thb couaty. Tbe 
most prodactivc fidd proved to be tbe wiUow 
tkktos b the Mbsoori Rivw I 
the aMulb of Big Bine, when a aast aad sec 
of mn were collected to substaatbte the 



A teamestuous aad mthM * blbnrd, eatirdy 
outofseaaoabitthb regloe oa April 16, leav- 
iag death aad destmctioe to nc sling bird* 
aad bte fruit in its wake. A brooding femalr 
Robin whose aest was esposcd to the full 
blast of the north wind and snow had to lie 
dose with bead uader wiag to keep from 
freeaing, and next morniag her four Untr 
nestlings were dead. Five other Robins' 
aesta, as wcO as Meadowbrk. rhirkadrr and 
Bhiefafrd nesta, were found ooatalaiag froien 

As reported in the bst letter from thb 
point, very early firing had advanced the 
arri\'al dates of the early migrants, but thr 
return of winter conditions not only pbyrd 
havoc with the early breeders, but kept sr\-- 
eral of the wintering spades here longer than 
usual, aad debyad migiartoa gsacnlly from 
that date forward. Such prompt migraats 
as Hrrmit Thrush, House Wren and Chimne>' 
Swift, ooticeabb perluqis on account of their 
abundance, were bter than for several years 
past. However, a few species were early in 
spite of adverse conditions, as, for instance, 
YeDow-bgs, Greater YeUow-bas. Bittern, 
and Spotted Sandpiper. Juncf A rts>. 

aad Harrb's aad WUte-thr- mm^ 

waro four winter spedcs to nta^a Uh%h after 
thdr normal tiaMS of departure; junrwwrrr 
noted in smaU nnabcrs as bte ss Msy 5 
aad the Sparrows were coounoo up until 
the last of the second week in May. when oor- 
matty only stragglers are prcseat. Savannah 
Sparrows passed during the last half of April 
in nausaal abuadaace, csperi -Isnti 

aad pnirb rogioBs. On thr . .rikc» 

aad PhfldMahad youagia tbe nest, hatched 
during the past week since the blimnL On 
the asth. Baltimore Orioles. Kentucky and 
Blue-wingrd Warblets. and WoodThrushn 
arrived, and Dove, Meadowlark. Brown- 
thrssber, and Cardinal had full sets of cgt*. 
Taaagers arrived on the spth with so im- 
wave of Harrb's Sparrows. Belated 
groops of migwting Blue Jays and the bte 
arrival of Indigo Bimtiag aad Red-eyed V1reo 



The Season 



ao7 



ware prabably kmiIu o( Um Ute cold. Ob 
■ hk dtto Broaaed Gnckle De»u conUincd tlw 

ill c oipl MMn t of cot. The 6m WUle- 
'. ireM wtf tb ofd oa the 4th, tad 00 Ike 
■ rajr-cheeked and Olhre-lMckcd ThrwiMi 
V err nuoKfoua and a few were •*i''^ 

Od May Si t^ up-river lake* and pondt in 
i'Utte and BodMaan oouadea mntainwl 
nionbcn of PM-bOkd Grebm, Coola, Mai- 
Afib, Baldpatw, Gadwall, Pfataik. Sbovd- 

r«. Blur-wii^ed Teal, and YdVmlcga. A 
Ndr of large Grebe* could noC be identified 
■^ed-wiaied Bhdkbirdi were not yet build- 
rtf, as but few fdaaka had arrived. Num- 
■<Tt o( Lincoln's Sparrows in song, a small 
ilock of Bobolinks, and three small troops of 
j uncos were teea. 

A visit to Holt Comty oe the loth di»- 
Umtii the {act that bmdiac birds were far 
■Hriad thoaeia the fanmi City region, only 
X hoadred miles to the south. Meadowlarks 
were found to be mo»lly Western, and. for 
the first time in western Missouri, migrating 
Bla»>headed Vireos were beard in full song. 

Retwaiag on the nth. Kansas City was 
•Had i w aimin g with Tennessee WarUen, 
iod out oa the prairie regions Grasshopper. 
>avBaaah,and Harris's Sparrows were evcry- 
mkmt. A sanU fbcfc of Bobolinks, a very 
rare bird here, was seen at 63d and Brookaide 
>irect>. and one was beard to sing lustily as 
I hey flew off. A ^lliip-poor-will was flushed, 
and singing migrant Thrushes were still 



Nests and eggs too numerous to list were 

- nrnd during the fint half of May, aad during 
■ hk period the late arignats, which are osn- 
allysilcat. wereaOlafuUsaag. On the 17th 
three Bob-whites' nests, containing i, j. and 

eggs respectivriy, were found in the south- 

— -^rt of the city, and ia the aauM r«giaa 

« date a tttooamftd stalk was BMMit oa 

thr lour treasures of a Boisy pair of Killdwn. 

The fbod-tide of Warbler aad PlycaldMr 

nwnf d to be oa May so, which 

later thaa umbL YeUow^bOled 

1 ocfcoos were nutinc. aad apairflf BfaM Groa- 

beaks were seen on this data. NoMa of Yel- 

tow Waibler. Ordmrd Oiiok. Bdl's VirKi, 

Red-wlag«l Blackbird, Buifc 8«ybw. aad 

iHckdMl, eeatalaii« fuU Mli cf 



fbuad oa the saaw day. A set of three 
Braad-wiaged Hawk's eggs waa loaad oa the 
aad. On the ajd migrsat ThrwlMS were stiO 
p r ewat — very late. 

Oa the a4th the foUowiag aests were found 
in the southern part of the dty in a wild 
thicket, little swpected by the ndghbors of 
containing such wiU birds: Bob-white. 17 
eggs; FlcU Sparrow, 4 eggs; Green Heron, 
4 eggs; Cooper's Hawk, 5 eggs nearly ready 
to hatch: Red- winged Blackbird, 4 egp with 
J of the Cowbird; aad Dickcimel, 5 eggs. 

Grasshopper Sparrows are again present 
this summrr on the Swope Park rifle range 
meadow, but even rope^dragging fails to 
discover the hiding pbces of their nests. 
Traill's Flycatcher nests were foMMl oa Juae 
i.S.S.andia.withtheseardistilloa. Bbck 
Terns were noted oa the Missouri River oa 
the lath and ijth. 

William Andrews has assumed the 
Kuardianshtp of a nertiag pair of Wood Ducks 
no Mill Creek, near Courtney, but is not very 
hopeful that the>' will ever succeed in brinx- 
ing off their young. He states that boys and 
Mcdcaas ia the aei^hborhood are too bouati- 
f ully supplied with ammunltioa. 

It is regretted that iatorertiag matter re- 
ceived fma Sida«y Hyde, of Topeka. aad 
other correspoadeats caanot be iadoded this 
time. — HAaav Haekis, Kmium City, if*. 

DsMVU Rbgiom.— If the flood of spriag 
migffitioB la thb regioa duriag March aad 
AprO was sawO aad slack, it sooa beauaa a 
tidal wave after April 1 5. The writer ( 
recall a seaaoa whca the birds retnnMd 1 
ingly all at once aad ia large aunUMrs. 
was esperially true of the suauaer 
dcata, aad, to so«w cortcat, with the 




The regioa ha* swarawd with Robias, 
CUpfk^ Sparrows, Ycfiow WaiUvs, aad 
than ha* beaa aa uausaaBy lai|t laflas of 
Bullock's Oriok* aad Black-ketdad Grot- 
beaks. Thi* sprigs crop of y«Mi« RoMa* 
aad yooag Hoon PladMi I* aBUMMly laift. 
aMNtiothaa for yaarspML 
uals of th«e ^lodm bopi 
proaiplly aad vary aarly: tho* thara war* a 
aan^bar of fAflad|id y««i« RaUa* oal of 



m8 



Bird - Lore 



' alile to laid for I 

nr allow* lowiw di^fi for 

<kyt (or iacdwlioB. 

' M-t t4 flggg, aad four 

k to April to for 



un M»> ; il»cr« » !)narfly 

laife nuarfMr ol Oay : » aod 

Chiiyiwf Spa mmi in * ^Nuiiy alondonrd 
wHtiy Mar aqr borne. Tbcy ntat have 
boos lo^pljr BignuiU, for a few dayt afirr- 
«M<d ow vmmI local Chtppiag Sparrow popu- 
latioo ooly waa ia evideaoe. 

The writer ^wat aa aany hoiuv aa poMJhle 
in the field watdiiag thk ooaooone at 
'SpiadU' Sparrowf ; ita dioniB (ram aaariae 
to dodc waa coatiauoaa aad ddightfvl b»> 
jroad worda. 

The iollowiBf brief review of aoote arrival 
datci nay be of iatcrert: The fint Cbippiag 
Sparrow was Mcn oe April >a, which b three 
wwiki later than iu cariirM previooi appear- 
aace, according to the writer's records; Gaai- 
bel's Sparrow arrived on April 17, eightea 
days later thaa its previous earliest, while 
both the AoduboB's aad YeDow Warblers 
rettaaed withia oac day of the previous 
earlieat. via., oa May 1 aad May 5. Some 
iatcresting (acts haw de\'eloped thb spring 
roacfiraiag the spread of these two Warblen 
ia the vidaity of Dcavcr. 

The firrt Aodoboa's Waibler was scca at a 
poiat about twcaty adles south of Denver. 
The specks was aot detected ia the dty 
proper oatU May ra, takiag apparently 
twcaty-oae days to work its way northward 
twcaty adlcs. It b interesting to nou that 
on both orrasicns it was accompanied by 
Utcscaat Warblera. The Yellow Warbler 
was aeea first ia a park about three miles 
south ol the writer's home, oa May $, aad 
not at the latter place tmtil May S. The 
writer has no nplaaatioa for thb slow travel 
rate, uabm it be that he mlasrd the speds 
on an earlier date thaa given. 

A loae Mocfciagbbd appeared in the 
writer's neighborhood oa May 8 aad 9, aad 
then disappeared. 

It waa singiBliiil ia the last rqjort of thb 
regioa that the iprii« adpaata woold arrive 



earlier thaa usual. Thb has provca i< 
besB poor prophesy. Maay arriwU ■■ 
■oow v«ry late, aad a few oa tiaw. 

Takiag the earlicat pravious arrival datn 
as data, it appears that the Rock Wm 
Black-bcadcd Graabcak. Howe Wrm v 
Green-tan Towhee were an five days b 1 
Wood Peewee abrtcea, aad the Buikxi 
Oriole sevenleaa days bchfaMl time, while. 1< 
enuBple the Catbird waa oa tiaw, via., arri ■ 
ingoaMaysQ. Infacttheaunberofspodr 
arriviag late was in the aa^iority, a tawUnri 
ranging from one to three weeka. 

Two Rocfc WroM Uagerod in the aforessi 
c easetery until June 5. It was hoped th.^ 
they would mnain to nest, but their diss; 
pearaace after June 5 has blasted thb hopr 
Aside (rom one rainy speO, whick caaK about 
a week ago {}vnt 6). the weather coaditioi 
have been all that one cduM desiro aad wh. 
a mere huaian would imagiae ideal to brii 
the birds back to their somaMr homm earl 
Yet they did aot oooae. A sjamltenrrx^ 
stale-wide survey wouU doubtkm throw a 
good deal of light oa thb iataesdag aad un- 
usual migratioa situatioa as it baa developed 
ia the Denver Region.— W. H. BBaoroU). 
Dt u w r, CtU. 

Sam FaANcnco RioiOH.— Though April 
and May were unusually chiUy and ligh* 
(roats were recorded aa faUe aa May i and 
the warm weather of February had surti 
the blomo m a. ao that the seasoa was t« 
weeks ia advaaoe of that of last year. Th 
differeace showed no c orr rspon d ia g different 
in the datca of migration among the bird 
The winter birds recorded a* ^tHI nmmt •' 
April 1 1 were seen last <» th' 
Intermcdbtc Sparrow and \a,,n^t • 
Aprilii; Audubon Warbler, April 15; >-' 
crowned Kinglet and Fox Sparrow, A|ir 
Hermit Thrush. April 27; and ('<' 
crowned Spa r row, April 39. The ( 
Hawk was seea on May 1 1 and the ^ 
shinned Hawk 00 May aj — a (act whi 
plies a decided loss of life among the i.^ 
hatched generation of small birds. Ced^ 
Waxwiags were still preseat 00 June 5. 

The suamer birds arriviag after the midd ! 
of Apra were the Hhrk headwl Groabeak 



J 



The Season 



•09 



April 16; YdJow Warbkr. April x>; RimM- 
badwd Tbraili, April tt, Luvli Bunting, 
April 17; OUvc-tidcd Hycatchrr. May 4; 
Wood Prwrr. CUppiag Spanow and Oriole, 
May 5. Tbe Thraih waa not in full tang 
tmtil May is. A pair of Lawrenoe Gold- 
findM* wu Mca repeatedly in North Berkeley 
and on April jg MCinrd to be buiidioR. Junvo* 
and Kobinft were leen in to many localities 
tbat tbcy irill mob be in the daat with 
f1i<kcr> and Pine Siikint pfrmanint reai- 
•1< tit-> tiut matt numeioui in winter. 

The hnt wUsUe al Quail oo guard was 
heard as April jo, but a flock of cii^t to ten 
was seen on April at. Young .\Um Hum- 
wntn left the nest on April 15. while in 
another nert young, just hatched, were 
found May 5. Another nest waa Just in 
the fomation stage m May 6. On the 
taae date a Warbling Vireo's ncrt waa nearly 
IhishH 

^ ; 4 the scene of obiervatias was 

«hi Santa Crua Mountains, where 

also the season was found to be farther ad- 
«*anrrd than at the same time last year. The 
hinl \f.i of two previo u s years was increased 
by the addition of Anthony Green HeroDS, 
Poor Wills, House Wrens, Wcstcra Martina, 
and Pygmy Nuthatches. The Nuthatchea 
and a colony of Martins were oocopyfaig hoka 
in the tame dead ycUow pine on the top of a 
sandy ridge. A Bluebird, hovering near, 
•eemcd interested in the tree too and very 
I ikriy had her young in the lowest story. The 
Nuthatches were housed in the attic and 
were catdiing insects b e tween trips to a live 
pine near by. Bhcfc-throatcd Gray War- 
bleia. which were officially added to tbe list 
of birds in this region only a few months ago 
(see Ctrndtr, March. iQii). but have ban 
noted as one of the common Warblers of the 
region during the three yean I have visited 
it. havr totalled in my notes eleven pairs, if 
fAch *ingiBg male reprcMBis a pair. They 
•ccm to be stallooed from a quarter to half a 
nile apart along the bottom of the valley, 
only one of tha akven bdag on the hllkidc. 

Junoos. CrMpcft, BoMi-Tlia. and AOn 
Huauncts had youtm out of the neat by May 
aok and a faarfljr of LutaKant Warblm, 
tackod aiagly in a na« placed In a holt In 



the stream-bank, tried their wii^ on May 
aj. Ob June 8, Tanagen were found in tbe 
same tree where they ware seen bst year, 
but there was no opportunity to disnver 
whether they were ncrting or slnply helping 
to diipose of the cbeny cfop in an orchard 
near kv Ammja S. Allsm, BerktUy, Cslif. 

La^, .\.s«.t.Lsa RSGION.— Cool weather and 
abundant rain have prevailed during April 
and May in Loa Angelea and vicinity. The 
only noticeable effect of these neariy un- 
precedented weather conditions w p^f! the 
srainnsl migration was to bring the birds in 
their old-time abundance again to Nigger 
Slough, which held more water than for sev- 
eral seasoni past. Ducks observed there dur- 
ing the period covered were the Pintail. 
Scaup, Baldpate, Shovelkr, Ruddy. Red- 
head, Cinnamon Teal. Greea-wingcd Teal, 
and Fulvous Tree Ducks. Black-necked 
Stilts, YeUow-legi, Lang-bOkd Dowitchera, 
Hudsooian Curlew, Marbled Godwita, BfaKk- 
bellicd and Semipalmatcd Plover, Red* 
backed. Least, and Western Sandpipers were 
there in considerable numbers. An .\nthaoy 
Green Heron was noticed April 16, and the 
reaident Bbck-Crowned Nii^t Henms were 
obs erv ed to be wearing their nuptial plumea. 
Lesa common visitors were the beautiful 
Bbck Terns and five ^^llson Phalaropca seen 
there on April »$ and r?. On those dates tbe 
Black Tumstones were seen at White's Point 
for the last time, and on the XTth, the first 
Wandering Tattim appeared. They were 
seen there sevcial Umea during the succeeding 
fortnight, bgroopa of six or Mvcn birds. TW 
aTth also marked the departure of the last of 
tha Black-bellied Plover, and the arrival of a 
colony of Bank SwaUows at San Pedro. 
Rough-winged Swallows were aeoi near the 
Laguna hilb May 8, and near Sycaaaorr 
Grove. Arroyo Seoo. about the aaoM date, 
where Vaux Swifts were also obeervad several 
times. Tree Swallows ««r» foond nwting In 
waiow trees at Sanford Brldgi. San GabcW 
River. May 9, and ^^aleC-Grm SwaOoura 
occ u pied their old nast-trM in Eaton Caion. 

The arrival of the land-Mrds waa noted as 
showing little variation fram avwaft dales. 
The Blue Grosbaak. oocaahnalhr notkid late 



aio 



Bird - Lore 



la April. »M aoc M>a Mrtil May S, abool U» 
avcrai* dale Lamli Bwitfaip wtn aba»> 
daat at Uial tUnr, a* «trt abo tlw Woltni 
Taaagcfi. UM^-taibd Cbats arrived April 
ij. May t6. the ncM o( tlw Catwafe Wood- 
pecker, rBfcrmI to ia lait report, held yoiag 
about ready to leave, and a brood ol four 
Red-bdlied Hawk* ewe «eO ladfed. 

Cedar Waxwii«i wwn eammm obiU late 
la May. flocks of so to 7S bdag eeoi on the 
MthaadsMldtirtagaveekofraiB. Ru«et- 
backed Thrwhee were then abondaat aad la 
•oag la gardcM and orckaide, ai were aho 
PUeolated aad Ydlow Warblcn. The Her- 
■dt Waiblcr was aoC observed uatil May 9. 
Om May 4 a pair of Dusky Warblers was seen 
Bear the edft of the difls beyoad Pt. FlraidB. 
their behavior ladlfathn that they were 
Biath^ there, though a brief search aasoag 
the cKtas, JIAm <Blrfr^«K«, etc. that coveted 
the gieiid iwealed aoUdaf . At the saase 
place a awle LiBBCt, singfaif under full obeer> 
vatioB lor several mfaitttes, showed do trsce 
of red ia Us phnaafe but was eaarfced with 
purs bright ycOaw. White-throated Swifu 
soared about Pt Firada, aad aa Osptcy 
patroOiBg the waters bore away a fish ia bis 
taloaa, urldle at White's Poiat • nugratinf 
Kii^(iibsr had dropped la aaMMig the Spotted 
Saadplpcrs aad Waaderiag Tattlers. 

Red-wli«sd. Trioolored, aad Ydlow. 



lihffchlwis ate abuaduit about the 
tuls>4Dcd rfo^lM. A flock of so Tricolorrd 
were o he er ved aear the head of Newport Bay 
May>7- On that date 10 Great Blue Henau. 
S White Psiicaas. a few CoraMMaats. sad 
away Leaet Te»M were seea la the iaaer bay 
atknrtide. 

The small rsviaeleecUagdpwB to the shore 
aear the ferry laadiaf at Dd Mar was occu- 
pied by Bullock's Orioles with young out of 
the aest. AriMna Hooded Orioles, Wcsteni 
Kli«bitdB, WUhm Goldfindtas. Wood Pr 
wees, several Fljrcatcherm, PUeolated War 
biers. Yellow-throats, a pair of Blue Grw^ 
beaks, aad Russet-backad Thrush la song. 
Aaaa Hunndni^bird a ret lag, aad on the dry 
upper baak a Cbeta Hunuaiagbird brooded 
her aewly hatdied young. Rufous-crowaed 
Sparrows wag f rora the dry walls, aad • 
Road-ruaacr shared their habiut. At the 
IHdat at least two pairs of Say's Phcebesaad 
seversl Bam Swallows were acetiag la the 
oaves. Homed Larks o ccu pi e d the flowery 
sands above the beach. 

On the saase dale, so White-faced Closer 
Ibb were seen at Nigger Slough. Only oar 
Northem Phalarope has been observed tbrrr 
thu Kasoo. Pbainopeplas were abuadsni 
near the cntraace of Lytle Creek Caflon 
oa June $•— FaAi«cics B. S < ■Mi i Mia , U* 




%c 



23oofe Jilt\i)si anb Ctebietui 



ImrmucnoKs mm Boo Bamdwo. By 
Fbsouucx C. Lnacotv, AmC Biologb, 
D«pC droilar 170. U. 1 DepC of Ajni- 
cvttMC April. 1891. tvo. 19 pagci, la Qb. 

TW prebkBH tbat CAB be tohred bjr bird* 
bawfiag are Maled ia thk Buiusl oa the lub- 
ject M follows: 

I. How fMt do the iadhridwb of aay ^le- 
i in tni\-el 00 their periodic migratioiis; that 
b, how wmay niki per day will eny ooe bird 
average doriaf theMloumeys and what is the 
total tine f i ia i uwl in a trip? 

I. Does aay one flock cootinue in the van 
or b the advance made by eucc— jvi flocte 
paaaiag one over the other hi altWBate periods 
of rest and flight? 

J. Do individuab of aay species always 
follow the saaae route, and is it identical for 
both ^irtag and (all flights? 

4- Do origntiag birds make the saaw stop- 
overs every ytmf to feed? 

5. How kMg do birds reaMiaia one locality 
dariag the arigratioa, the breeding, or the 
wiaterseoaoas? 

6. Ulut u the rrbtioa beCweea the breed- 
ing and the wintering grouads of iadividuab; 
that is, do those birds that breed farthest 
north winter farthest sooth, thus jua^iiag 
o««r those that oocapy the iaterassdiate Mae, 
or do they mswiy replace the btter iaiBvid- 
daab as wialcr raddeats? 

7- Do hfads adopt the turn aaatiac area, 
acst-^ne, aad wiatcr <|aartcrs dariag sacoes- 

8. For how wamny broods will ooe pair 
roaaia aMtad. aad which bird, if aot both, b 
attracted ant year to the old BCrtiag site? 

9 To what eslau do aMha «f a spacfca 
awitt in iaciAatioa aad braodtag? 

10. How far froa tlMir aals do bMs 
forage for food, and after the young have kft 
the aasl. will the parent birds briag theai to 
the feadfaig aad trapfdag statioa? 

I I. To what riiioa do the birds go. par- 
ticularly the youag, that do aot ratun to the 
vidaity of their orlghMl BSM? 

It. How long do hinb live? 
Birds iHy be baadad beforu they caa fly 
or they may be trapped, baadad. aad re- 



The aaakiag of the trap and all the 
delaib of bo a d Jn g, reoordiag. etc.. are fully 
deacrihfid in thb puhUcatioa, a copy of which 
should be ia the heads of every oae who pio- 
poaaa to beoone a hird-baader. It any be 
procured froes the Superialeadcat of Docu- 
■soats ia the GoveraaMat Priatiag Oflke at 
Washiagtoa at the nominal price of five 
ceata.— F. M. C. 

Btao Stoeiks. By Eom M. Parca. With 
Illustrations by RoauT J. Sni. Atlantic 
Monthly Press, Boston, is mo. 211 pages; 
29 line-cuts. 

Thb U a book lor youag people and iu 
geaeral character b well iadicatad by its 
title. Life histories of the Chirkadee. Her- 
ring Gull, Spotted S aadpi per , Loon, and 
eight other birds are preaeated ia a aumaer 
well d es ig ne d to iaterest the audieace the 
author addresses. A bibliography gives the 
sources of iaformation on which the book U 
baaed (a plan which might be adapted with 
credit by what we may term tranamutiag 
writers) and abo enablea the reader to ponae 
the sub jr> Special BMatioa ahouM 

be nude • . s pea-aad-iak drawiags 

which cdttbtt a highly devebped tedudqur, 
are artistic aad accurate.— F. If. C. 

The Ornithological Magasioce 

Tn AtTK.— Three articles in the Apri 
number are devoted to bird-baadfaig. Twoof 
thea^ by S. P. Bakhrin, cover s uui ew ha t the 
sanw ground as a paper by the aaa 
ia the 'Abstract of Proceediagi'. 
Sodcly of New York for 1919. hut with addi- 
tfcmal data, those coBoamiag the House Wm 
aad its habit of chaagiag «alca hdag worked 
oat In dolaO. TiMoe papers show what re- 
sults B»y be esp ac lad frooa qrsteoMUk tiap- 
piag aad bamfag of birds, aad will repay 
caieful raadii« lor failefaotbg habit detalb 
prohaMy obtahaWe la no other waaasr. 
The tkM article, by P. C Uacoki. ghrao aa 
atebahit riaanl of the hblory and purpoaos 
of Mrd-bandtag. 

A awntwraphk account of the I Hckriml 



(nil 



flifl 



Bird • Lore 



in iniDoh. bjr GfOM. md ^■ cri p HM i of tlw 
oeMiag of the PhOndriphfe Vireo, bjr Lcwit, 
Afc coadtttM ftooilJM JoMMry oooibcr. la 
tiM lotMr. choploft oa food Mid life kiMory 
■I* McoaiMaM bjr wvonl pbtoi Uhamtiac 
vcfy caH|iltlol)r fai pbologiaplH uo pwu 
of the young ud dbo phflMiM ud phaMfe 
rhoi^w of growB iiidivldwb (fram dtlM). 
Mr. Lewb toot lato daoiptiMi of tlw voice 
of the PhilMMphk Viieo ia gnat druil. aad 
bb namrlu oa that mbiect viU be of value 
for refercace. He teds a» rcgudt the jrouag 
befa« fed "that the foediiWi ciUbit a BMrkod 
periodicity, a* though the yowg were givca 
regular mcab. with latorvali of ooa^Miathre 
real,*' aad that thia b pfohabfy aoC chaace 
but iateatioaal oa the part of the pamt 
Unh. We have here aa iaiercatiag thcoK 
for iavcetjgatioa aad ditcuMJoa bearing on 
the life of aertliag Urda ia geaeraL 

In 'Ncstii« Habiti of the Nigblhawit at 
Tacoom. Waah.,' J. H. Boorlea prawaU the 
histocy of a brood of Nighthawfc* raited oa 
the gra\>el roof of aa apartawat houw. The 
locatioa affocded uouraal o ppor tua itiea for 
obecrvation, which were well utiliaed, aad the 
acoouat b of great iatereM. Ia lUBwaing up 
the charactcn of the preoodal yonag he laya 
(p. si6): "Their actioaa aad geaetal reaem- 
blaace, uatB theb priaauica bcgaa to 
lengthen, were ao atroagly auggaadvc of aa 
ahaoraMlly «aait yooag grouae that we must 
woadcr what awaaer of birds their reoaote 
aaccstoia oouU have beaL** lathbooaaec- 
tioa. )rouag occur ia various uardatod groupa 
of aaiaads which difkr aot oaly frooi the 
adidu but from aay probable aacaators, and 
ia the r ev fc w or*s opteloa the youag Night- 
hawk b a case of the aoit, ita peculiaritiea 
beiag due purely to the grauadHMStiag habna 
of lis parmta, aad giviag ao iadicatioa of 
phylogoiy. W. H. Bcrgtold. in 'The Ei«lbh 
Sparrow aad the Motor Vchkle' fiads that 
there baa beea a diicrwae of thb bird ia 
Deavcr, roiacidaat with a decreaae ia the 
hoTK popubtioa aad aaMuat of atraet sweep* 
iag^ aad corrdatad with the iatroductioa, 
aad aadtiplied uam of the awlor vchide. 
Obcrhober lista piupuatd dan^iea in the 
A.O.U.dMcfc-lbt. 

Aside f ram varioui ilenw of a faimal oarurr 



ia Gmml Nom. 'A Lbt of the Birdi of 
Royal Paha Haauaock. Florida* b a faaaal 
paper by A. 11. HowcU. Thb haauaock, 
ceataiaiag about 400 acrea, laiguy covered 
with a daaae tropical Jungb. together with a 
c oa ai d wah l e tract of the surrouadiag Ever- 
giada, has boea set aafak reooatly as a raaer- 
vatka." fm/Bbky it will provUe a penna- 
aeat refuge to socb birds as the UmpUa aad 
Ivory-bilM Woodpecker, both of which 
^lecks arc Usted as oocurrinr iKrrp iK<>u)th 
rare. 

Aflooag iataraatlag item« 
eye ia General Nolea, A. \v 
tioaa capturing a nundMr of > 
fishiiW with Itv-c bait ia the «.> 
Diego Bay. In every case the bait was taken 
near the bottom. "From the (act that ihr 
book was often well down in the throal" be 
thinks "that fish are often swallowed without 
coming to the surface." A. T. Wayne rebtes 
seeii« a Loggerhead Shrike attack aad kill a 
Phodie, a bird whfch one wouU suppose too 
laige for iL By study of dHwiini m ia the 
Boogs of birds of the saaw ipedaa. A. A. Saua- 
ders fiads that individuab often sing for a 
part only of the soog period of the species, 
which would lead to uademtimatcs of num- 
bers when baaed oa sia^ag BMbs at a givea 
thae.— J. T. N. 

WtiaoN Btjurmi.— The March. 1921. 
iaaue contains a short article on the brer*? 
ing of the Bairhman's Sparrow in Tm 
neaaee, by Albert F. Ganier. whose name 
U unfortunately misspdled. Mr. W. J. 
F^richsen continues hb notes on the breed 
ing water-birds of Chatham County, Ga.. 
and we are impressed chiefly by their 
scarcity. The main artide of the {»«ue. 
however, is the first installment of a 
study of 'Comparative Periods of Nestltnit 
Life of Some North American Nidicolc' 
by Frank L. Bums. Mr. Bums shows with 
considerable success that the division hr- 
tweea altridal aad prscocial birds it hy 
ao miani aa hard aad fast as the definition* 
of those tera» would lead one to supposr. 
and in support of his tbesu adduces many 
little-known facU in the lifehbtorics of the 
nrrtHngs of various faaBies of North 



d 



Book News and Revtovt 



»"3 



Viaerkaabinb. Aa accouiit of the annual 
tr«tiiit» the membenhip roll, and the 
>iial niitr« and revi»w« Conclude the 



Thr ' he fifth \'olunie of the 

Amfth^n hitd-Uaui* JamnsI, published by 

I Warrrn Jacoba, at Waynedwig, Pa., coo- 

kioa nuch infonnation in rcgaid to acMing- 

•mr«. SiMrrow-tmi^ ami food-ihdten. 



From the Munmcr nuaabcr id Bki Ntlts 
•mi Hnu, the quarterly Journal ol the Royal 
Sodety for the Protectkn of Birds, we learn 
that the bin prahibitiac the imporutioo of 
plumace into Great Britain (certain ^lecics 
exoepCcd) having pawed the Houie of Cooi- 
moAs, waa read for a second tine in the 
HouM of Lords on Jiaa it. We trust that 
before thcM Unea an published this su- 
prendy ioaportaat nwaiure will have beoone 
aUw. 



\rthur H \ 

Tt.v \.y:. 



nl». 



Alirrd O. Gr 

iQii (No. I. VoL i). 

article on PctreU by 

luo > .>• ■"u» shore notes on other 



la the SciaOific UomMy for May, 1921, 

>{>. 4S7-480) Dr. R. \V. Shufeldt brings 

•aether much information in regard to illus- 

ations of the Passenger Pigeon and repro- 

joes fifteen of them. Two photographs of 

uing birds in Forbush's 'History of Game- 

irds' are considered to posscM acepcional 

iltir, a«. wf far as the author's Itnowledge 

■ he only pictures of the kind 

lufeldt has, however, ovcr- 

■ikert the unique series of nine superb photo- 

>>v ». I c Hubbard of Profosor Whit- 

; appeared in Biao-Loac for 
^iar«n \jirii. 1913 

/*/ Mufff..'. Vol II. No j) OfBdal 

!i 1 rt . • r . I'atihr North*»«t Bird and 

! trr • . I ' ' Seattle. Wash.), contains an 

- ' on 'Breeding f>atc» for 

^' by J. H. Bowles. 'Shore 

A catport. Wash., by I). E. 

Columbia Bird Notes.' by 

I i other sbortaroommuBioa- 



Ira N. Gabrielsoo has published, in the 
Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 
(Vol. XXV, 1919, pp. lis-iiy, VoL XXVI, 
pp. 47-7s; Davenport, Iowa), a well-anno- 
Uted list of The Birds Found at Marshall 
County, Iowa.' The list is based on obser- 
vations made between Sept. i, 191a. and 
Sept. 7. 1915. and includes aoi qwdes, all 
but two of which were personally recorded 
by the author. 

In the May. 1930, issue of School, ScUiu* 
ami Mathtmatics, Horace Gunthorp. of 
Washburn College. Topeka, Kans., gives 
some interesting daU in regard to bird-study 
in the educational institutions of the Missis- 
sippi Valley. It appears that out of a total 
of about one hundred and forty colleges and 
universities having over one hundred stu- 
dents, thirty- four (of which a list is given) 
offer counes in ornithology. Mr. Gunthorp 
makes some admirable »ngp»tioBS in regard 
to the desirability of having thooa in chaige 
of theM oounea beoooM menbers of aa 
omithologkal society. 

Cbauncey j. Hawkins' paper on 'Sexual 
Sdectkm and Bird Song' which originally 
appeand bi Tkt Amk (Vol. XXXV. 1018) 
haa baaa honored by republication in thr 
Report of the SmithKmiaB lastitutkM for 
iQtS (pp. 4At-473)- 



Bird- Loft 



2^irb=lLore 

A 1 MwHlity Ml— fiw 




■ 0* n* Ai 
bv r«ANK M. CHAPMAN 
I4IIW. MABSLOtOOOO W RIQ HT 
D. APTLSTON •» CO. 



VotXXIU 



A«>M«l.lia No. 4 




fo llf Bmk h IMMft 7b» te H* MbW 



TkB Joha BvnMgIs McnorU AMock- 
Uoa ha* iMoed aa apP^*! ^ aatiibtttkatt 
taward a foDd o( l40/>oo with whidi to ac- 
quiM pnaiiwiwi of Rivcrby. SUbridra, and 
Woodckuck Lodfe. The fee for active man- 
bcnUp in thit AModatioa ia $5. Soivly no 
frioMl of John Bumogha ihonld have to be 
■akcd twice for this amount. It nay be tent 
to the AModation. care of the American 
Acadeny of Aru and Lettcia, is WcM Sitt 
Street, New Yorii Qty. 

It n aAiD that one of the worst enemies of 
the raicr breading British birds is the cn* 
colhctor wtio, in tlie name of *Sdence.' spares 
no «0ort to add to his cabinet British-faiid 
ii0» of birds which may be on the vcffe of 
oitinctioo in Great Britain tlwach fumm o n 
WMWuh dwwlMre. jne last report of tJie 
Royal Sodety for the Protection of Birds 
reconls the difficulty paid 'watcher^,' or, as 
we call thea^ wardens, have in guardii^ nests 
of the lew oaamwn birds and of ooOectora' 
attempts to bribe these watcheis, and the 
Secretary of the Society writes addnf OB how 
we caenbat this evil in America. W« ansirrr 
that it docs not aist It is true that we ttill 
have some ooOectort of a0a> bat the day 
whca bird-aeattag was a characteristic phaafc 
of oraithokgy in this oooatry has long since 
pawfid, Speaking from menmry we cannot 
recall, since the lime of Bcndire, the presenu- 
tioa of a purely ofllogical papor or cdiflrftioB of 
onsbMoretheaaaaaloaagremofthtAaBorlcaB 
O m l thn l n g isia ' Uaioa, aor, to be more local. 



do we believe there is a single cgg-eoOoctor 
among the repreMntative group of yorn^ bird 
studMts who ooa^NM the active oMOiberBhip 
of the liaa— n Society of New Yotfc. 

Doabtkm itfiaieat laws pmhiWting egg 
ooUactiatt ooept uadcr the tanaa of a permit 
imaed oa|y to <)UBUfled peiioaa of eighteen 
years or Bwre, has had anch to do with thr 
Buppi ee siu a of bird wHin. but we believr 
that the campaigp of edttcatka coadactad b> 
the Aoduboa, aad other Sodetka, aaturr 
study in the schools, aad the ow of thr 
camera in r poor di n g ncstiag habits ha> 
arooaed so great an interest in the living bird, 
and particuMy in the life of the aeat, that 
the mere gathering of empty eggriMOs seems a 
\-rry trivial thing to the modem bird student. 

BuD-LoaB b often hoaored by request* 
for prtmissinn to republish artidea aad iOus- 
tratioas, particularly the latter, whidi bavr 
appea r ed in its pages. So far as this maga 
sine to concerned, such permission to invari- 
ably granted, for the chief object of our 
eidatcaoeb the dimcmiBatioa of information 
mnmwing binh, and we have an abiding 
belief that tUa end can be served, aad wdl 
served, by increaaiag the nuaaber of our 
readers. Bn»-LoaK, however, to not thr 
only party to be considered in thto connec- 
tion. It is, indeed, the least important mem- 
ber of the group oompo a ed of author, photog- 
rapher, and publisher. The firrtniamed 
gives, the aeoond seOs us the ri^t to publish 
certain artidea or photographa, and after 
such publication all further righu in these 
articles or photographa revert to the person 
or permos from whom we obtained them. In 
afanoat every inatanrr these persons, no 
doobt, wodd be witling to extend to other 
f j«»t— « the same privileges they have 
gnuited BitD-LoKK, but it to obvioua that 
this right must be obtained from them and 
that we are no more authoriaed to give it 
after than before publioatiaa in our pages. 

May we therefore sanest that herealtrr 
those who desire to.use Bisi>-LoKB material, 
write direct to the author rather than to 
If the author^ addrem to not given, 
muaicatioas amy be addresaed to him in ou 
care at the Harrisburg offce. 



Ci)c Hububon Societies! 

SCHCXDL DEPARTMENT 



ky A. A. AULBM. *%.!>. 

nbdv* to tk» wotk •! tUi 
4tputaMM to Ike EMtm, CwmI Uahranity. IUm*. N. Y. 

THE GEOGRAPHY OF BIRDS 

In the days when the Editor of this department of Bird-Lose went to 

>gTaphy wms a very impersonal, abstract subject. It consisted of 

....ng the names of the foreign countries and the states of the Union, 

the largest cities, the largest rivers, the mountain chains, and as many 

nrelated facts about each as the teacher herself could master or read from 

book. Today all is changed. Our educational schemes call for but little 

: this pure memorixation. Foreign countries are studied as made up of 

ving people whose work and play can be compared with ours. Reasons 

r the locations of cities, and effects of rivers and mountains upon the 

iimate and industries are learned that make geography a much more 

personal, concrete study. Whenever possible the facts of geography are 

linked up with the stories of hbtory or current events which tend to make 

it a living vital subject, and it retains its important place in the curricula 

f our schools. 

The field of bird-study is seldom called upon to enliven other subjects. 

1 1 is used more often to freshen the general routine, to furnish a necessary 

. and, of course, above all, to give to the child that knowledge of 

....- ^...ch will be a constant resource to him. There are certain features 

I the migration and distribution of birds, however, that can well be 

' d in the geography lessons which will at the same time make for a 

wviur understanding of bird life. Birds are our greatest travelers, and 

what ttetter way is there of learning geography than from those who have 

d the lands which we would study? The journeys of our 

;in birds are fairly well known today, and most authoritative 

(T Chapman's 'Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America,' 

iiailey's 'Birds of the Western United Sutet,' five the summer 

Wilier ranges of all birds. With one of these books before him, the 

cr can plot fairly accurately on a map of the two continents the 

ummer and winter ranges of any bird in which the children have b ecom e 

' -'-sted. Better still, the children can be su|^>lied with outline maps of 

ri ud South AflBCTica and caa block in with colon the raafv and 

lidicatc the probable route ol the bird's mifration, the details d q ) tDdin t 

apoa the grade in which the work it done. When the oat aaap 

coBplated it would be well to coaspare the ranges of otlMr 

(•If) 



ai6 Bird - Lore 

with it, tckcting such as will give the greatest diversity, for it will be 
recalled the summer and winter ranges of some birds are identical, others 
overlap, while still others are many thousands of miles apart. 

The geography lesson should not be complete when the ranges have 
been located on the map, but an endeavor should be made to bring out 
what the particular bird saw on its journeys in the lands which it traversed. 
If it were written up in story form it could be used as a language lesson as 
well, and certainly it would make a splendid re\iew of geography. Let the 
bird tell where it has been and what it has seen, or let several birds discuss 
their travels. I hope that some of the best children's stories will be sent to 
the School Department of Bied-Loke and, if space permiu, the best one 
will be printed. 

For the benefit of those who like to have something definite for the 
children to work from, the Editor offers the following little story of a 
Yellow Warbler as one type that may be followed, though it might be even 
more satisfactory to have several birds discuss their winter wanderings. 

THE YELLOW WARBLER'S TALE 

"Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweeter, sweetest" he seems to say to me as he 
lands on the topmost bough of my (tear tree and throws back his head in 
song. It is my old friend the Summer Yellowbird back from his long 
winter's absence and ready to take up his abode with me another year. 

"What is so sweet, my good fellow?" I feel like asking him, and "How 
can you be so fresh and happy after your long trip? Tell me where you 
have been and what you have seen since we last met. I am just as inter- 
ested in you and your journeys as I am in any of my other friend* who 
travel." 

"Oh, the whole world is sweet" he replies. i >*> -^li in'-i "i 

all this place I call home, and particularly that syr ii where my 

mate and I have built our nest the past two years. Oh, but it's a big world 
and a bad world, but I love it just the same. I don't suppose I have seen 
it all, but I know I have seen a great deal and I have flown over a great 
deal more of it without seeing it, for you know I make my longest flighu 
after dark. Where have I been since last we met? Let's see, that was last 
August, wasn't it? The one youngster we managed to raise from those 
four eggs in the syringa bush had left us for exploring expeditions of his 
own. I don't suppose I will ever see him again or recognize him if I do, 
though maybe he will be coming along here in a couple of weeks and I will 
have to drive him away like any other intruder. You know the youngsters 
always come north later than we old birds, and then if anything hap|>ens 
to at oo the way they can step into the i^acea that we have already dis- 
c of w c d to be satisfactory for our kind of needs and the good places in the 



The Audubon Socieriat 717 

world will still have their Yellow Warblers. H nothing has happened to us 
we just drive ihem on as fast as they come and make them 6nd suitable 
places for theoMelves. You know it takes a great many insects to feed a 
family, and I don't want any other Yellow Warblers close by, catching my 
kind of insects. Other birds take somewhat different bugs and I don't mind 
them so much. Then, too, you know I always like things my own way in 
my family and like to have Mrs. Yellow satisfied with my songs without 
hcarint; any others just like them. 

but I am digressing too far from the question you asked. Where have 
I been? Well, I will tell you. I spent the winter near Popayan; do you 
know where that is? Get out your geography and look up the country 
1 ailed Columbia in the northwestern comer of South America. Do you 
iiihI a river called the Cauca River that flows into the Magdalena from 
the west? Together they flow due north into the Caribbean Sea. Weil, 
follow up the Cauca River until you come nearly to the boundary of 
Ecuador, within three degree of the Equator, and there you will find 
Popayan. Hot? Well not as hot as you would think considering that it is 
so near the Equator, for it is about 6,000 feet above the sea and each 1,000 
feet means about three degrees less temperature. In fact, I suffered more 
frt>m the cold than from the heat. On the whole, its climate wasn't so very 
ditlerent from what you have right here in New York State in summer, 
except that the nights were colder. Do you know, PopaN'an is one of the 
few places in the Tropics where I have seen any glass used in the windows. 
I suppose it keeps the houses warmer at night. The one-stor>' houses are 
made mostly of mud, whitewashed within and without, and the roofs are 
of red tile. 

"What do the people do around Popayan? Well, you must know that 
in spite of the fact that they are industrious, there are no large industries 
for there are no railroads or canals or navigable rivers leading to it, and all 
transportation has to be done by horses, mules, or oxen. It seems curious 
to ^cr the long lines of pack animals winding down the trails, each with 
his load of coffee or cacao or hides. You see it doesn't pay to ship many 
things iv.' - ' - part of Colombia for it takes ten days to get to the nearest 
port of i iitura. Can you find that on your map? But cattle and 

coffee and cacao, from which chocolate is made, can be raised with little 
cxpr - -> 'rrtile Cauca Valley and on the mountain sides so that they 

are ags that are raised on a large scale. So the mountain sides 

and the rolling foothills about Popayan are divided into small farms and 
you would smile to see the crude way in which the grouAd is culti\'ated. 
Heavy steel plows have not yet been brought in and moat <tf the Indian 
farmers still plow with the old-fashioned wooden plows drawn by oxen. 
The moat interesting thing I taw the people doing wna wcnving Pumubm 
hata. They didn't ctU them PtoMM hats thwe, of ooviM, tad tbey didn't 



ai8 Bird • Lore 

charge such outlandUh prices for them. They tre a very different people 
there from \ ' rre and they talk a different language but lti< rry 

honest and . agious and never lose an opportunity to • 'a 

"ficsU" or feast day. 

"But Popayan is only one of a multitude of places that 1 ha 
its people but one of many. I stayed there for only about thr- 
behaving much as I do here, though I seldom sang and, of course, did not 
build a nest or even see Mrs. Yellow the whole time. I really don't know 
just where she did spend her winter though 1 am expecting her back here in 
a few days and then we can ask her. I always like to go back to the same 
place and I suppose she does too, though if you ahotild ask me why, I 
couldn't tell you. 

"Well, I left Popayan on a clear night when something within me told 
me I had belter start. I really don't know just what it is but I always feel 
it every year at just the same time. Then, too, I heard lots of other birds 
starting and I just felt I had to go too. There weren't a great many of us 
right around Popayan that belonged up here, but there were quite a number 
of Black-and- White Warblers, Blackbumians, and Redstarts as well as we 
Yellows and you know we all get here at just about the same time each 
spring. 

"Well 1 didn't fly very far that night, only about a hundred miles and 
I stopped near a place called Call. The weather was warmer there as it is 
only about 3,000 feet above sea-level. Here were large rice-fields and fields 
of sugar-cane. Bananas and oranges were much better than at the higher 
idtitude and also the cacao, but the coffee was not as good. Large areas 
were still given over to cattle. I stayed around Cali for about a week before 
I felt like moving again and then the instinct started me off once more. I 
had to cross some rather high mountains this time, for the Cauca River 
that I was following; flows through a deep cafton after it leaves Cartago, 
so I mounted high in the air and by morning had crossed the divide into 
the land drained by the Atrato River. This was low cotintry and heavily 
forested. The Cauca valley had but few forests, except at the higher 
altitudes, but now I was in the real tropica forest and was not happy until 
I had found a clearing made for a banana plantation. I remained about 
this region for some time, meeting old friends who had wintered as far east 
as Guiana and others who had flown still farther south than Popayan and 
who had spent the winter on the slopes of Mt. Chimborazo. I wonder if 
you know where those places are? 

"Well, the tihie came when I felt that I must hasten on to my old home 
in the S3rringa bush. Some of my friends from Venezuela and Guiana said 
they always took a short cut straight across the Caribbean Sea to Jamaica 
and Cuba and thence to Florida, but I had always crossed over the Gtalf of 
Mdko from Yucatan to Alabama, and I knew the good feeding-'^* aces in 



I 



d 



The Audabon Socieries 214 

tnama, Nicaragua, and Honduras and I didn't know anything about 

Jamaica and Cuba. You know most of the things wc birds do is from force 

of * ' ' id it's a lot easier for us to do anything the way we have done it 

b( t it it is for us to try a brand-new way. That's the reason you 

' umans have ad\imced so much farther than we have and the reason why 

< so much lietter off than others. A person who is a slave to 

r gels very far. 

"1 should like to tell you all about my trip through Central America 

and what I saw of the Panama Canal, about my l< ' '\\ across the Gulf 

of Mexico when I almost got drowned when u\i i>y a storm, and 

the things I saw in the Southern States as I worked my way north keeping 

• if spring and trying not to get ahead of the opening 

that go with it until I arrived home again once 

>re. but it b too long a stor>' to be told at one time." 

FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 
CROWS BATHING 

In the November- December number of Bird-Lore Ernest Thompson 
makes the statement that he has never seen a Crow take a cold- 
)«ath. 

I thought perhaps some of the readers of Bird-Lore might l>e interested 
in hearing about a pair of pet Crows we had last summer at Lake Itasca, 
in Itasca State Park. 

They were taken from the nest about a week before they could fly. .\*t 
ttr- ''-m in a cage at night, and put them on a perch hung between 

tw near the lake in the daytime. They would slay there all 

V, and we fed them with a spoon which they did not seem to mind. We 
;;.) hard-boiled egga, minnows, bread, fruit, and other things, and 

M hose Crows did eat. Later, after they were old enough to hunt 

iifthoppen and other food for themselves, we gave them mice, and it 
>».! 'It to see them strutting around with a mouse partly 

svk tail and part of the body hanging from the bill. 

When the Crows could fly we turned them loose, but as they did not go 
aw '>ut for them. Before i' 

t»» vater we had put out ! 

they grew older it frequently happened that one Crow would splash so much 
wa 'f the |)an thai il would have to be refiU' ' ' * • other Crow 

c*' I his l>ath. We tilled the pan many ti They were 

vays given cold water, and the hotter the day the oftener they bathed. 
1 have •trrt: ' >ak up so much water that when they started to fly the 

water won! rom winirs an<l InhU Rrforr thrv Mitild flv we often 



2H> Bird • Lore 

took them down to the lake shore and let them bathe in the lake. Lairr 
they flew down of their own accord, but they never »lightcfi the pan ot 
water and Mcmed to enjoy it as much as the lake. Wr could hear th< n 
^slashing in the pan of water soon after daylight, and often late in thr 

i.g. 

ir two Crows stayed around our cabin until long after we left the lakr 
in September, and we are wondering if they will be there to greet us when 
we go to the lake next June.— Maigaret E. Wentunc (age 13 years). 
St. Pami, Mimm. 

(ObMnralioas m prt binb that have (heir Itbrrty often yield moM inlererting and valiiabl< 
rrsulu and thed ligbl on the actiow at thdr wild brotbcn that olten can be obscfved ob1> 
intcmittcntly and with great diflkulty. A pet Crow b alway* an education to aayoae wh< 
cam for kin but one murt be it&iy to give him coatiderablc attention. The Editor'* ftr' 
Crow» have likewiac always been fond of bathing. — A. A. .\.) 

A BLUEBIRD'S NEST IN A MAIL BOX 

Last spring (1920), on May 17, a male and female Bluebird were seen 
looking into the matl-boi on the front porch. They flew around the porch 
several times, then Mrs. Bluebird lit on the water-spoul near ' 
while Mr. Bluebird flew over to the mail-box and looked in. > ' 

remained on the water-spout, apparently unconcerned. After the t 
bird had dodged in and out of the mail-box several tin 
to have a look for herself, and she fluttered down. .M : i 

to the porch rail and sat there twittering and flapping his wings in great 
*t. Mrs. Bluebird peeped into the box and seeming to think it 
popped in the rest of the way. 

The next day (the 18th) they sUrted their nest, flying in and out of th< 
mail-box all day with bits of gns&, small twigs, anf) 
for the nest of a Bluebird. In two or three davs the 
the interior of their home. 

Father feared that the bird* would not slay il everyone entered by wa\ 
of the front porch, so he put saw-horses across the stepa. Nolx)dy was t< 
go onto the porch except the mailman who left the mail in the front hail 

On May 75lh. at 7.45. father called my brother and me out on the ff ' 
porch. We peeped into the mail-box and there lay a little blue egg. Fa. • 
gently picked it out in his hand to show to us. The next morning at th< 
same time we looked and there were two eggs; the third m<> 
and the fourth morning, four. On the fifth day in the morn ^ 
looked into the box there were not five eggs but four. At 4^5 p.m. father 
looked again and there were five little blue eggs. The fifth egg was the last 

After the eggs had been laid father took the saw-horses away from th< 
front door and pc<^>le entered it as freely as they wished. During thi 



d 



The Audubon Societies 

c tbr house was iMiinted. Although the birds flew away occasionally 

< n greatly annoyed, they did not desert their eggs. 

On June nth, in the afternoon, four little birds were hatched, and 
although ihey were very ugly no one could help loving fhem. Stion after- 

:d the fifth was hatched. 

V -'• t month later the five little birds leameu i«> n^ , and it was very 
tni< .0 watch them. .\s soon as they were able, they flew away, and 

certainly did miss their merr>' little twittering out on the front porch. 

II... — iiman on our route said that a pair of Bluebirds had built in 

-e's mail-box, but these people had gradually moved their mail- 

\ away from the front door so as iM)t to disturb the birds by using the 

• • nrch. 

thing that interested us was that our Bluebirds had successfully 

cd their young on our porch without anyone having moved their home. 

^!•^(.\Rr.T G. Coix. (age 13 years). Madison, Wis. 

! ^ March 12th (ig^i). The Bluebirds returned today and were 

king into the mail-box. 

Let Oft hope tlMit Marsarrt't BttMbiids aated in the box acua thb year and that they 
m (or nany yean. Perhapa her bthcr will put band* on thru k«t ao that wr will know 
' it the tame birds that return each year. — A. A. A.] 




rHI VOVNG 

\G rooD 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 



mm «ll fW M i 



i4mc>. uti 



'hmitlmtkim tt AmSXm imdmim^^* •nSUjr. Ntw YaT'cby. 



rntmnte A. L«CMi.5«Mii fto-f m^w * JoM«rmui Dwmst. fMMaMr 

tunm T. Cunu. J«.. /litorMy 

Aar pMM*. cl«b. tckoal ar csapaajr ia •jrapatkjr wiik Uw B h i»c tt •! tliii AwriiUBB aajr b«co»« 
• ■ ■ ■ >« •! It. •Ml ktt •!« avicMM. 

ClMMt flf Maifcawyt ta UmNuImmU Axocfattoa ol AadaUa %md0im far tka riMwdM •( » 04 
•MiM^ AataHW 

Mdlf payafaralM 
paM at •••«■• MM 
> aa^MlMlMa mmh 

I MMPIMM a aSfSM 

Peaa or Bioonr>— I 4a lM«l>rj|iM aad fcaaawtli to tht NaUoa«l Aiachdra af Aa4abaa 
far UirFialaillM al Wld ■Ii4i wA Aahaak aaaatpafiird). alUw Cliy al W— Tait. 




ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE JUNIOR AUDUBON SOCIETIP:S 



The devtBth fmaX year o( the Amocu- 
tioo'ft Junior offaniation effort came to an 
end June i, 1921. The candiUant under 
trhicfa we ha\'e worked have been tryinc be- 
cauK of the enonn ouriy increased coata in 
auMMKtioB with printing the supplies f ur- 
nisiicd to Junior Mcorfien. In (act, it was 
impoMJble arith tlie funds at our diapoaal to 
publish enough material for all those who 
wished to join. Sm the children pay fees of 
only 10 cents, and as the nuUerial furnished 
them costs about tarice thb much to manu- 
facture and ddiwr. it can readil>' be seen 
there b a limit to the number that can be 
supplied. The toul oontribQtions the past 
year amounted to ta6.188.45, of which $10.- 
000 was oontribttted by the unnamed Bene- 
factor «rho for ten yean past has made thb 
important phase of the work possible. With 
these funds the .\ssociatian was enabled the 
past year to organiae 5JS51 Bird Chdia with 
an enmBment of 2)9.787 boys ud girls. 

These Junior Clubs or 'daaaes' were oigan- 
ised in all the sutesof the Union and in many 
of the I'ro^-inccs of Canada. Teachers head- 
ing the groigis not only sou^t to arouse 
iatcrcM in bird-study on the part of their 
pupils, thfough thr litcrsture furnished, but 
dtrscted them in many acti>-ities of a co- 
ordinate natufT. Thus, through the stales 



where colder lempentture ptv\ 
birds were fed during snows, s 
pbced on boards, on the ground after th« 
snow had been removed, and fragment* o( 
suet were tied to stakes or limbs of irer*. In 
the hue winter and spring many thousands of 
bird-boaca were built and erected to prmide 
homes for hole nesting species. Throui^bout 
the year hundreds of little entertainments, 
all dealing with the subject of bird-life, were 
given in schoolrooms throughout the land, 
where recitations and plays were gi\-ra and 

of young voices — -' •-! 

\ about their bird friend* 
.Anyone intimately in touch m 11 1 
and familiar with the enthusiastt* 
which the subject b given by scboi 
women, as well as by the boys anci . 
not hdp but regret that funds are not a\ ..u 
able so that the Junior effort can be \a-\\\ 
broadened and strengthened. With »ut)i 
dent funds, one ndBian chiMrrn ir--^* - 
ily be ofganiaed every >Tar into - 
study groups. Fortun 
recent fall in the co*- '*• 

slightly increased incoi 
Association expects to )- 
die a larger number of Junior Memben the 
coming year than during any like period 
iU histor>-. In fact, before these lines 



(tti) 



The Audubon Societies 



»»3 



Ktm, SB order had bcca pbccd for jao,ooo 

''olbifd-oi "ic» for diOdrcB. 

ihtfinc th< >.tataA office of the 

MtcktioB has had the moM beaity Mpport 

many ol the aflUiatcd •odetiet and di^ 

tlumisbout the couBtry, cqxdally has thb 

I — „ t.,.-«.ir iK^ State AttdubonSorieticaof 

« jmey. and Orrfton. The 

ng ixuno mm Club contributed ao geaer- 

N}y that it waapoHible to keep Mrk Mary S. 

XT in the field lecturiag on Long bland 

riMighuut the year. She vfaited over one 

ndicd cooununitics and gave ao6 talks and 

•I Injure*, 57 of which were Uhtratod 

rcopticoo slides. In tUs Banner she 

u.-i^ jo,ooo school-chiM"^ *^4-«ides 

jay adidt gatherinfi. 

since the Jimiar work was nrgun, rlrvcn 
ars ago, these ddldien's dubs, to the num- 
ber of 66.709, have been formed and the total 
paid menbeis nvmber 1,676,743. 
The following statement shows the distri- 
itioB of the Juniur nub* ortpaniapd the past 
Soolyvar. 

Annual Summary of Junior Audubon 

Classes sod Members Under the Cbil- 

dreo's Educatioosl Fund 





SiMuaonr 


Ba41iw 


llUMl.NII 




tain 






CISMW 


Mtsibcn 


ittuniu 




1 3 


SS9 



•ItUmua 



14. 



73« 



Florida 

Geofgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa. . 

Kansas 

Kentuck> 

Louiaian.i 

Maine 

Maryland 

Ma>sachmrtt> 

Michigan. 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi. 

Missouri... 

Montana 

Nebraska. . 

Nevada 

New Hampshire. 
New Jersey. .* .. . 
New Mexico 
New York 
North Carolina . 
North I>akoU. . . 

Ohio 

Oklaho ma. 

Oregon ... 

Penns)rlvania 

Rhode Islancl 

Stiuth t'an>lin.i 

South Dakftt.i 

Tennea»*f 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

\1fginia. . . 

WiiMMtWi 

WcatVlqcinia 

Ulsconsin 

Wyoming 

Canada . . 

British Guiana 

Japan 

Toul* 



176 

10 

I. Si 

I .' \ 

44 



4-' 

4«}: 

14'' 



,S 

40 

-4? 

4 

M< 

II 

M 

I) 



lb 



41 
1 14 



; ;S 



Mnaksfs 



I < 4;: 
''.;oo 
4.10ft 

>.54i 
I.OJJ 

«-«7« 

i».J3« 

5. 840 

H.I 83 

164 

4.081 

I.I!5 

- '^j: 

i'i 

1.404 

io.(>«g 

i8i 

iiO 

i.}88 

JJ.56a 

377 
3.635 

■sxit 

65a 

S08 
i.t&l 

S18 
1.697 

99a 
1.05 a 
1.838 
SsJOa 
isj84 
f>.«39 

a74 

««.$7i 

a6 

so 



^ *Ki »9.787 



JUNIOR SOCIETIES AND THE PRESS 



\n cver-lBCfMsing nomhcr of 
■naMDdatory to the Jtmlor AndnbaB work 
■r appeariag in the dally Bcw^tapers. It 
'•uld Mrm thrrr i« hanily aay important 

^-,. ..,.•. ,„ ihr .wuntry where the local 
not KjmI M>mrthing to say about 

uiuiHin societies formed aaong the cibil> 
'vn. Three dtpphip pkkad up at iBadom 
'MB among the ht rn d w ds iImi haw ap- 
•-•red, run as foUows: 



wood 



MUmrn kM (Wis.) Jtmtt^. 

"Wikl tHftl life win he pfoawted In Shar»> 

' by the .\udiAoa Sodcty. ornaisMl 

evOlMscUMm. AMnMiiklonMii 

■MMUt 

loaad^o. 

pkin to drcutotc pcHUoM 

mm to drfsBt tkt «Btar 

llllwliMl5ML«MA,ll 

avtdalnKtivvtowBdWB. Tfcte 

provldfa« driBUi«-poQb and btRMMiUn. 
and are studyiim the praUm of ooaltal «l 



anwg tne viiimb i ■win ■. iiinmu^i u i wi 
only two mamm mo. tiw Mdrtjr awmiB 
bctwwa8oaad«odilldi«i. Tte«U»bom 
plM to drcutatc pcHUoM adtlng W hnw Mh 
iiiBBiMHiiB to drfsBt tkt tsBtar p0««r act 



Bird - f orr 



•in t t au I iwvc c^oaicBU aiv oDdcr «■>* lor 
tlwlMM AadMbMbMpkumit. Pitas vfll 
bcawMiladfaicKlioftkethnc^tdivUaM." 

Pfttm (Cdtf .) KgpiMitmn. 

"Bifdi wtalli^ ilMir «my Bortlnnid tkb 
iprlag M» ndiBg 17S.000 new Immhm ImBi 
for tlMn dwing (1m pait yw bjr biqrt aad 
Kiri* who arr aMaban ol Um 6s,obo Joaior 
Avdaboa Oob* Msttcrad over tlw catire 
Vaitsd StalM aad pvto of CuMik. Tbcte 
yovtlM •!» aoMag the 1.500,000 awaibcn of 



ftfr oo« ajBong iu bot (ikad*. Uoc lonuc 
mmktt of the local lockly has beea givim 
faiid^alk* tUi put MMoa, aad iaMcMim 
oiber yoaai folk la caiiac far tfct aaidi o 
tlw loaiMcn. aad la tkb way the food wori 



EachCMb 



I the i, <o o^ooo BMinbiw of 

plaaled la UadoButcaa, 

■choob. aad aaaoag groopa 01 yooag 

the NatfcHHl Aiaiabaa Sodety. 

after payiag 10 cents aa 



aa faritiatiaa f^ rtaiu aooijriaf kaowkdfe 
of the appeaiaaoes aad habito of both mm- 
stet* aad the wnaiBrical tvpea of bii£. 
Thimigh picture books aad Ukes to wood- 
laad mots they kara to di sti aa u Mioaekfad 
of bird f ran aaothcr by the kind of fcathny 
clothes they wear, aad how aho to teO them 
by their CB^ their acMs, aad sooetiaMs by 
tbdr chirps. The aikrstory habiu aad the 
aiagfaig qaaUtics or lack of them ia each 
■pecks form other phases of iastnictioa. 
Gaaw bws of state aad of the aathm are ex* 
pbhMd. but aonc of the teachers or lecturers 
scat oat by the aatioaal otiaaiwrtnn ever 
mys to little miUe, 'You must aot kill the 

Ctybirdieft.* Offidabof theorgamaitioa's 
Iquartcrs bete declare they are striving to 
caaservc bird<4ifc, aot by havisg more 
striageat hws n am rd agahMt hunters, but by 
latcnsthig chadrea hi the birds so that they 
lose aD derire to use them te tasu for marks- 
with tfag shots, air^aas. or light 
sreiem haatcis have louad the dub 
■y b 'W uaooodortaUy obaervaat of those 
who they suspect are bagflng BMMC thaa the 
liadt, or shootiag out ofMasaa. Recently 
the Assodathm received a letter from a 
sportnaaa saying there were four hundred 
youac voloatasr gsiiMi wardeas In his dty 
onrtlng a rrsti ah ihg faifluence upon tricky 
hoatcn.*** 

Qmimey (Mass.) Uipr. 

*niwreare waay iadirstioas to those in- 
terestcd that the Juafar Audidm Sodety b 
beariag a valuabfe recara ia the thm^htf ul- 
aess showa by tbe vooag folk as rannb the 
binds aad other liviag crsatares. OMparty 
of boys oe a sidewalk was overheard bldy to 
diKuss at some bagth the charsctcrbtks of 
a bird they hod observed, there beiM some 
hi rsvud to Its aasK. Several 
m wouhl BMch aiore likdy 
ive beta oagmpad ia a haad-t»4wad scidBe • 
^^f!^ ^ ''y^ their aim at the vary' 
bird itsdC. to see^Mi ooaU cad lu lif^ 
llavmg made bird-housm aad had their at- 
tcntioa called ia an interesch^ nmaner to the 
beauty aad needs of the ihtb Waibler. they 



yoaisafadbwhavs 
have bean oagspad fa 



"'Birds are Fficad^' was the sk«aB y«» 
terday at the cihUtiaa of the Junior Audu 
boa Sodety bcif« held thb wedi in WolbsUNi 
School ll>ll. uiMkrr the aunion of the Edu 
cation Committer of the WoOastoa I'arcai 
Teachers Awnatioa. A Uvi|y Cfuwd of ovrr 
500 boys aad glib from the WoBastoa tchooU 
aaseadiled at % o'docfc yesterday afirm<Min 
to see the dbplay and hear the addres*. ant 
a large aasouat of iatcrest aad cnthuMi 
was aiaaifesled. It bevideat tlu- 
tndy frieads to these youag rr»i< 
that moreover they are conaiderabl> .•• 
Quaiotcd with thdr habits aad ac«d« I h, 
(mpbv b intcmting and instiwrt^ 
attentloa to the care aad iatcnst 
briags la the preservation of our 
songsters who come here each sprir 
the world happier and to do th< 
helping towaio the nroductiven< 
country, through thetf seal in brr 
sects and worms. 

"On the pbtform, trees with bare branches 
showed the nesting of the various birds and 
abo the needs in winter for a supply of food 
when the earth b covered with fliow. Dif- 
fereat dcparlmeats of the di^iby tOnstrst 
different phasm of the bird proposition. Theirl 
needs, their natural teadcaoes, and what 
awy be done towards thdr preservation — 
bodu and views illustrated these subjects, 
and posters drawn by pupib of the various 
grades showed much or^iinality and thou^t- 
f ulnem on the subject of birds and aninmb, 
Some of these posters weie in haad drawiacsi 
bv the yoaag artists, aad othcn were doae tal 
views dipped tnm perio di cab , to ill u st ra te" 
the f u b j f rts flwffn, ausch iatidrtim bdiv 
aaudfestad la the dioioe of Qlustiations. 
There was an exhibit of aawmted birds, and 
samples of the eggs aad aests. The dlspU> 
of Mrd-bouies naade by those interested in 
birds in the dty showed a wide variety of 
ideas as to the artistic aad utilitarian. The 
exhibit as a whofe was of an educational 
intcteat and of much credit to those asso- 
datad. Mrs. Jesse F. Stcvcaa, leader of the j 
Jnaior Audubon Sodety, was In 1 ' 
the abb ooaprratioo of Principal' 
Goodspead. of the WoUaston schools, 1 
teachers who contributed a generous int 
in Its welfare. 

"Mlnthrap Packard, of Boston, agent 
the NstionsI Assodatioa of AadalMa 
ties, gave aa addrem oa 'Birds, Tlwir Nc 
aad bfaha.' fai which the mmrfirw of 
youag audieacr were amch intemtMl. ; 
manifested thdr cnthuslaaBL" 



The Audubon Societies 



22$ 



THE LEGAL KILLING OF ROBINS 



CoMiikffmbbdteaituoo has rccnUjrariMS 

ntM^tm ^ AcaMi ol the Fcderml Govern- 

oMBt fai iHoiat ptnaiu to kitt Robim during 

the tprfaif onMht when they are cagitfcd in 

nuiflg for thcv jroHUg. 

From the time the ffM cheny tree came 

• > linuiBg is thb cotmtry. America't Robin 

:i actively demontnuiai hk desire to 

V turtlaadouafniU with hit diet of wanna. 

r the nineteen yean diving which the 

ivitiea have had to do with the 

Vttdvbon Society there has not 

va une acason during which numerous oooi- 

^ints, eitlMor in the fonn a( letters or newv 

iper *^*rr«"g*i have failed to reach the 

^ Miubeo Society once. 

\s t» well known to all bird students, there 

« a human tendency to magnify any damage 

that a bird nmy inflict on the cropa, and mini- 

lue, or overlook, the good which it does the 

ifM ffurimt the greater period of the year. 

\ II of the Treaty between the 

■f% and Great Briuin, dealing 

ith migratory birds in the United States and 

4nBda. the following provision is made: 

'Permiu to kill any of the abovoHaamed 
Urib wWch, under extraordinary conditions, 
may become seriously injurious to the ani- 
liltoral or other interests in any particular 
' mwimlty, may be issued by the proper 
AuthoritiM of the High Omtnscting Poims 
under ankahla ragn htto n s jn w cri bo d there- 
for by thtm mpactivcly, but such orrmiu 
fthall lapse, or may be canceled, > 
«hm. in the opinion of said autti' 
4fticnfatf ca Mi Mcy has paiswl, and no birds 
Ikd under tlibartideshan be shipped, sold 
r offcrad for sale.** 

The ofkials of the Biological Survey of the 

>«|iartment of .\griculturr, in whose hands 

' ir the details of the caecution of the Treaty, 

tMcaoK bnpitassd with tha aitcnt of the com* 

4aints laoehrad rogudfaig the dertmcthrencM 

i Robins to small frutaa. After invcstiga- 

>'«, the Buraan a— — Icatad with state 

lid and puna protective oAdals In a number 

■< Matm and asked whether thrte state oA* 

'^ --fnild count««ign permiu to kill R obi n s 

lamage to fndt withhi the boundarks 

' \nrv uin— onwwiths Sla Maiai thus a^ 

,>roachad agmad to do tMs, whflt altven 



others refuscvi i'rrmit« to kill Robins have, 
thctefoee. been nsued in the sUtcs of New 
Hampihire. New York. Indiana, Wlsnnsfai, 



Mr. John M. PhilUpa, of Pittsburgh. loi« 
an active and influentlnl member of the PevH 
syhrank Board of Game Omnniasioaers, has 
sent to this office a conununicstioa setting 
forth the reasons why the Pennsylvania Game 
Cnmrniwiwi dedinm to couMcrsign these 
Government permiu to kill Robins in that 
sUte. His letter folkms: 

**Dttr Mr. Pttrspm: I am indosteg a copy 
of the license issued by the U. S. Dcpnrtmmlt 
of Africohnm, food when oountcnigned by 
the Game OfBcfal of the Sute for wlUch \i- 
sued, authorizing the killing of Robins when 
destroying small fruiu. 

"At the last meeting of our Game Com- 
mission, we decided not to oountcn^ any 
of these pcrmiU: 

"ist. Because our laws prohibit the killing 
of song and insectivorous oiids. 

"ad. Our laws aDow game to be killed only 
between sunrise and sunset— this permit 
would aUow Robins to be killed for at least 
fifteen hours eadi dav during June, whilr 
ndpatory wild waterfowl can be killrd (or 
only ten hours each day during the fall and 
winter. 

"jd. These permiu would be issued by the 
Government to unnatufaBaed fbtdga^iom 
residents, who are prohibited by our Pettn< 
s]rlvania law from pnmemJng firmrms. 

"4th. Any game>bird or aaJmal klUad aa 
vermin while oommitthig dcpndaliaaa, in 
aooofdance with our hiws. must be turned 
over to the Game Commission to be given as 
food to hospital patienu. 

" V»u will note that the permit allows Rob- 
ins to be used as food ana even held hi cold 
stomfe for ten days after the 'Robin saMon' 
b ovor. TMs wouM be an ln ee ntl »» to the 
UBrnt. 

The main reaaon our people and the GaoM 
rnmmlmlMi object to these Uosnsm to that 
they parmh the kIDiaK of the Robin from 
May i6 to July ic Indttrive. during the 
nesting season of Um birds, aUowii^ the 
youny to •tnrve in their nesta. Nearly any 
■MB aflnng birds to protect hto f raK would 
abo UD oatUi.b, woo^adMrs and other 
binb, wych fsed on it dnriiv the short tbne 
it b ripe. 

"You ai* Ukdy aw.- re that thoae permiu 
aiebahigbs u sdinX.w Vork and some of the 
other smtaa. We are aB awam that the 
RoUns hnv* incrsbaed since the Migmlery 



Bird - Lore 



hM BUI »M fmmtd aad afc voy fkmiUvL 
HoM^. U Ukv OMMt be thfauMd mm thb 
<aa be done dwiW IW l>U and wtetcr after 
ThkmNldbe 



• dippiM from the FHU- 
h iiv» die paper 1 md 




tarfA ^«rf. ^ ..-^ 

bmie tbe r—Mnjwnk Foratry Awxk- 
tiM hei» y o M trfil aote that 1 tonclMd oo 
tUa fobiKi. KbMllY let mr haw your 
thooiht tn mrarif to the matter. 
I wiahca. I am. 
r frioid. 
T^igBcd) Jatot li. I*aiLUP«." 

Mr. PhflUpa baa givw lOMfBl poblidty to 
bb oftdal obJKtkma to the Ullii« of RflbiiM 
iathbaiMner. In the baue of the i>iKAwv* 
Fml for Jane 17. iqsi. occur* the foOowiag 
qaotatioa from one of hb recent addreaMt: 



*TbeFcdml 



I autbovfadac the kBHag of 
iaaectivoroaa bbda when found 'dertroyiag 



S 



Jl fruits. 

"Tbcac poraita are effective right durimt 
the nertfawaeaaao, from May 15 to July 15. 
when pomffilr to do the most damaitc to thr 
bbda. Tbe permit abo aUowa the killer to 
retafai hb bifda In cald etocace until July 3« 
for food mopaam. Thcaenadngbfnbaroaki 
be aa rf»«*«*«'» aa ft^f*i» g benik For man> 
ycar» «e fought againatthe kOUng of Egreu 
for plumage in touthein cwampa on the 
ground that killing the parent bbda In the 
ncating Maaon allowed thoumnda of baby 
Egrrt* to Btarx-e. 

"Thb inhuman condition will be mdtiptted 
a thousand timca if farmer* arc to be per- 
mitted to kill Robins and other insert-enters 
dmiam their netting season when, after 
working for OBonth* for the farmers, they ask 
only a little doacrt. s wnall reward for their 
labor, asked for at a time when their own 
donertic crisb b at hand." 

rBltMIT TO KItX ROMNt 
Vmrsa »tatss Dksasthcvt or Acmianxv* 

9Vftf0C ^ 0MM0IMV «NNWy 

revwH t* MmvI RaWM t* ^retvct Cbertisa 
•■4 OUwt ■■Mil rralM 

IVmdtaion b hereby granted to 

. of 

SUleof 

to kill Robins by shooting from half an hour 

before sunrbe to half an hour after sunset 

ench dav from May 16 to July 15. indusive. 

i«j. .wMn necesaary to protect cherrbaand 

other mmII fenita from 

owncQ or frawn fty 

of but sub- 



ject to the (mI- -m; i." 'ii'liijon' an<l rctjiain 
ments: 

Robin^ «h.)!i I '1 U V,, killn! r«ir{tt whrii 
they afr - "^.i^iuui/ ••> jrr aImiuI III iitntniit 
•crwus uiiuf> to gtu»u)g Uicrhck or utiirr 
mmO fndia and it b aaennnr to kill such 
Rofatea In order to peolMt the chcrrks or 
other small fruits from damage, but n<> w r 
Sana diall shoot at such Robins from ao> art: 
fkbl or natural Minda, nor shall the Robin 
so killed be sold or offered for sale, or l»< 
shipped, transported, or carried In any mar 
ner, cioept that they ornv be carrkd oy th< 
penon kflUng them to the reaidmce of th- 
owncr or Icmae on the lands where swi 
Robins were kUled and there may be umxI f< 
food jMupoaes by the petions authori/ 
kiU them. Robins kilfcd between M^^ 
19a. .,and July 1$. igi. ..may bepoasoM-: 
not bter than July is, iga. .. 

Thb pennit shall not be valid iinhm roiin 
tersigned by the drief ofkial In dmiie of th< 
enforcrrocnt of the fish and game bws of th< 

Sutrof .or hi 

duly authorised repfc*rntativr And «h.in )■■ 
revocabb in the dboei 
Bureau of Biological Si^ 



Counter^tnenby- Secretary of Agriculture 



The Govern ment'a Side of the Story 

.\fter reading these presentations by M r 
PhilltfM a letter was sent to the Biobgicii 
Sur%e>- kUiing that the above communifa 
tion would be published in Biid-Lou an' 
requesting an official statement from th' 
Biological Survey as to why it was dccmr< 
necessary to issue permiu to kill Robin- 
I'ndcr date of July $, 1911 , the foUowin; 
letter was received: 

"My 4«tr Mr. Ptmnom: I have your letter 
of June 10, reauesting the reaaons why th< 
Bureau deems It inceamry and wbe to imu< 
permiu to allow RoUna to be killed in oerui t 
states to protect small fruits from thri 
<bpw<natifltis. 

"You are aware, of course, that Robin 
have bicreaaed poaaibly several fold under th< 
protection afforded by Federal bws durin; 
the laat few years, and that dcnite the gen 
eral usefubiess of Robins and other spedes u! 
migratory hiaectlvoroaB bfads the Robins an<i 
some of the other ^xdea at timca are ten 
ooily injurious to fmh and to agricultur.. 
interests. 
"A representative of the Bureau whoin% 




The Audubon Societies 



iij 



rttirinp Ihr %-rar loio rompbln* of 

Mfruil 

> had 

'cnics in muiv 

' • UfHM OOIDBUUU- 

M. ibe CdoMrvatian 
•rk, whkh agreed to 

il iH-rtnit 0iiim| onlv 

•rpr, 

nuin> 
! .•bin*. 



I. In i9io a rcpre- 

tnvnticated ooodi- 

ina, and in igat 

thr comiilainU 

tj» Uie 

^•erof 



M-n and KtitMnii oixur 

t-forr, c»nununi(-ate«l 

•Adak of the stain 

• mni in inr prvrnung pangrspb, a«litng to 

■ advlMd coacwufaf lac extent of depreda- 

•<••>••. bcfaw coounitted by RoMm, and 

'aatCe dcrire of the re prca c nta- 

imr iiffiruU to havt- a iirrmit 



Govcnuaenl and the ropectivt alatea to co> 
oneratr in nuttm of thb kind. Sevcfal of 
tnc »tate> have no lair» autborfaiag the com- 
miMioaa to iiaue pemita to kiUMfda leri- 
oualy injuriouft to agricultural or other 
intereMa, and the comwiMJoiHM of aone of 
the ftUtea did not deem the 'rm^hm to be 
•o •rrioua aa to warrant tlie imiiange of the«e 
|M-rinitv 

■^t.itr authnritir* in New Hampahirr, 
\\ iaoomin, Minaemta, 
'ua depiedatiam werr 
1 ii ncrcamry and «i ' 
I i-vued. We, therefor. 

iK'mtit. copy of wliid) 1^ III 
Ml ih«»!«r rtatea. Wehavran 
■ !■ I I- ii. til.- if-.m.. iMithoritic» in 

ill be exer- 
i.v«ur«l c\- 



. I-<<1 .llKl I ■ 

cr|>t «hrr ■ . 
Runation th i 
ing th< 
•mou.» 

"SUtc a 

•etta, KImx! 
Jency, Pern 

noia,Iowa,a: 
toiaauetliei' 
andaroordii: 

in thr order • 



the rcccuH ■ 
tiona unoer 
oomplainta • 
(ram New ^ 

itrmiii^ tv»i. 



tu i»rr\vnt 



.1 to iirrmtl 



>i4llM: lintc I 
In |»ntlrtt t' 



«Sii- 



ABBOTT H. THAYER'S CONTRIBUTION TO 
BIRD PROTECTION 

»y f. ■. PAUiBIl 



I., VI.I..I' II tti.vrr. artiM. idrali*t.and 

•ini'lovrr* of Amrrk-a 

ittt a |»ni< ti«al ilrnMm 

•n that haA had lar 

WhAt AUrrd ^ I 

'ration in l>lncL 

ler acrompliahrd ao a 

u of our Athmtir roaat . 

¥.»rty in igoo. *hnrtly altvr thr appcaranrr 

• •"■''"-• ailing for mb tiirdi lor mlllinrr) 



purpoara, Mr. Thayer witxt . '.-■. vVtimri 
Stone, then rhaiiman at thr i'ummittrr on 
Bird rrotrction of thr Amrri«an Omithnlt> 
gi*!*' Tnitm, kURgvatinx thai Munrthinit lir 
dtmr til {inittMl thr tiulb ai i <>( mir 

ra»lrni < na»l . Onlramingi' 'it«i|ial 

••ImIaiIt io Ihr rnrrying out of iW piu|*rl 
w«* A la> k nl (umla. he t me m m ty undertook 
III ratv a aiMHial fund Utt ihr |MiriMnr and in 
a «hiirt tlmr t'i---< > •lahataatial Mun at thr 



>*8 



Bird • Lore 



of llw Coontotct. The deuib of 
tko omfc ««rt tiikM over by WUliwB Dttldwr 
tkM Mtivoljr oapfad ia Mcurtaf pfoCKtios 
lor Uw Gulk of Kcw York ud New Jcmy. 
Tlumigii tlie TlMycr Food, wardem were 
— mi oy od ot the priadpal coloiiks bi Moiac. 
Now York. New Jcney. Mafyknd. and 
\l>fUiU, kiid a card ut r«aminaliaa wa* made 
of tbe able Unpodant poinu along the coatt 
ffooi ChoMpcakc Bay to Long bfauid to 
locau the kifcM coloaka. la the foUowiag 
year a i lamwiiheaelTt plaa waa carrM out 
foTMCurfalgdlocti" rotrrt trabbda 

aad pKvoat traffx i>lunumr. Aa a 

rvMilt tbe 'A. O. V. Model Law' aow kaowa 

M the 'Audubon I^w' «&% iia.<k<tr(i in rlrxrn 

■tates. 

Toe nMB wbo tii«<i^ tm^ |»n9ii>it >i»> 
Abbott Haadcnon Tha>Tr. He was bom at 
Boctoa, Maflk. AtiguM n, 184Q. and waa the 
aoa of Dr. WaUam Hauy and KUcn Haadcr- 
•oa 'nia>-rr. He waa educated in private 
•choole and from cariy cbifcihood he pamtcd 
aafaaali. At the age of sixteca, ha«iag de- 
cided lo anke painting hb profeskm. be«»cat 
four yoan, friaa 1875 to 1879. at tbe Eoole 
dci Beaux ArU ia Pkria. He waa fifty ycari 
of afe whca lie actively catered the field of 
bMiHolactiaa, aad up to the tiaie of hb 
death, oa May tg, toai. be m ai n U hw d hb 
iatereet ia the work. Hb aoooaipUduaeata 
ia the foahaof art aad hb oaBtrfiwtioes to 
the theory of protective coloration may be 
found ebewbeie. while tbe detaib of the bird- 
pratectivc work wbirh hr made poeaible will 
be found in the annual icporta on the Thayer 
Fund hi Tbe Auk' and in BitD-Loaft. 

Tbe work of oollecthag thb fund devolveil 
ahaoet catirely oa Mr. Thayer who ooatiaued 
it from igoo lanO 190$ whea the Natfaaal 
AaeodUioa of Auduboa Societies waa iaoor- 
po r a t ed and waa in a poaitioo to insure a 
regular fund for bird-protection. During the 
five yean that activities were conducted 
under the Thayer Fuad, more than $1 >,ooo 
waa imbed: ti^oo in 1900, $1,680 in 1901. 



ii.94S in 1901. f J.AOJ in 1903. and t4<*70 in 
1904. Mr. Thayer hineeUcoatributed $1,000 
to tbe fund in 1903. But tbe siae of the fund 
waa ksi importai'! itaMaare* 

uader which it wa- 1 waamorr 

dif&cuh to imiae $1,000 ior bwd-protecthm in 
1900 than a much larger eun for the samr 
purpoee in 19J0. The awaey was espeaded 
not ool>- for warden tervioe, to guard thr 
nesting txilaoics, but for seruring publiiit> 
ocrcwar>' for the enartrarnt of better pro- 
tective laws. So well dirrcted and cflectivr 
waa the mmpaign that co n m r eh aaaive laws 
were secured ia aaist of the cooatal etataa aad 
moot of tbe important coloaica of phaBO-bird» 
from Maine to Florida were placed un<!rr thr 

..trge of special wardens. 

Thayer's active inlereat la bird^' 

was maaifested at a psydiolagical momrni 
when the destruction of sea-birds for mil 
linery puipoeea was at its hei^tt, when thr 
ieoond Audubon mo veme n t was just grttinK 
uader way, aad whea the bird-prutettivr 
forces were gropiag tbrir way, seeking mean* 
to check the destruction which was increaaing 
on all sides. Thr time was ripe for action 
but it renainrd for an artist rather than an 
omithologbl or a bueineas auui to galvanur 
the ideal into a practical reality and iw 
demoaetratc that bird-pi<ot(>rtinn <<Mii4i Im- 
placed on a working ba^ 
said in referring to Tba> • 
report on the fund: "Wberr 
received encouragement, i 
nitbologisu. be met with 
. . (but) by bbpenoaalcourap anti iaiih 

he arconaplishcd what nthi «U eoahl nui 
brdone." It bperhapaaot tooaMKh to mix 
that thb practical deani i istia t i oa aad tbe 
succcaa of the work coaducted under tbr 
Thayer Fund waa in laiie measure respon 
sible for the endowncat of tbe Sat 
.\ssociation of Audubon Societies which 
made potaible tbr de\-elopment of w; 
and educational work on its present 
and permanent basis. 



liavr 
iwnt 



HIKING FOR THE BIRDS 



In Pittsburgh. Pa., there Uvea a gratWinan 
who for tooK yean has been coaductlag an 
with boya, which ooa- 



sisU of a bug bicycle bike during the 1 
months. Thb active worker is Mr K 
Copp. The pieaeat season tbr expcditi 



The Audubon Societies 



»»9 



t Pituburxh CM! July ii, tbe buys pfwccd- 

jtOBtbeirwhrrl^'" " '* ♦ " P».. 

<ra on to l*anti>- ' w«» 

pj tnmh :>: l"ri-..!<iii \h Kinky. 

ll' iQ tBRNISn 

t. riand wms 

llrrr t* "d in 

•"'* '^' "^»;.i.,.i «....«. ..-.; boy» 

rncr MO milr» down ljA.r 
>\ then on to Toronto. (M 
lU and othrr luial point* <i( 



interest werr mioyed. It raqttiied i 
Ihrrr wvrk» to complrtc the trip 

Kvef>' »ununcr Mr. Copp ha* the boy» 
undertake mnbc ^Mckl woik aa they rMe. 
This year, accardiac to the iiinnwiiininl. 
"The party will distiflbvtc pawphkH and 
post warning poatcn uader the MnrtioB and 
direction of the National Aaodation of .Audu- 
bon Sorietie*." At Buffalo the entire part>- 
wraitcd on the nui>ttr of the city and handed 
him a letter of KrcctiB|» from the President 
of the NatiiNwl Audubon Societies. 



THUMBS DOWN FOR FLORIDA BIRD PROTECTION 



\c«ir, the M'.riila l.r-,ri-i.'' •• ' 
■■i-n t "f thr ' onMTN.it 1' It) "I 

- .'.r. r^ prr^tiir^ tirongly to It by able 

.M 4t<^ Ani\ A«Atn has thb honorable body 

■nrA * «ir»f ear to those who would have 

"^r state appont game- w ar de n s to enforrc 

hr now iM ■fiwrnl bws for the protection of 

■■- -Id birds and animals. 

• ing the greater part of a period of six 

rtk^ Mrv Kntherine Tlppetts. of St. 

.t.>r.).nrr President of the Florida Audu- 

resided in Tallahassee and daily 

. .>rrfi »iiii the lawmakers in an effort to 

iuce them to see the light and pass a bill 

. rciahliahaMat of a sUte game warden 

which had been drawn and presented 

. the Florida Audubon Society. She was 



rorivptl <orilull\ and m<^t rourteoii<kl\ , shr 
Ma!> thr rrt ipirnt of k^k^ious and compli- 
mentary remarks as was mect« but in the cad 
went back to her hone without gettiag her 
biUpaaacd. 

A leas courageous individual would have 
been discouraged, but .\lr». Tlppetts has an- 
nounced to the women's dubs of the Pinellas 
Peninsttb and to the Florida Audubon Sodety 
that the fight is goii« on, and it may be 
proph e si e d that two years from now, when 
the Florida l^cgislature gont into session , 
the>- win find that Mrs. TIppetU has behind 
her a fightinK ftirre that will in the end spdl 
victor>- for the birds and game still left ia the 
iumd of the Flowers.' The Ameciatiwi 
pledges her its most earnest support. 



NEW LIFE MEMBERS 
Enrolled Irom May 1. 1921. to July 1. IMl 



H^mbriicht. Mr*. (.. D. B. 
Cabot. Mr« Kirhard C. 

Cullinat, T 



I)r 




l>r 




!>.- 


-!ul 


Kr 


J 


Kr 


y. 


(•« 


K 


•f 


.. 



llusaey, Mrs. KUabeth R 
James, Mrk A. C. 
Raanp, Joseph P. 
Laadauer. Mn William Kir 
|^C«rf«, Mr* Uamcf Mifllin 
M.f Mr. W M 

M. K K 

M«*.v, .11 r^ V Kvrni 
Pcr^aa, Dr. Anne I 







G MEMBERS 






-I. to July 1. IMl 


VI.. 

v»» 

A.. 


Mrs. Ht«h 1>. 


Becker. Mn. A. G. 
BcdelLJolMiJ. 

Bo«w. MiM Mam. 



Bird I I 



NSW MWTAJNIMO MKMBBR*. continued 



\'», 



H 
H« 

Budr' Mry II K 

i'alkm%. Mrv S (°anil>a 
i'mrxet. Mi** SiriU M 
f'rabbr. Mn.. Charlm 
Cfmii%, Mi* ni/.»t-^t! ^ 
Cramrr. Rr*H 
i*nini|<tnn. ^' 
Crane. ^' .:t^, 

Cnmio- 1 

Crruih \\ 

Itmir. I 

Kmlrti. J 

V'Mt*. JiMijcr 

Kinni< 11 n> < '• 

n. ...ru-r U 

K«- I * 

Vot> :■ Mr. !■ . 

Fou!^ I'. 

Fr«i. .Ml - : 1 

Full.. It ■ H 

i,» ' k I . 

<;r \. T. 

c.r \ 

Ch < . I. 

(Jr <Ti4f 

H.. 
II.. 

Hrl- \ 

llrr k. 

Ilcti.ifi. 
Ilrrri. I 

Hill. Mr 

Hoir, Jamrx Walirr 

llcilt. Mr». Mavnani t-rrrr 

l|o»«-. F. P. 

Ilowdl. AUmI Hunt 

Kdloa, Mr» 

Kr3r», Mi** \ 

Kirr, Mn>. l-Ji/^tiM-m j 

Koch. Fm) 

I.Aimb«rr. K. II . Jr. 

l^iKr, WiUimm K 

l^iipin, Mrs \ ^v«lncy 

Ludiu« 

l.youn. 'lora 

ManrlM-»ici Kinl Club 

Mari>h. Mr> A M. 



irif* J. 



MiUlkcn. Arthur M 

Milrhdl. W. S 

Miiiinrux. I. K. 

Mcir^r. V * • f II 

.Mortoi> I r 

FrmiMt*' -.»..-. I 

l*«Ucr^ 

IVik. M 

l*nkluim. Mr«. Whcdrr 11. 

Pcnnock. Mr». A. I. 

ttiilbrirk. II. R. 

htthrr. MiM May Murmct- 

Poor. Mr». Jamn llarprr 

Pu»l. .\brmin S. 

Potu. Thonu» I'. 

PffWMititrr. Mtw Ruth Nrwinmbr 

Ran<i.ttt Mi» VntAnda I. 

R.t 

K.. 

R..I., il. 

Ro..n cC. 

R.--.. I 

R«>\'r 

S«..i; ' .H-.r.! 

S«^!.' \ 

Sr- 

Sh. 

Small. I>i. W. U. 

Sowmrr. B I, 

Si. 

St II. 

Si. ' '- 

T.' 

\.> 

\ .1 tnurl 

\... Ir 

V. • 

w. 

War:. 

\V*rT,. ■ 

Well h, J ii.iri 

WcM. Rr\'. i'ttit. Framb 

WcUioKt" M- s <■ 

W«rth« 

W > II 

w. 




OHw— AanaM 



CANADA GOOSE 

Fandr— AnATtb* 






2?irti=1tore 

A W«MON1Hl.Y MAOAXtNS 

OBVOTSO TO THE STUDY AND rSOTSCTION OF WOUM 

Ovr»e<*i, otMAM or Tmc Awbw*o« ••etmcs 

VoL XXIII Sbptbmbbx— October. 1921 No. 5 



Why Birds Interest Me 

Py eUOBNB S>^OPE 

I HAVE often noticed that many intelligent |H«)plc wonder how anyone 
< an have a sustained interest in birds. Friends have asked: "How can 
yuu find it worth your time and effort to tramp about the deserted fields, 
ramf> in the lonely wimnIs. and luiter along the byways just to see and hear 
■' "What do you find in birds to charm you so continually?" "What 
-'•Mrce of your unfailing interest in birds?" 
I ' A. I a long time Ix-forc I mys<-lf fully understood that it b not alone the 
the form, the coloring, and the classification of birds, instructive and 
... i taining as these matters are, that holds my interest. But it is what, for 
he want of a comprehensive word, I call the glad-free-Hfe of the wild birds. 
I )> never fails to hail an element of myself that lies beyond my workaday 
" ' ;;hts. Wild birds in some way s>mbolize to me a life of more spirit and 
> lay which I seem to have lost for the most part somewhere along the way, 
: ! • r! .; h.it nature promised in full measure in youth but later in some 
' withheld. No other manifestation in nature or art so n.--'- 
this eluding side <>f my lifr as the inde{)endenl. "vnpful ' 



i'ii.i 11 Ti^ to me, def»niii-i> i\\ - -r^m-r-* rate . < ; . • .h 

1 feel an right daily to live hi. (♦linij. im 'I> n 

>'ir<! . I find a perpetual interest in thrm. If such a state of mind is | < t '> 

I ' ••" ' 'nal rc^wnse to birds at any and all times. 

I birds is, I believe, similar to that quiet joy known to 

when ihe>' chance upon verses wherein the poet has presented with 

...I ...II... ,. ijjougfiT • motions they themsdvca vtguely feel but 

express. i^ In irr a living lyric theming an aspiring 

icment of my Ining. 

' *' ' ■ ' ' " ■' ■ <n wr rr«« llic insjiirr*! a< ' r 

•It others find thtough thr i 

more than ever>'day self that still others anive at thtough reli- 

In the end, as I understand it, we are each seeking the same 



Bird -Lore 



c%'auivc fulfilment. The difference » alone in the meaiis we employ. Beotuae 
we loM tight of this fact we think we do not understand one anuthcr'» inirm-* - 

A friend of mine who can be lifted to the seventh heaven and all tl • 
chantment therein by claaucal music, has no patience with what he cal 
ornithological nonsense. He sees nothing in birds worthy a full-blooded i 
serious attention. I, on the other hand, fail to find in music the nearr- 
proach to my visions. A scholarly friend of mine who cannot understand u Iwtt 
he considers my foible, b noticeably patient with me when I talk uf birdN. 
.\nd I, with equal charity, endure his animation over ancient ruins and the 
meager records of perished nations. 

That hermit, Henr>' Thorcau, pondcimK ujx.i. ..ic and nature, wrote "I 
ong ago lost a hound, a liay horse, and a turtle dove and am still on their 
trail. Many the travelers I have spoken to concerning them, describing their 
tracks and the calb they answer to. I have met one or two who have heard 
the hotmd and the tramp of the horse and have even seen the dove disapixar 
liehind a cloud, and they seoned as anxious to recover them as if they had 
lost them themselves." 

When we pass from the simplicity of childhood to complexities and cramp- 
ing realities of maturity we seem to lose something in one of those thousands 
of blind alleys we mistook for the highway. Later we suspect the loss r-^' > -"n 
the search for what we belie\-e to have been our greatest treasure. " k 

to recover this treasure in the exhilaration of profound study, others in the 
ecstasy of music, still . •'• - - art. or the solemnity of worship. JJorrr ' • 
one means and some I*. .. Some even in the glad-frce-life of th« 

birds in God's out-of-doors. Then there be many who in the mad rush of 
commercial life and the social whirl, never miss the lost treasure, and are noer 
tantalized with the desire to search for this elusive element of life. 



^ -f- 



Three Weeks in the Boat-Bhnd 

By OUY A BAILBY. Qrnr*ro. N Y 
Uilh rho(ocri|>h« l>\ tKr \u(h.>( 

THE Utter part oi August and the most of September is a dull time for 
the avenge bird photographer. Most birds are through nesting and 
few birds are attracted to feeding-^thuxs so early in the year. 
For some time I had been planning a boat-blind that would enable me to 
get near the shore-birds and be portable in case my first site was unfavorable. 
*- ^'IKUst, 191 7, in company with Mr. Joseph Taylor, a camp was set up on 
V Point and wc moved our boat-blind to the Point. The camp was pitched 
i lew rods from the Point, and, as it was in a pasture lot, we decided to put a 







IMf MIAT BLIND 

light fence around the camp to keep out the inquisiti\T cattle. The de\'ice 
was hardly tuccesif ul for they broke it down and disturbed the peace and quiet 
of the camp. 

The boat-blind was a better blind than a boat, as we diioovcred when w« 

tried to float it to the Point. Howe\Tr. Mr. Tayfor, with nuch dexterity and 

Kood balancing, succeeded in keeping it right side up until it was towed to the 

nd of Sandy Point. Once landed we had little trouble in digging a canal and 

moving it inhuid to what we thought was tale anchorage. 

The next move was to get tome little poob of water on the level plain 
near the blind to that the water would filter out and leave iu load of small 
• rganisms that seemed to be the food of the Sandpipers that we found to lie 

(*M) 



»34 



Bird - Lore 




sr.MIPALMATEl) SANr>PIPF.R 

the roost numeroiu birds at this time. The little stream that had built up the 
plain was a harmless little babbling brook that we shifted around the Toiru 
with ease. But it was this same little babbling brook that 1 ranged 

conditions, made trouble for the blind and its contents. A:.<. ..^ ,,Msit.>rt 

some pooh we next focused a few cameras on them, led our wires to thc 

and started to wait for the birds. We ustully worked in three- or four-hour 




i» ri.o\ t.u 



Three Weeks in the Boat-Blind 



»3S 



<^^'h*, 90 that each could have a 

uc at the birds and also rest up 

> work of keep* 

... , Mits of ithoto- 

■hie intc-< 



( » 



our 
haii 




**Ut'c<l for the birds to use 

ni) m«»ri" attractive to them 

dozens of others provided by 

i>rocc» of nature. So we began 

il up all the natural fii-*!!!!?;- 

•■s, and once wv made over a 

'er part of the Point so that we 

i have some control of the 

ibution of the food-sup{>ly. 

> the cattle came to inspect the 

the nijcht and cver>' 

IS a |xx)l to gather ftxMl 

y birds. These we had 

il, and once more we were de- 

■ 1. To prevent this happening; 

II we built a fence across the 

Fomt and kept the cattle out. 

Eventually the birds came to our 

pfw»ls and we made numerous ex(M)- 

^ on the San<lpi|>ers. After we 

' 1 • . « r I of these plates 

ictures were not artistic. Mud and water with a pretty 

did not a(>|M:ai to us as a pleasing picture. So we stole one of Prof. A. A. 

n's ideas of a 'scenario.' For oar 'scenario' we chose a little aagiiUcaa 

we found nearby. This dao gave us a spot to lA-atch ihat would indi- 

when our bird was in range. We tried many poses of the Sandpipers— 

views, rear views and so on— and often we made a picture 

r he had he n. Sandpipers are \Try active, and there is no 
better way to become impressed with the idea than to try taking their pictures. 

\\ ' ' ■■■: with the Sandpipers we had the pleasure of seeing 

the iurr>' acroM the Point and move 00 along the shore. 

In two to three hour% he would come back again. He did not feed at the poob 
' '^andpi|lers but kept to the higher and drier ridges, io we picked out a 
it MTcmed to please him and focused another camera on it. We placed 
two "itoncs to mark the limit of our range and went back to wait. In the three 
- k» that we were there we did not make over six or seven exposures of thit 



BLACK TKRN 



»36 



Bird -Lore 



Plovtr. Howrver, while we were waiting for two or three bird*, it took no 
loofHr to wait for a doim, to wr didn't mind adding > ' '-t. 

Black Terns paid us a visit during this time. \H cm flying 

over the water. Later they came and perched on the fmce-posts. Another 
was brought out and focused on the fav*orite post. In a short time we 




kin i>t ( K 



had several exposures of the new visitors. Then, after four or fivr dnyt. th* 
dJipprsred and we saw them no more during our stay. 

Killderrs came in large numbers and in the usual voice. Nnw anu tiKii 
caoM to our poob but they were not at all addicted to xhh, they used il 
Point more as a resting-place. Our real occupation was f^tographing Sam 
pipe s and the others gave us relaxation. 

At first our ni^ts were usdess, merely deq>ing and waiting for tomorrot 
Finally we thought of making use of the automatic flash-gun to get the Gr 
Blue Heron. They were noisy and numerous at night but during the day 
•aw them only at a distance. After a north wind had strewn the shure witl 
dead fish we could hear them quarreling, and we judged there must be a dm 
or more, so after the photographic day had closed we opened a photuf^r 
night. We set up two cameras and connected them with a flash-gun. 
thread was attached to the electric switch and led to a dead fish placed in 
water dote to shore. Then we retired to camp, had supper, and v ' ' ' - 
explosion. Sometimes it would come just at dusk, sometimes at i 



Three Weeks in the Boai-Blind 



»37 



toroetimes mlrocMt at daybreak. When it came early enouf^ in the night, we 
would xo down and reset the camera trap with the aid of our lanterns. Our 
grr.r t photography was from dew on the lens. We 

fina: , , > by covering the camera and lens with a box 

with a hole in front ju5t large enough to let us get the picture on the plate. 

A letter came calling Mr. Taylor to the cokMS and the photographic party 
broke up. The boat-blind stayed in place for several days, and then a rain- 
storm came and the little liabbling brook became a torrent. It left its little 
du' ned the boat-blind, and carried it out in the cove where the 

Bb> . In the blind were five cameras securely lodied but not 

protected against a flood. The wind had driven it on the shore but the waves 
were beating over it. The cameras were ruined but the lenses and shutters, 

after a \'isit to the optit L-in u-rn* mmp the wiirsr for tht*ir adventure and -are 

Still doing bustneas. 




118 



Bird . Lore 




YdlNti »EI>- KAliEl) WilODPErKER (LEFT) AND I'AfcKVr 




.a YOfXt- 



A Lake Fomt (Ilk.) loadi-cinaiter becomes a nuntery. Two photographs 
by Gcorfe Roberts. Jr. 



With the Birds in Alaska 

By MRS. O. W. OAMKil. A«HcttUMral Ba»«rtflMat ttatioo. lUmpart. AlMka 

THIS ha$ t)cen such a wonderful bird year at this station that I am send- 
ing >'ou extracts from my notes, as several requests have come to me 
for more Alaska information on this subject, since the publishing of my 
-0 than a year ago. 

.\.. ^:i March and April the Snowflakes were abundant in the stack- 

ards, and with them, in a stack->'ard acro6s the river, was a large 6ock of 

t have lieen Pine Grosbeaks, as nearly as can be determined from the 

ns given me. I was not fortunate enough to see the flock but did 

I of the fenude birds, and they answered the description of the female 

Grosbeak. The owner of the oats in the yard shot between forty 

... of these intruders. Only one pair was w<n .>n these grounds, and I 

>t succeed in getting a glimpse of them. 

--t Robin was seen at the Station May 1 1, ami ihc la-t .>ru Stptiml)cr 

irh one was heard the next day. Twenty-nine wcrt counted one 

I ticld where fish offal had been plowed in for fertilizer. On May 1 1 

I 'ds were heard and a few days later the stack-yard was 

...... ...t.. w....vi. they seemed to be everywhere. 

On May 12. a few Juncos ^ipeared. They are never abundant here, and 

with them were many Gambel's Sparrows. The woods around us are alixT 

■ ■ ' ^' t he latter evcr>' summer. Among the Juncos was one that was very much 

( r than the others and brown in color, instead of gray. 

1 - i.oxt day, the i ^th, a few Fox Spa'^rows arrived, a flock of Violet- 

.riin > A allows, a pair of Teal Ducks, one of Canada Jays, and an immense 

• irk of Longspun^. The latter were a small, rather faded species, not particu- 

.it tractive, but a few days later they were joined by a larger, more 

.ii.iantly colored x-ariety. 

All of tht*se birds were in a pitiful condition when they reached here, as the 

was so deep in the woo<}s at that date that they had not hern able to 

,... K up fiwxl along the way, and many dead and d>-ing ones were found in this 

vuinit> ihn- of these hungry little fellows, picked up in our front yard <«> 

weak hf <t.ul<l not Mand, sit* In-sidc me on the fl<K>r as I write. Kven a few 

' • • I, .1 ,lit t c.f rruml>s and grain did not restore the um* of the little legs but 

..ial> .-1 i!u (lid the work, and gradually he regained his actixity but not 

fie use of hiH winK<«. Pete, as he is calle<l. was given the frce<lom of the glas-s 

' h but it was fully three numths lieforc hr • tci\ the use of his wing^. 

hrn it wa» <l<»ne ver>' carefully. When - >« lilwrty by way of the 

<fl to take it and is spending a hapfiy winter with the plants. 

Ic-wbeat bread crumlis, ground nut-meats and eggyolks. 

^ ing-<Iiihes mutt have sand in the liuttom or be will not use 

>uncea when he is about to take a plunge and weoM to 

iinaiMi iiii iKiiiniiii^ audkiice. Krr>— *'* Hc has been given a mirror and 



240 Bird . Lore 

ip gm it ntidi tioM ^f^^^ in it and imnft puxzlcd about the- rctlct tion. In the 
evtniiif he fr eq u endy Jofait the Umily in (be living-room, M-iiling down near 
the healer. When hit oomradet return in the spring he will be offered hit 
liberty. 

Our pkmed 6eldt and the ttacli-yardt were rich in food for thete hungry 
little f ricndt, and it tvata joy to tee their bodies fill out and to bear their happy 
chatter. Melting tno>ir made ttieant which added to the attraction and 
contentment. 

On May 14, Tree Sparrows arrived in abundance but not a Chipping Sparrow 
wat teen during the tcaton, nor did a Redpoll appear, but I heard of them in 
the fditarod District. We usually have tliem in great numbers. On the 
evening of the 14th, four Snipet and a pair of Baldpates found the stream in the 
ttadi-yard and were with us several weeks. 

The next ni^t, while watching the antics of a Wilson's Snipe, a pair of Varied 
Thnithet were teen to alight on the fence and were the sight of the teatoa. 
In that light, yellow at the yellowett orange, with their bUck marlungt, they 
were beautiful be>'ond description. One of them wat teen three tuccesMve 
evenings, but Dr. Gilbert, of Leland Stanford University, uAd me he taw 
many of them at he came up the Yukon. That same night we saw a Golden- 
crowned Sparrow and counted three in all, while the birds v --- "'-h U5. They 
were not plentiful, that is certain. 

About 15 large birdt, called Cranes around here, lighted on the grounds but 

only for a few minutes. I did not see them, but two yearsago ! ' V of 

24 that remained here for several hours. This tame day, &I-^ >le 

Homed Lark appeared among the Longipurt but wat not welcome; they made 
it ver>' difficult for her to get enough to eat. 

At about 8 o'ckKk in the evening of the 33d, 14 male Golden Plovers 
t1igK<fd in the front >'ard of the Station Cottage and were conttant 
vititort around the house for more than two weeks. A Snnipalmated Plover, 
a Letter Yellow-Legt, and teveral Sandpipers were «een that evening also, 
and 8 huge Ravent circled over the fields. 

The next three days brought a large Hawk, wmcn muid nut U- iiuiuitud, a 
pair of Buff-breatted Sandpipers, a Pacific Loon, and a pair of Pintail Ducks. 
On one of these days a pair of Flycatchers took postettion of the clotbet- 
linet and later buHt a nest under the implement thcd and brought off a family 
of five that wptni the entire tommer with ut. Thete btrdt were a puzxle at we 
could not locate them in any of the bird-bookt we poiteii. There teemed to 
be no difference in appearance between the male and female and fHwn sqiarated 
they uttered loud, piercing calls from the top of the bnOdingt. 

There were Cliff SwaUows in abundance but we did not know when they 
arrived. One of their nests fell from where it was built while the little ones 
were but a day or two old. One wat to badly injured it had to be killed; the 
other three were put in an old Robin't nett on tome cotton, and practically 



With the Birds in AU.ska J4i 

' »vercd with ihe same material. Then the nest was placed on a shelf that was 

!.i-trnr<l to thr huilding, as nearly as possible where the old nest had been. The 

t>.irini biTils then took possession and built the usual mud structure from the 

•p of the Robin's nest to the roof of the building and they raised the family 

vicccasfully. 

On August 6, the Swalkms of both kinds, Violet-Green and Cliff, congre- 

itcd on the clothes and telephone lines, and for three days we were treated to 

ting exhibition of the training of the young, then on the fourth 

dock in the morning, they look their de^iarture. 

\ hird-baih, of which a picture is enclosed, was a lively place all summer, 

•istly by Gambd's Sparrows, for from 4 in the morning until 6 at 

sf>IashM). Occasionally a Robin would comr fur a Itath. and one 




(;.\MBF.L-s sr ARROWS BATfllNCi 

lay, August II, a yelk)w4ireasted bird had a plunge. Two or ihcMr little 
<lk>ws visited a birch tree in the front yanl frequently after that date, until 
the freeze-up, but couUI never be identified. Thr wings were dark and the 
heads and breasts a bright orange-yellow but thrir nuirkings could never be 
Irtermincd as they were very shy. 

A fenude Shrike appeared in September, but left after the first hard freeie. 
During the fall Canada Jays, uniden tifi ed Hawks, and Owls and what kx>kcd 
like Ka^ks, Mtn teen. Five Sparrow Hawks were around for several days. 

The Sparrows left gradually. The ice in the bath was broken fbr them 

MTVcral momingt before their final departure. On September so, one little 

•ne. seeing a member of the family in the yard, came down from a fidd and 

He bath and apparently made a little y cec h . TIm fee was broken for 

.i. : plunge was taken, it uiteml a frw more sounds and was gone. It 



S4t Bird • Lure 



to be Uking a rehicUnt farewdl, tgp tt mia g appreciation for food and 
water furaUied during the teaaon. 

White Gulb were oonmoo all iuiniDer and ooe Brant was leen. A man from 
the camp told ol teeinf a pair of birds in his yard, that from his description 
were thought to be KiDdeers, and upon being shown the pictures of that 
spedes, said that was the bird, without question. 

Now, in December, we have with us a flock of Chickadees, but they are 
never stiU long enouj^ for us to determine which kind; some Spruce Hens, 
three Ravens, and a Hawk Owl, while in the distance we hear what is supposed 
to be a Snowy Owl, but of this I am not certain A W'^-'^fM-Vrr was heard 
but not seen. 

On September lo, 1919, a female Hummingbinl came lu i * urn and 

was with us three days, darting in and out among the petuiuu. »;. ; (lansies 
right under the windows of the house. The evening of the third day it flew 
into the greenhouse door and directly across to the glass on the opposite side. 
I picked it up from the sill where it had fallen and it was held in the palm of 
my hand from 6 o'clock until 10, without moving, when it turned on its side 
and was gone. Apparently there was no suffering, it was simply stunned. The 
next morning, as ikr as the eye could see, all outdoors was a mass of ice and 
sleet, and it seemed a merc>' the little wanderer had perished so easfly the 
night before. One of the oldest pioneers here teUs me he has seen Humming- 
birds on the Yukon and that the natives report seeing them occasionally. 




J^otti from iFielb anb .^tulip 



A Bird BattU 

In (nmt oi a houM in PiincdoB, N. J., 
•tandft an old liiMkn. Sv/tnl ymn fo the 
upper part of the trunk became decayed, 
IcaviiV a cooditioo that has pro\-ed b pre- 
u tomtom very alluring to FUckcn in 
rchdaMating-place. For mom weeks 
tpri^ a pair ol that tpedca had been 
>ly cUmUbc a hole bto the trunk. The 
t was apparently about ready for their 
. .1 when a pair of Starlings arrived to dt*- 
limafMJnn of it. Birds of the latter 
«,K^i<-> uke to lay their eggs in the hoUow of 
a tree, but as nature has not equipped them 
ih an escavatii^ apparatus, they often ap- 
;>riaU holes made by other birds. 
A hen the pair of Starlings arrived for the 
i. .>n!v the male Flicker was on guard; 
<i not pot in an appearance at 
nder wouM pauM in hb elforu 
! complete the nest, io order to 
to rout nret one and then the other of the 
.rtti«K, but the latter proved very spry in 
• ijrii« and very pstsisicnt ia retoraing to 
>*nnch in the ImmwHate nci^borbood, 
ncdmcs ali0rtta« on the trunk itself , either 
• above or bdow the hole. Their manner 
^ near and opening their beaks, as if 

ri (aces' St the defender of the hole, 

all the while cmitttag their discordant notes, 
M have been peculiarly irriuting to the 
cker. who would dart after the intrudv 
a pursue him thnmgb the air and over 
xBchca, but wouU never quite come op 
;hhlm. 

!:> I he cowse of OM of these chases, one of 
liafs plui«ad into the hole. Tbcr»' 

i»e Flicker, bracing his feet and tail 

^inst tbr trunk, p roceeded by a Moomrion 

rapid thnals of hand and beak Into the 

le to poD the oisadv out The Starting 

at «m rmlsud s uu M rf aHy. but In the end 

he was sbwiy diagpd out, and, nft« a ibort 

tmale In the afar, made hit «Knp«. 

Both Startfaws thMimnmad thdr tactics. 
sMf trying byflighttolurelhc Flicker swsy 
Irvn the spot that he was guarding. If that 



waa their game, they succeeded, for, taking 
advanti«r of the Flicker's momentary ab- 
sence, one of the Starlings entered the hole 
and a few seconds later the other popped in 
too. On thtt second occasion, despairing of 
beii« able to pull the two out at long range, 
so to speak, the FUdwr also plunged into the 
hole. Then followed a battle royal, lasttag 
for what aeemed mimitcs. It was rather 
ghastly to imagine the blows that were being 
dealt St closest quarters; not a sound was 
emitted, but one could imagine what was 
goii« on within the hole by the feathers that 
flew from it. The first bird to emerge that 
is, to be pushed out, by fractions of an inch- 
was one of the StarU^p, whkh then flew 
away. The fight between the other two 
birds then continued out of sight until some- 
thing appeared at the mouth of the hole. 
This proved to be the tail of the Flicker. 
When he had backed out of the hole into view 
once more, it appeared that be and the re- 
nwinii« Starling had clinched in a desp erate 
grapple. With the latter gripping one of the 
wii«iof the Flicker, they fell, fluttering and, 
fil^tiBC a distance of nearly 40 feet; but 
just before touching the ground, they parted 
and flew in different directions. After that, 
each was apparently too much nhansled or 
too bwy in tryii« to heal his wounds to 
ranew the battle, and so the shadm of night 
fell, leavli« neither aide trhnaphant. 

The above cvanta ooottred a fortnight ago. 
Since thai the Startii«i have bean in fufl 
^u■iw■inn of the hole of oontntlon. The 
Flicker has appeared once or twice in that 
neighborhood but has not dared or cared to 
dii|Mta their title.— Stdkiy RicmoMD 
Tam, i ^fw wl ia. N. J. 



Cardinal and Other BIffda 
at Kellogg. Minn. 

I should Uke to report a nrt vtsitani tor 
this part of the ooontry. Lart Sondajr, whOe 
I was hiking along a railroad track at the 
(not .,{ > Ur»r hilt north of town. I was snr- 



(MJ^ 



Bird - 1 ••rc 



arris 



'4irrbiicd male. It 
(k. TbepfttrManed 
. to the heavy timber 



there, t 
TuniiiiK about 

l.r 



I caught 



di»- 



ycan. ' t «rint«' 1 mw 

what I tnuugnt Ha* n I afnitMl in the woods 
umr hoc, but It 0cw away tirfan: I ooidd 
laB whether it wa» a Cafdina' 
baak. I have made a 9tif 
MiuMnU fainb for t« 
never before aeen a par 
(ar north. 

Late in NovTmber, 1990, 1 discovered an> 
other very rare visitor in the ooutm of my 
numerous traaafM akag river aad lagooo. 
TUs was th» FOeated Wo odpeck er . The 
oiOy ooe ol tbaw birds I have seen in this 
i^mherelafan was at Taylor's Falls. This 
bird, I rcgrslfalbr report, was wantonly shot 
by a ao<alled Inmtcr. 

Winter viiitaBts have been quiu rare in 
lUs vicinity during the past winter. The 
Downy Woodpecker, Chickadee, and an 
occadooal Jay were about the only birds 
to be ioond. But the ^ving mignilioii b 
oauMaKy caily and has brought a goodly 
quote of aoagslccs.— OvKM D. Fumcss, 
KO^a* yym^ April 6, iggt 

Two Rare Kentucky BoBCSters 

The bird-lover south of the Ohio River can 
acaroely opect to hear th« songs of ioaw of 
the hirdi of the Canadian wiUs. e^Mdally 
such as the Winter Wren and Northern 
Watct^Thruili. However, it was my good 
fortmw to Uilai to both of thew birds during 
the spring migrsrion of iqtt. 

On the morning of April 17. I was in a 
narrow sCHp of woods bordering a small 
stream, had Just raoordsd my fint arrival 
of the Oat aad was Ustcnfaig to the great 
multitude of MMgMan, whoi a I 



^iing. 
1 mr. 
.if a 
re it 
litch. 
. the 

■ rjTO 



ticc away. 

id III liut I was 

. and as it rr- 

rft, it gave roe 

ay first opinion 

^ described by John 

avade of melody," 

reaaed with the 

4>QK»ten are so 

•s inter homes as 

' ■ n in 

1. the 



•ang>J 
•firdf 



In a few minulr» 
top of the brush, 
its esquisitr 
recognised a& I --- 
heard, seemed to be 
Atfintsi^t Iwa< - 
Ustening to a Wi 
turned to (>i 
every opport 
Its fine sUvrr 
Burroughs a^ 
and as I list' 
(act that son 
rarely heard 
to be themv 
In this bird I 
timelhadex' 
latest date I 
Twice in ^ 

served, and ! -- .. '' 

was firrt hcmrd on May is, in a small a|M-n 
woods that would hardly be expected tu 
attract a bird that b as rrtiiing as the 
Water-Thrush. It was about 3$ feet up in 
tn*. where it sanf wversl time*, the mn 
tinual tilting of >< 
due as to its idri 
down to a dump of willows about so yards 
distant, where I got a good view of it and 
ooofiinied my identificatioB. Its saag i> 
different from that of the Louisiana Water - 
Thrush, being high pitdied and liquid, ami 
w m i Bde d me of the Wbti- ^ni; 

tiMNiiJb it was not as fine an<l 
J. BuNCOK, BordMMHh Ky. 



White Bgrott at Smithtown. N. Y. 

On July 16, 1931, I Mw a pair of birc 
which I recogniaed as American Egrets, 
have seen that almoct daily since that 
aad^mnabcrhasBow(Aug. 18) I 



Notes from Field and Study 



US 



to ! 

brf. 



abo the tact t 
irrre ttaa^iin. 
•ad I r^ 
Hnallrr. 

.V r. 



>Ut OQCT 



How 

-fV! 



m to be about 5 in< 



White Egret in Connecticut 

'!) Jul> 18, t<;.M, in company with Henry 

- »i. of Fuhcr't Island, N. Y., I saw 

rrican E(frt», 00 a manh near the 

in ui the Coanectioit Kirtr, near Old 

-TIC, Coon. We identified than by their 

•w bilk and black leck.~BLAiK S. 

UAXS, Stm Ymk City. 

A Plickcr'a Bed 

' ir niK^t, the tatter part of November 

.-o), whca the weather was beginning to 

. old and ttorngr, we foioid we had a new 

lodger. 

The balhroooi b 00 the north side o( the 

«e, with the window quite dole op lader 

tavn, and here a Red-shafted Flicker 

tocatrd. He bad gotten i^) as far as 

•ibie under the eaves and was dinging by 

toea to the saeca. Jort aboitt half of hb 



••■Be ni^ta when tbt wind was quite 

i« he would sway froas side U> side, but 

•ImI nut «rrm In diftturb him in the least, 

•lays he would go to 

i.i. a...iiiooiiaBdbe upat 7 

c llr never Meowd alamcd 






,mii« 

.4MOt he would fad 
whrn a bad aiglit 

• fic has been 

ttoi 



llnri: A 



Chimney tiwins in haii and iiprtng 

For many years I hava waldMd tha «&• 
gnitioo of the Chltusy Swtfts, aad iMi^ 



suddm drparturr irom us in latr Mpt^nbcr 

has always been a myitcry to OM. Por.soaw 
days the cold blue or doudy iky would be 
without these darting, qukk-wia^ obiectSi 
and, suddenly, soase evwhig Just before smi- 
Mt. certain favorite c hi— eys about tows 
lid suck into them sticaas of these liviag 
...ings. I arose one morning before sunrise, 
fktcrmincd to discover when they came out 
Just at suwise, this ndsty morning late in 
October, the fart SwUt came 'over the top', 
and thea followed 347 birds. I counted on 
to over 400, aad thea lost track of them. 
They went off over the Hudsoa into the mist, 
and I waited to see what would foDow. In 
a few minutes I was surprised to fad them 
coming back out of the mist and fog and 
oouated over soo birds as they dropped back 
into the ddamey. After wutiag half an hour 
for some mofvcmait of the birds, I gave it «f> 
and left the Swifts in the cfainmey to work 
out their own fate. 

The spring adgmtion has varied from 
April 19 to April 30, as to dates of my fart 
Swift aad thb year (i9>i) I did not see any 
over the dty until April 27. For days 
there have been no Swifu about, and woa- 
deriag iHiat had bcooaie of theaa, I reaaarked 
to oae of the BMa ia tha oAoe of a huge 
plaster works here, that I w o n d ere d what had 
of the Chfaaaey Swifts, as I had aoi 
aay for sevcnl days. The weather had 
beea wet and cold, aad insect life not very 
abundant. The Swallows I have often seca 
skimming over the water where they scoop 
up iasecto fkiatiag oa it, but I have acver 
notked the Swifts do this. OaeofthaaMa 
ia thb oflke told aw ha kacw where the 
*S«allows* were, as he had sesa them go dowa 
tha big cUmasy at tha foot of SoaUi StrseC, 
aad said we would go tip aad kaock agstasl 
thaddmaeyaadgetthsmout. Wawaatup 
aad he look a biia sloaa aad baagsd it 
i^siasl the ddamsy, as we assd to baag a 
rtldt ^riMt a ties wksrs a Hawk had a east, 
aad b a few msmiats we saw a Swift 
ovar tha top, aad e«t thsjr csaw b 
thrsss, aad ivas, sad probably over 400 
birds came out bto tha rala aad adsL b 
about half aa hoar, thsy bsgsa to rrtura aad 
we kit them psaosfufly b tksir roost. Thb 
I am sam b a Hrtaf* oa Ihdr aerth. 



M« 



Bird . Lore 



wild sad MVlkwMd oriintiaM and Imm IwM 
oMd for BHajr fmra. Tkt bll micimtkiat are 
onUBMy lHippCBtai(i« but tnis npitaf nMSIwi 
has beta « mtm am tm me, and I aofipow 
Umh May have baoi ttortk boond, aad wtn 
bdd 19 bare by tba matuai weatber. — F. 
B. RoumoH, I f mim i k. \ ) 

An Uouaual Accidaat 

A foaak Hu mmJin b ii d was mcb by my 
ad bar playnatca Ayiaf about 

sttflBftoiy itt tcftiCB oi ui0Bctt» •• cftukfi lO coo* 

lACt villi ft pflOdlUOQi OMM of €0bvcO| b^ 

CftfltS COsftSflSOlL ftfMi 900B DlUH MHDCBQOQa 

bead dowwaaid. flutteriac to cacape. Tbe 
cbildrea nnbed to me and I ran for a pole 
loQit mo^nh to reach the little bird. Soon 
thr maM of web broke and the bird. Mill 
hetplaw, fluttered within reach of the children. 

Gently I took the tiny, gUttcring bird, no 
bf|er than aome motha I had teen in the 
Tropica, aad with tbunb aad fore finger I 
dcaned the right wii«, aad thea the left 
which waa alao tied to the tail by encirriing 
cobweb. Then the feet were alao deaned 
aad the bird, set free, flew iato a very tall 
elm tree to finish the preening ia her own 
mora perfect faahioa* 

An aoddent like thia probably hw| yfft t 
very midy. Ahhou^ I have loved aad ob> 
aerved tba birda an nqr Ufe, thia waa the firrt 
time I have bean privflafed to aid a Huin- 
miagbird with aay owa haada. — Ralfb E. 
DAMfotra, /•frty, N. H. 

A Orackta'a IntolUgaaoa 

We feed the birdi eoastantly, uafaig eaadi 
of varioua Unda, aaet, chame aad variona 
other kiada of food to attract aa omay 
Hwdm aa pomiblr. On the ohcif waa aome 
bread, wUdi had beooaae lathar hard aad 
dry, owiag to the «acaariv<i heaL Oac of 
the pieoea of bread taken by a Gncfcle waa 
too huge to be awaOowed at oaa gulp, being 
too dry aad uay ieldli g . After aevcnlnaano- 
ciaafulattampta at awaPowiag the bread, Ae 
Crackle flew to a bird-bath. aoaK t» feet 
away, aad dipped the bread iato the water— 
onoe^ twicub three tiuMa— but the bread wa* 



otill too hard. Afaia aad agate the bird 
wouU Immarii hia piece of bread, uatil 
fiaally, it dl m ppe arad without further effort. 

Oa aevenal o ccaa io na faUely Mother has 
aotioed Gtaddca f^r to the feaoe, adJoininK 
the bath, aad thea Juaap dowa to the bath, 
but ahndibefy ooncealad any further thing the 
bird did with the bread. This baa happened 
ao friM|uaatly tlut Mother haa p oadewd 
about the nwtter quite a bit but aiace nar- 
ratiag aiy obaervatioa, we have ooodudcd 
that thb Crackle haa been doing thia re- 
peatedly. 

It may be of interest to bir<f know 

tlut bread luui proved a great t>4iin 

my garden, than any other food. We take 
old bread— quite a good-aiaed piece— and soak 
it in cold water, until thoroughly toft. Then 
aquecic out the accaa of water and break 
tbe bread intounall piecea. Thcae pieces the 
birds can then readily tear teto piecca aa small 
aa they widi. Bread soaked te thb way is 
rribhc«! V, Bluebird, Cardteal. 

CatbinI muse. Wood Thrush, 

and Thraalier. ri»c quantity mnwnned by 
tlie Bludiinl is anuutng, te view of tike fact 
that it b luppoaed to be almost entirely 
inaectivoroua. 

We also feed dry bread, allowing it to get 
vc^r dry, and then reducing its sise on a 
grater. But the unsked bread b the chief 
attraction at my ^' -3 ten before an] 

other food b touch* 1 <• aho proved 
choice bait for my bparrow trap.— C. 
HlNM-s. Cimdmmnii f^ltit 

Redwings and Caterpillars 

The Blue ]\y% and CudLoo* havr 
given crrdit fur their useful wnrk in di 
lag teat caterpillars ar 
peat to the UMau of th> a^\ 

bird. Tbe fruit trees in our 
have been overrun with tent cat 
the last three seasons. Two different 
I have found the Red-wii«ed BL 
buaily eagaged te teariag open the 
of the teat caterpillars aad eatiag the dir 
alb. 

It b intereating to note that at no 
time do the Redwings leave the swamp 
4he lake shore nearby to viait our 



Notof from Field ind Study 



«47 



Tbcy tMMi to lake M> iatcmt in the catrr- 
pilkn la the toits but oa^ after they have 
^lm tkdr cocDoa*.— If . I. Cohpiom^ SttUk, 
Wuk. 

OoldAachca N«M in Thiadaa 

Oa Aogtttt 8, 1915, while walking in a 
paatorc cootalaiBg fluay laifc thfatiea, I 
noticed a G<4dtedi fly into one ol tbnt 
thitllct, and htcr foond it was bviUiag a 



A Song Sparrow Family 

SooKtioMa in our qmrti for biidi ol fayer 
planes and rarer qiedes, we pass by the 
BMxe apparently fandHar and the more di> 
rectly useful ones. It was on one of these 
questo that the author of Uds artide was 
stopped by a soMdl boy, who knew of the 
hxatioa of a bfad's^aest fnm which the 
mother bird walked as if rbe were lame*. 




A SONG SPAKROW t^AMILt 



%i io iL On Aufurt as, ttiete were Ave 1 
this ncrt and the bird was sittioc. On this 
day I found three mote MSla b thb 
pastarr. all in thirties; one Mrt bod 6 
oor had 4, and one bad >. On Scpfnbsf 5, 
■^'1 (our nests had yooBf birds. 

We had been having soase very severe 
rAiastorms Jusl pedvioos to this hsC daU, 
and one of the tUrtlca bad falka over, but 
the birds were Sim in the Mit, notwilhalaad- 
ii« the fact thai the nsrt was tlppod very 
mack. On IFipl—iiw is, all bat two of ttts 



birds nearby which were able to fly and were 
•<Hi« fed by the old birds. 

la 1916, I tipwled to And tka 
n(«th« In tUslka aad fowd aikifl rii I 
of thew birds b lUs OHM partwa, but thqr 

«-fe all in trtea.— ClAttWCS If. 

v/Tao. ra,. 



Accord in gly, a trip was made to the nest, 
and, true to nature, the bird left the neat 
very cmntioasly and with both wings dose 
totbeground. The nest proved to be that of 
a Song Sparrow. It was built 00 the grooad 
near a mmII wObw tree which was oidy about 
t6 bcbes high. The leaves of the willow 
aflofdsd ample shade from the ray* of the 
SOB. Thsro wero Ihne birds and two eggs 
bthensit. 

This d i scovery accountad for the aalhor's 
baarii« for several nnrabp praviooi le the 
flndfa« of the nest, the boIm of a Soag 
Sparrow, which was most bvarisMjr | 
either on a i snc e peal or 00 the 
wire. And se^ morabg after 
•vanbg after evMbg, thaia cwlb» sd the 
same outpourbg of seat ftPHii a bappjr bM. 

About a waA blar, Mothv vWt WW aadt 
10 tka Mrt. awl flvt aJI fli»rfoBi d bMs 



MS 



Bird - Lore 



the uImwiwi 
TW IfaM wm turn bvonble (or 
pktWH, w Iht rmmtn «m mc oa a tripod. 
A irihlfaw «M •ttadMd to Um tinittsr rv 
Into aad portnit Wm wm omiL Tbc clop 
«a»/:t, Md tht flBpoMVO i-soUi o^ • Mooad. 
Tkt caMf» vMonbd faOtlifulljr tkc biid ol 
tiM idd to it» dMiBctcrirtk poMt. The 
lor laktog the pldarae vera aleo 
M the Ay «M bright, aad the pMcnt 
bifdi vcfe (ceding theymagqailcdeqneBtly. 
The bill^-(afe wm giBwhnppwi, aad it «m 
ccrtaialy • bod aftcrooon (or the orthopten 
tothevidaityollhbMrt. ThntoutmuMii- 
bl» ol tlw Sponowt Me wdl adapted (or 
kilitag gnMdMppen.— Tkm. A. TAPsa, 

The Migration ol inc MarttO 

Aogurt ij, 1910. a (ricnd called at my 
iMMMe aad waated to kaow U I woidd tike to 
I ol Purple Martiat which were 
«a the riwre ol Lake Wiani- 
aboat thne adks loath ol hcrr. I 
viritcd the place aboat $ o'docfc that alter- 
aooa, aad oa the electric wiica bcride a large 
iaclary buBdtog I oouated 176 bird*. At 
then were about 60 each wirce that were 
coaipblcly cwvcred with the Unla, I fed 
JaMiied to myiag that there were over 10,00a 

I virited the place agato AqguM 39 aad 
there were apporeatly doable the aaadicr 
that were there oa the tTth. Other bfad- 
loven viritad the place the aest day aad 
eraMalad there ware joipoo Purple Ifailiaa 
gKDag raaay nr laew nag atgat* sei^ 
tembfr i I rcturaed to the place aad not 
oae Ifartto waa to be leea.— Blaku D. 
SAMBoaii, LaemtU^ N. B. 

A R ada ia rt Tragedy 

At a HaaaMT caa^i which I have, I aiake 
aa ftfort to eaooange aertiag birds, aad thia 
eeaaoa have had wanally bad tock aa 
aearly every aert baa beea brokea op. Soaie, 
I kaoWf profaably are dertroyed by Cniwa, 
bat there waa aa tostaaoe reoeatly which I 
caaaoc cj^lato: There waa a EedMart aeet 
with foar hatf^rofwa yoaag aad at dark oae 

an 



tight, aad whea I looked at the »Ml ehortly 
after daylight the acit aoratog. I ioaad that 
the aaither bird waa dead oa the aeet aad the 
youag had beea palled out o( the aeet and 
UDed aad were lyiag oa the branches acar 
the aesL The mother's bead was picked as 
i( by some other bird. 

There are, of onuie. Crows, Owls, red 
s qai ne h , and Hawka, bat it does not seem (•• 
aw that aay oae ol Uwae coaU kill the uM 
bird before she oould leave the neat, and i< 
they dfal, I shouU think they woaU surdy 
carry her and the youag away, or at least 
throw tlicro out oa the grouad. 

The nest was high caoagh up » that 
aotbiag oouM reach it ftom the grouad. 
Can aayoae cspbto thto tragedy?— Hiuuiv 
.\. Sucmta, damaenl, N. It. 

Wren Attacks Sqairrel 



We were aaach smused aad toterestod ooe 
nwmiiig recently, while eating breakfast oa 
our porch, to see our little fricad the Wrea 
scoop doara upoa her eaeny the gray squirrel 
edio waa trytog to steal (rum the (eediag- 
boi. Many times did she dart at his head 
and each time he was cnmpHlrd to find 
riMHer. She (toaBy s acceeded to driving him 
away entirriy while the fauger birds looked 
OB, but took no part. — Mas. AaTHi'a W. 
Bbuttkaix, C lw i c e r , lUi. 

A Wisconsin Mockingbird 

On November i6, iqso, when the south- 
ward migratloa was almost conaplet e, a Moch- 
ingbird appeared to our little dty and look 
up wtotcr quarters to the trees and shrubbery 
o( a hal(-4ooea adjoiaiag gardeas. This bird 
maaiaed sll wtotar, (eetfiag nmialy on as- 
bcnka aad the (ndt ol the Mrxinia 
By February it waa willing to (ccd 
nnrarinaany oa the bittersweet. When the 
saow thawed oaoagh to leave the ground 
bare to patches, the bird may have secured 
soase inaect (ood, but the amount must have 
been very smalL 

The wtoter was imusuaOy mOd, so thej 
period ol song coatlaaed tin about Deoeadiorj 
I. The aotca, however, were subdued aadj 
lacked the brflUaaoe ol 




NoMt rrom Field and Study 



M9 



Ftkrauy ti ft afld period i 
6v* <k]r». Ev«y day during ibfe fmkd it 
Mag, unBDy whoi tlw nmUae WM wwHMrt. 
A rrtura of the cold OMde it riknt till tbc 
wanntk of ipriag bcfUk Now, oo llarch 
3$, U b liagiag with aD the JoyfuliMM <d the 

Ifaagr tisMi tUa coonMoui f ^f^ ** co- 
dund tab a er o weather, the ookfaat being 
Evidently food father 



than teafwrature ii the large (actor in bird 
migration. 

iUvcr Falla, alnwet on the forty-fifth paral- 
lel, ta far north of the usual ruigc of the 
Moddi^bird; and, to far aa I know it it the 
(arthcat north the bird baa aver been weo. — 
LtovD GontB, JUnt FoBt, Wi$. 

Robin'a Naat on a Trolley Wire 

The accompanying photogr^jh was takm 
near Neenah, Wis. Can pewrd under thb 
nest every few minutea, their trolley being 
only a few inches bdow iu On each occasion 
the Robin stood up, then settled back on the 
naoL In spita of this H M v ^fft and the 
exposed position of their home, the biids 
raised their brood.— H. P. Skvbhom.. 
Wis. 



r ^ 


■ 


• 





ROBI.S'S KEST ON A TKOLLSY WIRS 



THE SEASON 
XX VII. June IS. 1921. to August 15. 1921 



B<>»TuN KsoioM.— The notable feature of 
thr prnrtit «ununer was the rsooid rainfall 
in July. A foot of water fsO d«rii« the 
namth, cUeiy in heavy stonaa. On the 9th 
a suoceasion of thundsr-ahowew, accooH 
panird by a drenching downpour, left behind 
over 4 iodica of tain, a renaurfcable precipita- 
tion for a single day. Foftnaataly, tbayoung 
bifdi, for the most part, wars wiHrlsnUy 
wsO-gimm to withstand such peril Radtha 
storm coow aaiUer It wooU, withovt doubt, 
have proved dHaatrons to onr satallsr birds. 

Pladtfli« RoUna and BInsbMi el the 
saoond brood wars aaily on the wlag, aa these 
^Mdes started to broad soonsr than usual 
aftar their arrival In Iha^if1i«. Utvbrsad- 
lag bfada also appaarsd lo ceoplala thsir 
aaMiag activltiei proiBpCly, aidad by favor- 



able wcdlhrr cutuliliuiu w Jiuti. ludcttl, the 
season of courtship and nesting, when bfadi 
are In (uD song, activa, conspicuoui, and aa 
vary buqr, paaad quickly this year, and avaa 
during the iMt days of July, after a aasMM 
of quiet and asoult, it was apparent that the 
birds had begun to nwv« In large naaben 
toward the south. Thus carfy the aolaa of 
■dgratiag biida ware heard fraqamliy dariag 
tha aight, aad iniasHaiM la Iha daytlaM 
bird* ware ssea aad heard, avidsatly kmr* 
lylag eoothward. Oa August 1 I picked up 
a WatafwThnA which had Just atrack a 
w la dow-paaa, a bird traviUag far fai advaacs 
of lis avanfa adgrarina tiaw. 

Aaother faidkatioa of tha early esasoa Is 
tha data aa wMdi tha BaltlaMta Oriafaa ha- 
gan thair ■nralagplplag Forawcckortwa 



as© 



Bird . Lore 



bdofi llwjr kftvt kcvt for tlMir wtotar <|«m- 
tcn Ik* Orloln, •ficr • lai« p«fad ol il- 
Immb, «yilk • f c« thort phimMi fai Um int 
boon of Um day. TUt mhmmt tiMy boiui 
to pipe f ally « wadi Mittor Umb to u •vcr> 

A oot o woftlor tocrcMt to Um biwdtog 
•lalioM ol tte Skort-faOlod Hank Wim wm 
ooHfvoa m IMS vMjBUjr* fni onwvutoB 
b of ■«« Umb pMotog totarm bocMW Ni«> 
Ian, vfiltog of «Mlm MmmkIuwCIs to iSja 
(OMd Bivdi.' p. 4jS). reported thiU tUt 
Mfd't voior niilit be kcaid '*(raiB the bofden 
of nmy low nanh apd wtC meadow, pro- 
\idcd wiUi tiModcs of ■edir grai," whereat 
WiUiuB BrcwMer ('Binb of the Catobrk%e 
Rcstoa.' 1906, p. 370) aaya of the qwdca 
**wNr of tofreqoHU occurreace, diidly dwtag 



la the light of theae facta, it wodd be of 
ertfOBe totercat to leara how wfafcqxcad this 
ia v arfoB ia— whether or aot the bird hot 
lately beca brrma i n g bknv aaaMvooi to the 
cooatry to the aovth of thia RgliML— -WiMoa 
M. TruB, lariagtea. Mtu. 

New YoKK RnaoH.— Thia year ihoce- 
bifda were afato aauMally early to reachtaf 
Loaf Uaad to aoitthwani aiigrfina, eapc^ 
dally the Umct YeUow-^ep. Oa Jdy 10, 
forty to fifty of thb ^Mdea were obaerved 
at Mastk, a very lai|e aaa^Kr for that date. 
Two or three, llkdy BMwa, Stilt Sandpipeta 
with then aad a ^VllBoa'a Saipe put up froai 
dead aooy ittibbte oa the mow aaeadow at 
that tlBK, appear to be the eailieat Lai« 
la h wd d atra for thow two^wdea l ea p e cti re ly. 
The aaBK b tnic of a kaw Leaat Soadpiper 
ofaaerred oa Juae as, whkh fave every ap- 
peaiaaoe of hctog to active aouthwaid ad- 
giatka, althoaih the Snnipatoiatwl Saad- 
piper aad two or three other ^Mdea are iOBw- 
ttom alio awvtoiaorthaa late as thb. Aa 
AaMricaa Ep«t at Ifaatfc oa July 16 b early. 
A white Haraa at Port Jcffcnoa, Augurt 1 j, 
waa pauhahly of the aaaw ^Mdea, which 
b nported froai that vidaity Auguat 1 by 
R.C. Murphy. la the writer^ eitpericaoe the 
Egret b of aKve frequeat o cuanta here- 
aboala thaa the Little Btoe B 
the lattw pnbably oataai^ban it, I 

! to mbI ia^ tataad «f ri^iy «r 



two Ingrthw. The 
«f toBd biid adgratioa are ohicun ualHa 
oae has eppo r t u aity to give iheai eapedal 
attcathai. Tree SwaOowt are prcMat to 
aoawwhat toiler nunbera thaa (or the last 
year or two. Bara Swallows are adgratiag 
eaat to wart over Loag lahad Souad by day. 
Northera Water-Thrushw have beca praseat 
dace Jdy, aad oa recurriag favorable aighta 
la i ir a dag l y frequeat li^dag Warbler aotcs 
ooaae from the sky overhead. Aucu«t 1 > to 
ij was such a fa\'orable aight. 

la the opiaioo of Mr. Ludkm k..^..,., 
August naigratko of Uixl-biids thb ynr b 
the earliest oa record. He fiads the faOoarfa^ 
daU of e^wdd toteresL MIgiaat Shrike, 
Ei^lewaod. N. J.. At«ust 9 ( E. R. P. Jan- 
vrto); Myrtle Warbler. Rhiaebeck. N. V . 
August II and daily since (M. S. Crasby;; 
inainfiekl,N. J.. At«wt t j (W. D. W. MiUer), 
Red4Measted Nuthatch. Rhinebccfc, N. Y. 
August tt and daily atoce (M. S. Crosby); 
New York City, August ij (Ludtow Grb- 
com).— J. T. NiCBOU, JITew KerA Cffy. 

Waibimctom Rbgion.-— Bird-life about 
Washington duitog the anaths of Juae aad 
Jdy. loii, was characterised by little of 
more than ordinary totercat. Comparativriy 
few of the traasieats remained much aftrr 
June t, notwithstaadlag the awderatc tem- 
perature of the totter part of May aad the 
early part of Juae. Wliatevcr effect the hot 
wcttther of July aad the last third of Juae 
oaay have had oa the htoaaa popdatioa, it 
■rrmwl to have UtUe or aoae oa the birds, 
hcyoad the nsud addday rrhiatina. The 
resideat spedea have beea just as aiach in 
evideace as during the cooler weather, and 
the sii^tog d sodi birds aa the Wood Thrush, 
Robto, rarrtinal, ladlgo Buattog. Song Spar- 
row, Scarlet Taaager, Redstart, Ydkn^ ' 
Uer, House Wrea, Ycitow-throated < 
aad Red-eyed Vbeo ooetmued as nsud 
throughout the whtaite d Jdy. 

An Americaa Egret, seea by Miss M. J 
Pellew oa Akuader Island, to the Di»- 
trkt d Cduadiia, oa Jdy 7, wai oae day 
earUcr thaa tea oarUeat previous appear- 
aaca to saauacr, u^fch was July 8, 1894. 

Two fSBMk BoboHnks were aeea oa June 
IS at the BMBlk d the Plalapaoo River, is 



■^^(sbmmL No males were Dotrd, and il b 
rolMblc that thU docs Dot reprawnt » bleed* 
>c reoofd, MCwfUMtaadinc ilw totcawi of 

lie dat*. 

' Stuart leporu that a 

>fminm nade its ap- 

•eanuKC OB the caapus of the Uohrosity of 

inn'nLa ahuut Jiflw a6, aad ICflMhwd thefv 

t July to, in full tong and ap- 

>iriiii.> •4U1IC unaware that he was far away 

-un his umbI smwner home, and equally 

nooMctous of the interest that Us p tta um 

I each a place at such a time aroused. 

I hr Eurapcaa Starling b breeding about 

u ^^iiingtoa in increasing nwnben, utfliring 

hrrrihiciy the natural hallows of trees. The 

Kinl has become a fomm o n sight in the Md» 

wrll as in the city of Washington itacU, 

t)d docs not appear seriously to molest 

(her birds. 

Purple Martins have again rrturncd 
>r roost on the MaU opposite titc Red 
(oesBuBding along 17th Street. They first 
:>peared here on June 11, and have oon- 
nued to return to the mme place, altiiough 
irir Dumber* much d e cr e as e d during the 
Iter part o( July. They are apparently a» 
^ticM a.4 thr>- were last year, when they 
aniccd their roostingiilnoe several times 
iring the Monmer. There sre not ao many 
sorting to the roost thb year as p revio us ly 
it the gsthcring possibly may be much 

irmmlnl (limnff the month of AugUSt. — 

iiount, BwrfsfifW 5Mr«ry. 



Kt.<tuv fcjucmive and ron- 

has mnitsd thb period as one 

••ticst mmmfn for fifty ynnrs, and has 

he endurance of the osost hardy ob> 

nrcrs when in the field. Mamy nests hsve 

m rnM.Mr«|, howcver, and early nrfjr"»«"" 

-rady coming in. 

< rnr ,n mc most interesting nests was tnai 

the lUadc-and-Whlte Warbbr, found by 

V D. Richardson in lh« Dunes in June. 

A held four «ni when found and was 

^uiMd unto Ihsyowig lew. Tbonartonly 

^e or two othv nwting records (or this 

'<xks in thb region. On June iS, Mn. 

o«n Immd a nast of the Pmirb Waibbr 



The SemtoB 



»Si 



rontatiun^ t<'ur ckk'". in the Duncs, from 
which the young ilcw July j. On the same 
day a pair of BluO'Wingcd Warblers and a 
YcBow-thraated Viico were seen, but no 



At Beach, HI., on July 34 I found a pair 
of Blue-gray Gnatcatchers feeding almost 
full-grown young. The young were catching 
insects, too, but had not outgrown the habit 
of opening their mouths and quivering their 
wings when the old bird caose near, for which 
they were often r e w ar ded. Thb bird b a 
rare breeder north of the dty but b more 
rommnn in the Dunes where Mr. Ford and 
Mr. Richardson found a number of nests thb 
year. Mr. Ford abo reportfed four nests of 
the Ruby-throated Hunmih^bird. 

Mr. Wm. Lyons, of Waukegsn, in con- 
Dcctioo with his banding work found thirty- 
five nests of fourteen different species, from 
which he banded ninety-four birds. These 
iochide Spotted Sandpiper, Baltimore Oriole. 
Crested Flycatcher, and Downy Woodpecker. 
The fcBMle Downy was one of three birds 
he banded but January and had stayed to 
breed in his orchard. Mr. Harper reports the 
Scarlet Tanager and Virginia Rail brecdiaK 
at River Forest, and Mr. Watson a few pairs 
of Dicfcciaseb breeding on the far south side 
ofthedty. I have noticed a decided soudty 
of Ydkm Warblers thb ycni^-in places 
where they have always been caoHMW pre- 
viously no nests were found and only one or 
two birds seen. 

The early migratian notes have to do 
mainly with the shore-birds. Mr. Benjamin 
T. (iauli has made an extensive study of 
their movemcnU al Llnooln Pnrk. The 
first seen were the Least, Scndpnlmnted, and 
Pedond S n n dpi pw e en July i7f end the 
btter tgdn on the soth. On the a4th, be- 
sides these, the Leaser Yellow-bgs, Sender- 
ling, and Semipnlmated Plover were no> 
<ed,aboonthes8th. ThejistaTumstonr 
was added In the list, and August j all cs- 
fft fiH the Lsaal and Sendpahnnled SuMl- 
pipeis were seen. Mr. Leerb* notes d e p l ^ 
cate soae of the above but add C i en lw 
Yillow hp, AngttM s. M Hyde Lnke, end 
Sandrrtfay and Ruddy TwMtnnM. Jely 
it. in the Dunes; July S4* on Dsnd Lnks^ at 
I found sbigeiodK of Gienlw and 



tSt 



Bird - Lore 



Yrflpw lip, FMttml Mid LmttL or 

14 I ipart Um aiglrt tlwra but altkoaili the 
wind rtwi^ wdiMjr to Ibc aofth It 
bfooflit ao bink with it, five Gnotcr Ycl> 
low hi Md • potf of Jack Salpm boii«tlw 

Bbck Tmm fint appmni oa the lokc 
JfJtf 10; ifda 9tm tkt tjfk, oad data thca 
kovc boca oaaoMa; BoMtporte** Gulb, July 
aS tad SI tad Aopat j «ad t4- Coeuaoa 
Term, AtigiMt 14- Oa July s, la the D«d« 
Mr. Ford fouad • loac WUkt; he «m able 
to obasrve It ckady aad beard iu call, to 
ideattfcatlaa b poaitlvT. Mr. Gault fouad a 
Mallard fan Uaoob Park Aucutt j, with 
yooai about two week* old. While tbbauiy 
bava beaa oae of the park Ducka, the hue 
iccoiu wot yana^ wwawl worth BMatioataif* 

la the laat icport the Kcatucfcy Waibler 
aad Orchard Oriole •hould have beca creditnl 
to Mr. Lewia but were crroaeouriy credited 
to othcta.— Com CAMrasu. SAKaoaM, 
Ctofciaa 0f RtptH C««»., Ckkagf Ond- 
IktUgkd Stdtty, 



• MmmuKiLtt RBaaoM.— la oooaaoo with 

pcricaoed i Mi p rtw d fat adiy hot weather frooi 
Juac 15 to August I, which foatJaaed day 
after day with oaly two brief iattrmlwicmi 
There waa little relief at aight aad there were 
oaljroocMioaalpaMiBgihowcisof laia. The 
aMiiaaaa teiapwatare waa reached oa Jiaie 
sa afoSB tae taenaoaaetcr roae to 00 ucareea, 
cwwidlBg an ptevio u a rcconli. July 10 the 
tcayrfature waa g>.a at 4 p. a. aad >6ia the 
aight. The Inaafafity waa much above aor- 
aMl aMMt of the tiaK. 

The ciccBiIrr heat aad dear akiea had a 
iDHatfoaa cooct oa aoaie iorBM at vcg^ 
tatioa hot the geaeral rcMdt waa to qieed up 
growth to aach aa csteat that by the latter 
part of July all pbatpttfc, iadudfaig farm aad 
orchard cnpa, waa two to loor weeka b ad- 
vaace of the aaaal al^B ai that tfaae of the 
year. Liadca traea. white watcr^ilica. aad 
other early Jidy blooawn all appeared la 
Jaae, aad the late auanMr lowcia begaa to 
blowaa hi mhl-Jdy. Upoa binMife there 
waa BO apparcat cCect ao far aa the writer 
coakldetect. 



five ^totted egp. two of them wdl ^wckled 
aad oa oae the ^lola teaded to form a wreath 
arouad the larger cad. 

Juac tS, two Redalarts* aerta with youag. 
a Wood Thraah'a aaat whh yooag, aad youag 
Roaebwaated Gioabeaka out of the aert. 

June ai, a iaaiDy of four yoaag Saaach 
Owla aocompeaM by their paaaala, both hi 
the red phaae. IV youag were fuQy growa 
aad cDttU fiy welL A Browa Thiaaher'a aeat 
with youag oa^uird giuwa. 

Jdy Si Turk'a-n?' «~i wild oraage-red 
Ulica in fuU bloom 

Duriag Juae aad jui> »r>cfal Dickdmcb 
were aoled oa the Fort SaeUag Beacrvatina, 
the fint that have ben eem hanaboata lor 
icveral ycara. They were oaoe aboadaat ia 
the aaam locality. 

Juae 16, a Red-headed Woodpeckar'a aeat 
cootaiaiag yow^; not rtam J aed cl oa ciy . Oa 
July a, siztcca day* later, the youag were 
iaapected and fouad stiU imperfectly feath- 
ered aad bdplem. On July s the youag were 
raawved from the aeat for photographiagead 
were yet aot fully feathered, were weak aad . 
chaaqr aad with dUBcahy malntaiaed a hold 
oa the bark of the tree. It b thus appareat 
that the youag rcnmia ia the aeat for at least 
three weeks. The small dead stub that con 
tatned the aeatlag-hole was directly cxposct) 
to the heat of the aun every aftemooo 
throughout the torrid period that thca pre- 
vailed aad it seemed a aauvd that the aeat- 
liaga coukl survive each a p roloage d bakiag. 
The youag birda to the very bat did aoi 
crowd up into the catraaoe to be fed. Both 
pareata fed and the opemtioa was a quick 
oae acoooaplished appareatly without the 
fordbk rcgamilatioa piacdced by some 
other Woodpechen. 

Bctwaea Juae ao aad July a8 acvcral visit* 
were aaale to a Sapoacker 'farm', and some 
of the obawvatiows amde may perhaps be of 
iatereat. The boiiap were in four mediun>- 
aiaed ailver popbn, plaated as shade trm. 
The pair of binb owaiag the 'farm' had a 
acst ooataiaiag youag b a basswood at a 
littbdistaace. The truaks of the trem and. 
to Boaae csteat, the larger, tower braachci 
were wdl pUDdured, a few of the o p ca inp 
bciag of aafidcat aisc to admit a fiager-Up. 



The SeMOO 



*S3 



Tktttp Bowad fndy <a aB tkc tnm aad 
in many placw tht bark wu Mturated. 
Tt)« ininks ol tlic Um» were fairly alive 

(h aatt. bif «o<l littl«> 

•M lUci boBMd about in tbe air or 

ia dene po«|» araaMl tbe 

twca. NuDCRNM buCtMttci flitted bitlMr 

aad tUtker, allfbtiag fiaai time to time 

to lip a liMfe of tbe fcmt. Of tbcm tbe 

rnoat abimdaot «aa tbe red admiral, ac* 

cfl|iaaied by maay moaming cloaks and 

C^wingi, a few banded purples and aa 

saioaal viceroy. Cabbage and ycOow 

Ipbur bttttcrfim were abundant in tbe 

iaity but did not vUt tbe trees. Several 

Red beaded Woodpeckers dipped in now and 

titcn and bdped tbcmMhres to tbe ^iread; 

ce a Flicker came and ocoMianally a Hum- 

ingbird pnised for a moment at one ol tbe 

Ics. Rut tbe most persistent and voracious 

trudm were two red squirrels. Tbey 

• ned fairly intoxicated by tbdr p rolonged 

and frequent tippHags aad reseated witb 

imny indignant 'dmcka^ and angry jerks of 

"(I tsil all atteaqjts at fordag tbem to 

Tbc>- rnlaifed tbe boles by gaawiag 

away tbe bark tbus c o a eer tia g several small 

. .fM-nlnr^ min one large oae tbat would more 

' tbeir tongues and even tbeir 

«o». All tbe olber visitors kept away e^He 

■"se large marauders were present. Tnla is 

t anotbcr evidence of tbe apodal fdadaem 

. tbis squirrel for tbe sap of trecawbkklcada 

tlwm to work suck kavoc smnag tbe twigi 

aadbrsncbesof formtandibadatfaea. Tbey 

r St tiaMS a veritable pest in tbis way, do> 

> tog and even dertroyiiiK many valuable 

namcntal trees. 

Aadd aU tbese busy doinp tiie Sapaucker 

owners of tbe linrlap caam aad went at fr^ 

qucat iaiarvals all day long. Tba umh waa 

more activu tbaa tbe femalr aad amcbaHre 

ukas. Tba yowag evidw rtj y got by iar the 

-rater part of tbeir food tram tbis soorcc. 

<«e watcblng sbowed tbat it was tbe in> 

-*kU, dUttty ants witb a lew iiss, tbat tbe 

Sapauckars collected at tbe Cvam. Tba drier 

bolm wmrid fO up witb aali, dosdy padkad, 

witb eckm trying to gal la. aad ikaae Iht 

rs quickfy gatbered, thefar bOla 

oa tbe outside an wall by ad* 

hariag sdcky taaacls. Nodoabta 



able amooat of mp was takea in addMoB bat 
it ri H H i l plwif tbat insects oompaaad tte 
greater part of tbe food taken to tlw youag. 
Some 300 yards distant was a second farm' 
ia a grave of onall efaoa surrouadiag a vine- 
covered stab bousing a brood of youag Sap> 
suckers wbicb was bdag fed in tbe mme 
aaaaaer. b it poaaBde tbat by tbcae grouped 
Uppiagi, doae by tbe nratlng file, tbia 
Woodpecker p rovidm an abuadant aad ea»> 
ily sccrmWe supply of food for its family? 
After tbe young are a-wing tbey are directed 
to tbe source of supplies and soon icam to 
feed tbemselvcs as long as tbe larder bolds 
out Tbe sap-boles sooa dry up wbea dKy 
are not taken care of properly. 

On July 28, wben tbe last visit was nmde 
to tbe 'farm* described above, it waa found 
tbat tbe owner of tbe trees, d i scover in g tbeir 
condition and thinking to save them, had ap- 
plied a thick coat of whitewash to the trunks. 
\lliile this deterred the insects to some extent, 
the Sapsuckers were atm feeding both at tbe 
old boles and at new ones amde bigber up. 
Both tbe old birds aad or»e brown beaded young 
were present Tbey were, in addition, giving 
some attention to an old, insed-infesled tde- 
pboae pole tbat stood dose by one of tbe trees. 

Even though it anay be shown tbat tbe 
greater part of tbe food of tbe Sa ps u c k ar con- 
sists of insects, yet tbe d es tructle a pro- 
ceduRs by which tbe laiger portion of such 
insects b obtained, at least dwing tbe nesting 
•caaoa, are sufideat to ooedenm tbe ^ledcs. 

Itasca Stats Pask RioaoM, Munt.— Au- 
gust i tots* Tbe weather up here In the north 
woods was almost as warm during July as at 

being freqMat Tba ali^ta, bow- 
are usually cooL There was a light 
froat oa tba aigbt of July j»-ji. 

WaairivadattbePaifcAagnati. Drhdag 
to bum Bcaddll, j6 adks thraai^ catFOver 
piaa cmmtry, tbe roadrida, where aol cul- 
tivaiad, waa aa almost condauoua kta-eum- 
amr ioarerfaidcn. In full bloooi were aua- 

amay of tbam 6 to 7 fMt high, giaal 

to pwfaiiaa, lal hladag alar, Gus- 
ada bawkwaadtdaaipa of aala^ Iqrsaap, aad 
to tba low placid mmJuaiawr aad JoaPy» 

But km aalan had yal appaarad. 



*S4 



Bird . Lore 



TW wood* were MaHjr •Onl, only tbt 
toagiof afcw IUd'«y«d VUwi and aa oogb- 
doMl Wkil*4lMaalad Spuioir, Um cdl ol 
Uw Wood P lo w mmI the fwqiwt laouBbg 
noUi of Ikt CMlod FlycaldMr bmUac Um 
itflboM. Om Mio, booovor, b oD too ooai> 
■MS hHOMid giwlac jrcoriy OMMv f fe(|imt— 
Uw diaoDiduit ciw o( tbc Crow. ShoHng ia 
the ptoCoctioo of offdad all wUd cnatiooi ia 
tba Paik, tJdt ABiKTCaBt b rapidly aalti- 
pljriagaaid b bi cwd a g a aarioya —aca to 
aDfafadJiia. Tba «d{jr appaicot acrrke tbejr 
itMlar b fai aariatii« tba Bonaidi ia daarii« 
tba abofca of tbe bbaa of daad iriL 

Tba Gfcat Blue Harooa, oaoaOy abwndant 
at tbb date, bad all |aae oo our arrival, t«o 
•oaka at bast abcad of tbc cuatooary date. 
Tba Bbcb Tens abo were beginnim to 
leave, aaacb eariier tbcn utuaL Tbe mb- 
odbaaooa graopa of biida tbat aHnnMa pve- 
pantory to tbe aootbwaid a wveaMot noe 
alfca^y fonafa^. All tbb, totetber witb a 
tJafaof ycHov la tbebfacbeaaad tbedyiac 
u a dag iowtb ia tbc foccrt, wngretwl tbat the 
suaaaer was alieady oa tbe waae. 

Ob Augoat 4 aaw a bdated Juoco'* neat 
coataiaiai tbree young binb aboot icady lo 
iy. OatbetotbMwaaMfeScailetTaaafler 
Jaat bagiaaiag to moil ibuwiug jrcHow 
patdMaaloag tbcatdeaaad ^»^ 

It waa a awprise to fiad tbat tbere aie ao 
Dudu about tbe bke a« at tbb tioic ia pn- 
viouft yean tbera were broods of Goldca- 
eyca. Wood Dodta, Malkids, aad Leaaer 
Scaopa. Report says tbat a few btcd beic 
tbb ^iriag but tbey bavc appareatly <fiaa|>> 
peand. Tbcrcbavefyanicbbeaviergrowtb 
of wild rioa aiouad tba Aorca of tbe bbe tbb 
year tbaa aaoaL 

It b tba opiaioa of bird o b a ar vc ri at tbe 
Forestry Scbool tbat tbere b a decided de- 
oease b tbe hmU bird life ia the Park aad 
tbqr aia dbpoaad to attribute tbb lo tbe 
■Mifcad iacnaaa ia tbe auadicfs of Crows, 
Gtacfclaa, aad red s quir rris, all of wbicb bave 
beea aaoi des tr oyiag birdi^ aesta, eggs, aad 
canyiag off ywg Baalibigs>'~~Taoa. S> 
Roann, Xsmtfjtui MiuitH^ VwlHtnity tf 
MImmmftUs, Mum, 



Kanbas Crrr Racaoii.— Eaoagb rriiaUe 
data are at baad to prove ooadarivety tbat 



Wood Dudta, Bloa.wh«ad Taal, aad bfal 
brds are agaia aaatiag la tbb iauaadbtr 
regba ia aoma auadms. It b abo quite 
Ukdy tbat a few pairs of SbovcOcis aad Pin 
taib bavc aucosadad ia briaglag off young 
ia tbc bka laglaaa of Platte aad Bucbaaaa 
counties, aa baiOy parties of ihr*c Durlu 
hmvt Utdy bcca seea 00 tbr ' vt r 

betw ce a Lcavcawortb and bi. j^^^y,*. A 
report of a nest of Hooded Metgaascrs could 
aot be iavcatigatcd. It is, of oowae, ea- 
cwiraghug to be able to cbraaide tbb return 
of aratcf-f owl to tbeir f onaer biaaina^'plaocs 
ia waslera Miaiouri aad eaateia Tawa, but 
disoouiagiag to reflect tbat tbe oaly re- 
BMiaiag sites of suAdeat wildacss aad quin 
seduiien to enable tbcae birds to breed SAfrK 
aad witbottt beiag disturbed are located in 
tbc Missouri bottoBS-laads and are in con 
staat daager of beiag flooded duriag tbe 
nf Tfl f^ tfasim i In spita of tbb aad otbee 
daageis tbe Dncka seem to be dowly but 
surely wirtaWiihlng tbeir breeding stands 
in tbb region. 

Three more nests, with eggs, of Traill's 
Flycatcher were collected in tbe region of the 
moutb of tbe Big Blue River where tbe only 
ooHny of these birds baa ever beea fouad 
breedfaig b tbb aeigbborbood. It has beea 
tbongbt ualikdy tbat tbb species has beea 
awrdy ovcriooked previously, but tbat 
has suddealy appeared here as a breeder i 
that the cause for thU might aot operate (orj 
their return aaother season. Needlem to say 1 
tbeae birds wiO be eageriy sought for in tbb] 

A pair of Rougb-winged Swallows 
tbb aeaaon b tbe CMmtiy Oub <Hrtiict 
tbc same baak with a anall colony of 
SwaDows. Tbc barrow was over j fert long] 
aad tbe acst waa Uaed with petab iastead 
feathers. It b preauaied that thb 
waa cicavated by tbe Baak Swallows. 

A pair of Blue Graabeaks were seea wit 
tbe ao ut bcra border of Swope Park 
a Sbifltc, aad it waa hoped that tM« 
odi^ be added to Profeasor ^ ^tof^ 

braadcn witbb tbb preservr nest. 

thou^ cvideatly near at band, could not be] 
found. 

Se\-ersl Black-billed Cuckooa bave beenj 
aeea bare duriag Auguat. Tbb ip e c i e s baa I 



The S«ttOD 



•55 



•Iwajn bMB ntfHMly nuv in this whIbb, 
that having hccn only ooc or two pfcvima 
MnnMrreoordt. AloaUpl«(veo(tentCila^ 
pflbn may icrount for tlw prw— ca here of 
tlww bink. Ydloir^rfBed Cockooe, onac^ 
ooontabljr tcaica laat aumawr, teem to be 
prcaat in thdr waal abondanoe tlib year. 

The fcaaoB withal leeme to have been 
mart favorable to nuting birda, and at least 
one ^xcies (the If ooraing Dove) b w abun- 
dant tUa year a» to canae ooounent amons 
oaoal obacrven not apedally intcrcated in 
birdi.— Hauy HAtiB, KmM City, M0. 

Sam P>ak3ko RnaoM.— The San Fran- 
dico region haa enjoyed a very 'open' tum- 
ner. The birds that ordinarily winter here 
through the nmuner must have felt them- 
•ehrcB out of thdr aooe when Lower Sono- 
ran weather ttrucfc us the third week in June 
and again the first week of July. Probably 
they, as wciD as the huoMn inhabitants, wd- 
ooened the cnauiag fogs as a blcased relief. 
I'uring half of the period observations were 
ltmitr«i to one small podiet in the hiOs op- 
l»>«)tr thr Golden Gate, to that my notes are 
very brief. 

Bhw Jays have been iBstfimingly abun- 
dant, while Russet-bached Thrushes are re- 
ported as rare all along the East Bay shore. 
I am woodaring if the CDol firing in southern 
(*altfaraia Induce d a lancer proportion of the 
Thnahca to breed in that vidnity. The re- 
purt from that region in the last number of 
Enn-Lou iimreti sudi a solution. Dr. 
GrinneO reports a TraHl's Flycatdicr on the 
l'nivtnitjrCampua,Junei6. CUffSwaOowt 
are radttcnd to very tmtJl nun^Mn In Berke- 
ley, but on June sq a flodi of 50 to 40 flew 
over and up the Bay. Judging from o- 
periencr* in other years, they may have been 
on thrir wii> to a r cadeivo u a on the Sui s u n 
MKfihcs where I have saeB them aaseaabled 
in enormous nunocfa aflcr tha ■IddM of 
July. 

Being stationary myself , I couU only Judge 
of the pragrew of aveata in the bM verid 
by thdr aoattcring Into ay imlghliwhood 
R,4>ins did not neat within haaring 
I Ird qtdtc aure, but scattered faMo the ( 
on Julys. Russet-backed ThrudMS could ba 
heard singing at the hand of Strawberry 



Caflon but did not coma down bto the 
garden until July ir. whOa the Ol l vfrd d ed 
FlycntdMr ^icnt July ij and 14 fai the near 
neighborhood. Spotted yow« of the San 
Fraadsoo Towhee vere on the feeding lalih 
beghming July 17. and young Wran-tito were 
givfaig thdr vmtriloqual caOs and accspdng 
food from thrir parents as bte as August 6. 
Flocks of Bush-tits were very large by the 
mkhBe of July. On Auguat 9 moWi« 
Thrsshcrs, San Frmndsco Towheea, and Song 
Sparrows looked extremely unhappy. 

Mrs. G. E. Kelly haa very khidly con- 
tributed the following noCea on the migration 
m ovements of birds on the Abuneda shore: 
Hudsonian Curlew, Scmipafanated Plover 
and Western Sandpipers were first seen on 
July 10 and were conamon ten days later. 
Two Wntrm Willets were seen Jdy a4, a 
Marbled Godwit July ig, and ir DowitdMrs 
and I Bkdi-bdlled Plover on July 31. For- 
ster Terns are nunwroas and on Jdy 19 a 
Caspian Tern waa sea. — Amelia Saxboui 
Aixnr, Bwktky, Calif. 

Loa AwcKLit RxanM.— On June 18 a 
trip waa made to a locality b the Tcjunga 
Waah where Cactus Wrens are stlU Idt In 
pnssf inn of a Undted area of thdr fast-dl- 
mfaHshhig doaaain. A Black-tailed Gnat- 
catcher first daimed attention aoaong the 
junipcta, then the nest of a M uckh ig biid 
fOHtalning a fuO complement of eggs plaird 
deep in the heart of a dMila cactus plant 
The male bird sang from the top of a nenrby 
tree, and, on approaching the nest a aaooBd 
time, the female was seen to sup <|net|y 
from the nest. 

Several pain of Phnfaopoplaa am* about 
the bige JUw fnHgr^aVi bwhca* and a aed 
containing two egp waa very soon hxniad 
In fuD dew saddled on an outer branch 
little nwre than 6 fed from the ground. The 
nad «na a doaely wnvan dttUow cup of gmy 
plant-iben and the — aW, dry iowen of 
pearly everiaatlngt bonnd together wnh ip«* 
der-web. Pholognpha of the aast, egp. and 
both biida wait aacnrad by Mn. P. T. 
BIdmalL Aawe withdrew, the male bM re- 
nmed hia Int a iiMp lad Incnbatian, aflor an 
appar«l|y aaadena Mwey of nad and OHk 
A Cactaa Wi» «ag from a Syotmon tfm^ 



•56 



tl»t 

nrtt 






« («c4 Attay * ae« 
;«ncy. A (ortlwr 



Bird-Lora 



lasbifd WM MM 



A 
•boot the 
''.u. A drive of two or 
bead ct Tuna Cafloa 
! bjr P twiim p iy i M , 
imXrL A Bhck- 
cUsMcd Uuaut ^itad A flow 

I «M la tlw act .. W'ood PewMt, 

WafWii« Vlrr ciM Cnmbtak», 

■ad B«lock'» ( ' '"•■'hb evidence 

Tbcaboadai >( UtecaAoat 

of Um SIcm &! ! b Juae 

•adJtdy.flMdli. VafbUi« 

Virao, Huttea'» Viito, I'axkmaa't Wrea, 
W«tcni sad Tnin'i FlycatdMn, Wood 
IN mtn, Ciwa bai;k>d aad WIllov Gold> 
iadMi, Ydlow aad POeokted Waiblen. 
Oae (amUy of Lutoccnt Warblen wu ob- 
MTved aad caiduDy followed op for poei- 
tivo idmtiiinirioa oa July a?. Black- 
tbraatad Ony vera fdtfy ai imiTW , as 
wtn aln jwai§ Tburbcrli Jwkm. A dotted 
CaAoaWna barfly gleaaed faMcctaftoai the 
face of tbe cM, leetfiag ber tamDf of tbicc 
tm^i^iifii replicas of bcnelf tbat •r r^«i»>«i**t 
aboat aaoag tbe rods of tbe aticaai-bed. 
A few Taaafcn were eeca aad oae f amOy of 
Otiveeided Tfycaihtn. Fnm tbe Ufbcr 
altitadea ooaee aotca noai our coalnbutias 
BManben* piadBf tbelaat two, witb tbe mack- 
beaded GralMk. tbe Robia, tbe Wcrtcn 
Blaebiid, ■■ perbapa tbe anet abowiaat 
; biidi fai tbe vicfadty of tbe Bwaatab 
A CMMpklc Uft of tbe aeetiflc birda 
o h er rvc d tbfe aeaeaa wooM be quite too ba^ 
for tbe ipaoe available. CaOiopc Huaoaii^ 
bfadi, LamU B wtiap, aad Vfafetfiwa Swal- 
lowa appear bfoodlyaaaibcra. OaeVaried 
Tbrvn was sen by sevcnu ooa^ieCcat ol^ 
scrven la ooopoay witb Robiao aear a Saa 
BenMidteo Ifouatafai icMrt. A pair of 
Bhtt Gfoebeaks bavc •uooeHfoOy reared a 
faaify for tbe tbird Muc eM i w e teasou b a 
lecaHly Bear tbe coast. Oa July m tbcy were 



tbe 



\Mut twcnty<4v« Pwple llartJas were 
about tbe c ora i c e s of a Broadway 
iNiildiBg b the ocatcr of tbe burfacss dis- 
trict at 6.45 r. M., July 15, aad acate a few 
days bier. 

Tbe adgraUoB of abor»4iirds sscBM to bavc 
develope d early, tbe rnmmna spedas baviag 
preacat b laife au arfww for a full 
itb. 

Oa July to, at Balboa, I bad under ob- 
servation for tbe greater part of tbe aftcr- 
Booa, sis Knots, four of wbicb were b full 
■ u Msr phttaage. So far as I caa learn thU 
ooastitatcs aa early record for tbe regiao, 
Aofoat 8 beiag tbe earliest puMlahwl record 
bcretofore. One Ycnow-lep was aoted, aad 
a few Least Teraa. 

July ta, tbree Westam Grebes were seen 
on tbe ocean at Santa Ifonica; July 15. onr 
Bbcfc Turastone, a few l^lrt*, and nwoy 
Marbled Godwfts, Hudsoeiaa Curlew, Least 
aad ForBter*s Terns, aad large flocks of sauJI 
S a n d p l peis ; July so Focstcr'a Terns, one 
Caspian Tern, five Long-bOled Curlew, oaany 
Snowy Plover, Godwits, and Hudsoniaa 
Curlew. Tbe colony of Bank SwaOows at 
San Pedro was visited and young seen at tbe 
entrances of tbe burrows, in BMtt cases two, 
but b a few ioataaccs tbree, bcfag led. 

Augnal 10, aboio^iirds were abundant, 
WDIels being capedally numerous. Bbck 
Terns were resting with the Least Terns on 
tbe saads, aad otbers flew about over tbe 
ocrani SmilpalBiatwl Plover were b ooo* 
MMable BUBMiers, aad tbree Red-breasted 
Mef iaa a sM were b tbe Lacoon. Wbite- 

^VflSflBQ SOOwflVBa DVOOSonr I 

tbat reuMiaed tbrougb tbe 
noted b considerable nuoaben. A soull 
colony of Bam Swallows tbat nest under a 
bridge at PUya dd Rey, were appareatly 
feedbg yoaf b tbe acsts on this date, 
tbom^ tbt young birds were not actuaOy 
seen. A Ydbw-bOled Cudwo bas been 
abont an Artob rancb for tbe bst fortnigbt 
Tbe first s ou t b b ound land-birds were r^ 
ported, August j, ss Rufous HuBiwh^ards 
and Western Tanafers.— FaAnata B. 



I 





2^oo& J$t\i)si anb CtebtetDff 



By B. Euoff 
by G. E. 
•ad H. GaOKVoco. tvo, liv+joS 
m ni, 1 1 pfc ulu gi m w uw , t Ut-aiti> E.P. 
nrnwi k Co., New York. 19 jo. 



la tfab vohnae Mr. Howard baa awde a 

•«trib«tioa to the itiidjrof Midi ia aatuic 

f aa — J iaiportaact. BrMly, a bird's 

'.ctrftMy' b the area ia wbicb tbe aett is 

uflt aad wbkb b proCMtad from tropaM by 

tbcr iadhrldaab of tbe eaae qtedca (aad 

rarely doee|y allied ^wdee) dutiat tbe wbole 

oertbig eeaeoa froai tbe tfaae tbe BMle arrivca 

uatil parratal carea cad for tbe eeaaoa. Tbe 

«tae ol the territory way vary (ram a few 

(oaic feet witb ookafal aeetiag birds like 

\ I arret, to a very amcb brfer area with birds 

ike Duck Hawks aad Eagles; its cxtcat, ac- 

ordiac to Mr. Howard, bdc{>cadeatpria»- 

>iy oa the aaMwat ol food it caa eopply, or 

« hkb, as in the case ol the Mttrres, caa be 

toad ia the imaMdiate vidaity. 

It b sbowa that tbe ac q u MU oa of tbb 

honie habitat b rfathtl to tbt cafateace of 

:« specks aad that to take possrwion of it 

.» tbe firrt ia the wrics of acu faichided io the 

tcMoa of (cprodttctioo. 

With adgiatory b n ds , the BMKp prtaaptod 

joaraey toward the btaodiac^uuud ia 

Mhraace of tbe female ia order to take poa- 

teifls ol the aoetiag territory. Witb re> 

Mimt spedes, wUcb oaay bava wintered ia 

flocks or beads, tiM wmIw leave the females 

for tbe saaw porpoae, cvtdcac* that tbe 

scquiriac ol tbe boaae^tc b at tbb tiaw ol 

amv laynrtenn tbaa aaMtaf. Baviaf 

■dectad bb torritory. tbe bird ■aanaarai bb 

<tbtoitbyso^ H« thai prodahai bb 

naeaee to tbe fnaab wbea she airivai aad 

t tbe laaM tiaw warae btttadm that be has 

tAkrd hh ckfaa.* 

^ ud preaeats a aH» ol delallod 

-t..*iii4«* la support ol thb Ihads aad at 

'X satoe tbae opcas a (aedntiBg Md ol 

t idly tor thon wba hata tht thMb patewe, 

lapMMH tkb 



Waaddf^iwl.'fae 
tbe toaiptatfca to eiplda the actieae ol binb 
la tarsM ol baaaa aatare b partkalarly 
stroag fai etadies ol tbb dMTidcr, aad aabas 
•ya^athy witb oae^ eabject be dMcfcad by 
good jadgBMBt aad sdeattfc dbobaiaatiaa, 
the reealt b awr« apt to be faacy tbaa fact 

la Mr. Howard's caae we fed that be has 
Bot givca due coaehbratioa to tbe tcaqwra- 
aieat ol tbe bird. Soow ^>edes we kaow are 
ol a aodable, others ol a soUtary di^Maitiaa. 
Colonial aestiac habits are aot always to be 
erpbhted by bdi ol soHable aeetlardtca, 
but by tbe desire for coaipaaiaaibip. 

Tbe BrowB Pelfcaas, ol Nkui likad, ia 
ladba River, Florida, for caapb, igaore 
buadreds ol favorable sitasy aoaw withia 
gvasbot ol tbdr boaae, to crowd together oa 
oae snail isbad. Tbe Flamiagocs ol Aadros 
Isbad ia the Bahamas, place tbdr aeeU 
within a few feet ol ooe aaother whea each 
bird, if it dedred, adght have a territory of 
aMay square acres. Cliff SwaOows aest ia 
doia^MMMd cnHters where s c o ws ol favor* 
able sitae are avaflable.— F. M. C. 



EcoMOioc Valci or laa Stakukc ix tax 
Umno Statss. By E. R. KAiJiaAai 
and I. N. Goaaiaiaow. Aast. Biologists. 
Bull. No. S68, U. S. DcpartBKat of Agri- 
culture; Coetribtttka fnaa the Bureau d 
Biological Survey. 8vo, 64 pages, 4 plate* 
(1 colored), 3 test ' 



Rcguded 0* a ooatiibutiaa to 
or M u f ia pbii' ordtbofccy, tbb b a awdd 
piece of work. It b based oa adequate^ ex 
baaetiva obeervatkas ia ieU aad etady by 
BMB «rM|y qaaHfted for their ttok aad tbe 
gnat aMto ol data secured b pr eeea tad tea 



The piAlfcatiaa any be lecared froas the 
Saperialaadeat ol Hui nails at Wash* 
tegtoa for ts ceats a copy, aad it should be te 
the ponenioa ol every oae who deeim to 
kaow the hbtoiy d thb Eanpeaa hiid h 



Bin «a iMy dap^ data that altar a 



(»S7) 



to iMi bei hi ea 



■•I 



a5« 



Bird. Lore 



cfitkal iMwiMthw of Um ooatMU of 9,406 
**«dl-illMl ttaamdmr aad pwhiBd tiuiy 
of Uw bM la life, the autlMn of thk paper 
ooadwic Umu fcniwirilly Um Suritag b 
tko Mi|Nfior of citlMr the FUdter. Robin, 
Oubini. IUd-wii«Bd Bhdtbifd. or Gncfck, 
Olid mMm the 1— cfwt of lavt for its 
p ral o c U oa escape wbcn it b "acttalijr dotag 
or tkrmtMlot to inflict dnouce.**— P. M. C. 

Tb« Omitbolof ic«l Maguioes 

Tms Comknl— It b not often that adm^ 
number of a joonal report* tbe addition of 
three new cartsaUmltal ipocfcs to the Ibt of 
North Anerfcan binb but Mich b tJie leoofd 
of the May nundier of Tkt Ciiiof. In 
'New Bird Record* (or North America*. 
llallliard<aad Haana report a JapaneK Swift 
(Mienpm ptci/kms) taken 00 St. Geoige 
Iilaad. .\huka, Augutt 1. iQM.aad an Evcn- 
amno't Shrike (Ltmius muUis) captured on 
board the V. S. S. Sttmrm, )6o miles west of 
Sitka, .\bska, Scptcmlicr so, 1990; white 
Bent, in a paper on The Probable Sutus of 
the Padfic Coast Skuas', finds four records of 
the C3dlian Skua (Csl/Ururts iMImtis) from 
liontcfcy, C'aJif.. aad three off the coasts of 
Washington and Vancouver Island. 

Two other papen of tprcial interest deal 
with the nesting habits of western forms of 
the Fox Sparrow. John W. Maflliard de- 
scribes the nesting of the Yoaenite Fox Spar- 
mv near Lake Tahoe, Calif., where fourteen 
nests were observed in June and July, 1920. 
Six of these were on the ground, three othen 
in buckthorn or ccanothus bushes, aad fiv« 
in shrubs and trees leas than 5 fret from the 
ground. W. M. Pierce gives the results of 
a trip to Big Bear Lake in the San Bernardino 
kiouBtains in 1919 where three nests of 
SCtphoM* Fox Sparrow were found aad a 
visit to the vicinity of Mt. BaMy in the San 
Gobfiel Mountains in 1930 wbrrr fi>T nests 
with cfgs were di scowese d either in or under 
buckdMm hmhcs 

Leopold ptddisbes a useful sunmary of the 
weights of joo Ducks of 15 ^wdes killed b 
the Rio Grsnde Valley, New Mexico; Dice, an 
acoouBt of 'A Bird Census at Prescott. Walb 
WaOa Co., Wash.', in 1908; and Jewctt 
notes on 18 species of wslcr- aad shore-birds 
of Netafl* Bay, Oresaa. The aunriKr, wWch 



baa 

tha 



with 
DIraclory of the Cooper Orai- 
Club, containing the names of 754 
or 99 more than last jrsar t «. i> 



Bird-Lores Wanted 
L. E. Thomas, care of Biao-LoEK, Har- 
risburg. Pa., offer* S3 for a copy of Biao- 
Lots, Na I, Vol. Ill, February, 1900. 

Thos. L. McCoaasH, 151 Ccater Ave.. 
KuKworth, Pa., wiaiMS to purchass No. t. 

Vol W'T T»n..i>rv.F.-).ni;.rv ..., , 

Book New* 
Dr. Clara Barms, literary executor aad 
audiotitative biographer of the btc John 
Burroughs, asks that all person* owning 
interesting letters from Mr. Burroughs 
ooamtmicate with her at Woodchuck Lodge, 
Roxbuiy, N. V. All Irtten sent will be 
prooptly copied, or extracted from, and rr- 
tumed to the owner*. 

The Bulletin of the West Cheater (Pa.) 
Bird Club (or the year* t^t»-u contain* 
much of interest to local bird students and 
reflects the apirit of good fellowship which 
animstcs thb organinUioo. Tbe Club ha* J 
e xp eri en ce d a severe loss in the removal of 1 
iu Presidettt, Dr. E. C. Ehinger, to hb boy- 
hood home in Iowa. 

Farmer*' Bulletin No. isjs of the United 
States Depaitmeat of Agriculture b a com* 
plete compendlinn of the game bws of the 
United Sutes (or 1931. Copies of this pub- 
lication may be obtained throu^ all state 
gsme comraimions or from tbe Superin* 
tcadent of Documents at Washington, n ' 

The Audubon Society of New Hamp^iu.-i 
has dcdded to bsue a quaitetly 'Bulletin' of 
mhkh the firat number, dated 'July-August- 
Septcmber* (i9>i?l has atmraml Reports 
from local bird dub* an < ions from j 

fii*n>ii*i > show that this i>ui>ii«.«LMjn has aj 
fieU to tU and we trust that it wOl reoeiv«| 
the support it deserves. The sufascriptioo] 
price, including annual membcrddp in tho] 
Society, (address, the Secretaiy, Strafford,! 
N. II.) b only $1 a year. 



2^irb=llorc 



L 

^^f avncui osoAM or tai 

BtfMatf W FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

B4hM. M ABBL OSOOOD WRIO HT 
kv O. APPLXTON * CO. 

i.Mn II0.S 



Editorial 



•99 



voLxxni 



r«*M|« *• IMh4 tMM. (M 



m^m> 



■btf-LwiTa MMM. 

la W««ft TW is li* Hmmd 



I T n ncpCMURix to ooooeive ol m pcma 
poMOMd of aoroMl MMbQitici to whoB the 
living bira does oot ipimL Tut rmmC pfunt- 
:r.r, as well as the aost hi^Ay drr d oped 
rrpreaortAthfs of the hioBoo race have, in 
\-aryiag tksrecs, an iahcmt iatcNst in bird- 
life. TUt b the co — oa, anhrcnal heritase 
of —■»'»'»«* But, oooMonally, there are 
tBdhridaals for whom birds p amt m so strong 
a fasHRathi that they bacniBe, bcyoad oom- 
iMriM>n the awst etoqwat eapwaiiwi of ani- 
nutt Nature. Dowbtlf naBy of the for- 
lunate powesian of tUs lare gift have, with 
Dr. Steope, aaked thwRafhrM why it b that 
birds art poascBBcd of sodi stfUMBBce ioc 
them; haw atti— pted, iatroapectivdy, to 
■aalyac their keea, qmpathetk r e sp oRs e to 
the light of a bird or the sooad of its voice. 

It b aot the grace of RMiCiim. beaaty of 
naical afaiUty of birib wUdi 
their hoid oa as, but a coei- 
biaalioa of all thaw plas a f'f t* ^!! ethersal 
iad«|iiadea« which aialrw the bird aa ap- 
partatly iaaaortal apiaasioa of every hour 
of the dby aad Bight, every scasoa of the year, 
every aspect of the BMtcrbl woikL 

Yoar tfRi bird-tovw aay aot be aa orat- 
thofagist ia the idwulic smm, bat he mast 
be a aat ai »lov«r , for whoa, la aa laiaile 
variety of ways, birds «IB g|v« forai to 

to the BMBifold beaatisa of the world •• he 



it. 



Teaaaat, writhig of aa Eagilsh 

soarisi* ooalesMs bfrttlf aaabie to dotlM hw 



Kor what I caaaot say b te that Thrash's 



leaves the task to the Sai« ThrariL 

Burroagha, at saasct, Usteaiag to the hgraai 
of the Henait Thraah, ciperirac es a "senae 
rxalutioa of srntiaimt of wUch anaic, 
liletaturr, and religioa are bat the Mat 
types and symbols." 
Whitman's Ibm to the lfa»ofWar Btad, 

"Thoa bom to aaitch the gale (thoa art all 

wtags). 
To oope with heaven aad earth and sea 

and hurricane, 
Thoa ship of air that never furlst thy sails, 
Davs, even wcdts, untired and onward, 

through spaces, realoM gyratiBg," 

proclaim the birds' nms tcry of the air. 

A wedge of Geese croe si n g the sky in March 
b not so much a fleck of birds as the vis&de 
spirit of returning firing. So we mif^t ooa- 
tinue to name bird after bird — Eagle, Owl, 
Raven, or Wrea—and find that each in its 
widciy differing w^r syadwliaed or cqaamad 
that "Scase sabliaK of waaethiBg far amie 
uecpij f UKenuaeQ 01 waica woraswonn 
writes. 

But separate the bird from its true ea- 
vironment and the spcfl b brokca. What b 
BMire painful than the song of a caged Night- 
iagsle. Tlw WOd Gooee in captivity b a 
awre waddling fowl. So we see that the 
bird's freedom b aa laswtbl part of iu 
caarai. t«abcnoa uaacretooa tats ^irttca 
he wrote! 

*n thoaght the narrow's aote froai haavaa, 
Slnpag at dawa oa the alder boagh; 

I bnwt hfaa hoBK. fai hb acst at evea. 
He OB dw soag, but it chaen aot BOW : 

For I did aot briag home the river aad 
sky." 

Thb b the cmdal tert, proviag, as Dr. 
Swope mys, that it b priaMrily the frsedoa 
of UnMUe which appaab to us aad 10 which, 
la eadbm ways* the bird withte as rmpoads. 

It go« wHhoat nylag that the etfaat of 
the Kmam pmmmH tatmert ia hirdi b 
dip«dnt tvoa the oppoftaaity that hi has 
for b«»arfi« faadttar with thoa. hat la 
what d^prse the i li 1 rio p ms nt of aa l a hwit 
aArity lor Midlife b rrfai«l lo the ea- 

ilioawt of theii nrolthb 

it a iiaaithMi we may 



Cije Kubutjou J^ocirtics; 

SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 



B41U4 by A. A. 
•I «ommmikHtk 

!• Ilw BAtar. C— ■■ 



AIXKM. Pb.O. 
iJillii I* tlM «Mk •! tkb 
tW«wrfl|r.lilMM,N.Y. 



THE COLORATION OP BIRDS 

If yon have kiXkmtd the hoane loiig of the Scarlet Tanager and found him 
perched oo loaie dead branch aUaae in the sunlight; if you have noted the 
emerald back and the ruby throat of the Hummingbird as he flashed through 
your garden ; or if you have seen the Indigo Bunting change from pale to deepest 
blue and then to black, as you moved around him, you must certainly have 
begun to wonder at the roarvds of bird coloration. Then, if you have trampe<l 
the woods and heard the Grouse rumble from the roadside and the Woodcock 
go iHiiitUng from under your feet, or if you have tried in vain to locate the 
Vireo singing in the tree-top, >'ou mtist have been impressed by that law of 
Nature that causes her children to be clothed so differently. For the Grouse 
and Woodcock and the Vireo in their haunts are as invisible to the untrained 
eye as though they were but a part of the twigs and leaves that surround them, 
while the Tanagers and Hummingbirds hold the e>'es of even the least ob- 
serving. What, then, are the laws determining that one bird shall be '-- ' ' ' 
the sun and his nei^bor like the soil? What is the reascm for this ! 
on the one hand, and how is the concealment, on the other, brought about.'' 
Certainly there is enough of interest in the coloration of birds to make it worth 
our while to analyse the problem in some detail. 

Let us begin by conirfdcring the actual cok>rs which make up the birds' 
ook>ration, for they are very different in their origin as well as in their grr^-:^ ' 
effect. One who ordinarily thinks of the colors of animals as product 
pigments or color granules deposited within the skin or hair will be surprised by 
the small percentage of the cobrs of birds' feathers that are produced in ' - 
way. In fact, there are, in ordinary birds, sup posed to be but three pigmi i 
in any of the feathers: reds, yellows, and browns. A green pigment occurs 
the African Plantain-eaters, but in other birds the green is due to a yellow 
pigment overlaid with a structure that refracts the li^t. Blues and all the 
metallic colors are due entirely to this process of refraction, the exposed portion 
of the feather being coated with a transparent odorless layer of extrcDK ' — ^ 
(S-ioooth of an inch) which acts like a number of prims in breaking uj 
of light. A Scariet Tanager is red in any light because the red b a pigment, but 
an Indigo Bunting or a Bluebird » blue only by reflected light, when refraction 
occurs. Thus, when a Bluebird gets wet or when it b perched between one 
and the sun, it will appear only black or brownish. This fact adds to the 

(»6o) 



The Audubon Socieriet t6i 

difficulty of bird-fttudy, if alao to the interest, for everyone hM had the a- 
{leneoce, occasionally, of being unable to dtittingtiish the o^rs of a Urd even 
thoagh at close range. It dottbtless also aooouats tot many of the strange 
descriptions of birds that one receives from young observers. 

Some authorities claim that a blade pigment is also to be found in the 
leathers of birds, but when the brauro pigment is very dense it appears blade, 
and it seems impossible to distinguish between the two. Occasionally an 
excess of this brown or black pigment devdops in the feathers of an individual 
which will make it appear much darker than the other members of the same 
opMrirs. Tilts h called mdanism, Tfrom the Greek mdas, meaning blacks and 




a|>|>arcnily it .t>out by subjecting moultinK birdsi to extreme 

humidity. In nature, \treme humidity usually produce darker 

races of birds than ari' 1 hus, the sooty Song Sparrow of the Padhc 

Coast b so much dark. t he Desert Song Sparrow of Ariaona that one 

would not hr«iute to call them <li»tinct wptam were it not for the fact that 
their color patterns are identical. The dark and light phases of the Rougb- 
leKged Hawk are another example of mdaniwn, but even more familiar la the 
case of the bteck and gray squirreb, examples of each occurring in a lingie 
lit trr of young without reference to sex or vigor. la this case humidity can 
play no part though it b said that the black phase was formeriy more aboadant 
when the country was heavily forested, and it b still the domhiaat form where 
the primeval thnber exists, whfla the gray phase b the abundant form of the 
woodJot and open country. 

The opposite of mdmitm b afifafiw (from the Latin Mmt, meaning white). 
It b caused by an abacace or degeneration of the pigment. Pure albiaos are 



a6s 



Bird -Lor* 



now>whiic. having no pigment wliAtaoevcr, the eyc» being red oiHqg to the 
blood showing through the iris. They are appartu ' frequent 

with domestic animals than in the trild sute, as in tc mice, 

rats, and rabbits, but the>' are Uliely to occur at any time with any spedes. 
The brown pigment seems the most likdy to djappfar, ; " inos of birrfu 
having red or yellow in their plumage being eitremely rar. > Meadowfauic 
in the accompanying photograph, for example, shows a wdl-deftncd lingc uf 
ydkm on the undeiparts and before the eye. Partial aM 
frequent with all species, and mottled Robins and Sparmv 
feathers in unusual places are not at all infrequti ..illy this partial 

albinism b symmnrical on each side of the bird hut it i> imi always so. The 
exact cause of albinism is not known though ii is thought to l»r a form of 
physical weakness due to inbreeding or to some other cause. 

More unusual than albinism is what b called ^icArMMltiiii (from the (irn 1. 
di-j-khromatikoa, meaning two-colored) or the occurrence in a species of two 
color phases irre^)ective of age, sex, or season. The familiar Screech Owl 
affords us a good example where extremes of red and . as 

well as intoinediates. Thesemay be, and often are, u tmc 

nest, and they may be all nudes or all females. It is apparently due to an 
excess of red or twown pigment and may represent but a step toward melanism. 
Dkkromatitm likewise occurs with certain other owb, and with certain HaiHu, 
as well as with some species of Herons. The case of the rare G>ry*s Least 




• lick 'dkkfMWt* 



The Audubon SodtdM 



«63 



Bittern is one of the most 

cercstlng as scientists are 

' I agreed as to wliether 

. rcaents a distinct spec- 

^ on the verge of extinction 

ur »h(f!)(T it is but a dark 

phaM- ot the common Leas 

Bittern. Its color pattern is 



.1 all of the buffs have been 
;>iace<l h\ it. 

But to r' the gor- 

geous Tanagers and the incon- 
spicuous Grous< ' here 
i» some reason i :;ucr- 
A-e in coloration which 
'nijjht lea' 
In think :.^ .; .:.l 
rds with which we are familiar we soon discover that brilliant colors, in al- 
most every species, are restricted wholly to the males, and a moment's reflec- 
tion suggests to us that the law of "The Survival of the Fittest" would soon 





<^ 



Bird-Lort 



weed out any brixht-oolored fdnakt, iboaU they arise, by dmwiai attention 
to their nesu and inviting the destnictioD ci their oflbpring. The very ex- 
ceptioot to the rule (urtlter mbetantiatc it, for when bri^t oolort are normal 
to the female, at in the Ktngfiihfr and Red-headed Woodpecker, nature pro- 
tects the offspring by canring the eggt to be laid in holes in trees or in tunnels 
in the bank where the female is entirdy hidden from sight while incubating. 
Another method of protecting conspicuously colored birds b by endowing 
them with extreme wariness and it b seldcmi that any of them will alluw as 

rlitM- ^t^ approach as do ihcir dull- 
inates or relatives. They 
■AC that they are con- 
rely upon their alert- 
<•. Moreover, is it not 
benefit to the species that 
Liicic should be a conspicuous de- 
coy to lure away from the vidnity 
of the nest any enemy that passes 
that way? — for even should the 
male be seen and captured, the off- 
•^pring might still persist. 

Brilliancy of plumage probably 
originates, we are told, because of 
an excess of strength and bcMlil> 
vigor, and this fact undoubted i> 
tends to perpetuate and incrcai>c 
the brilliancy, whenever the bright 
colors are not directly disadvan- 
tageous to the species, because the 
vigorous bird is most likely to se- 
cure the best mate and have the 
iitrongest offs|Mring. It may well be 
asked, then, why the males of all 
species are not conspicuously col- 
ored and able to rely upon their wits 
to escape their enemies. But thinl 
for a nnoment of the environment! 
which birds are called upon to fillj 
s here enemies cannot lurl 
Tinagers, Trogons, an( 
I s. On the other handJ 
there are the thickets and dense coverts near the ground where enemies can] 
approach ck)sely or lie concealed, and here it is that we find our most protec- 
I'lvt^y colored Grouse, Woodcocks, Sparrows, etc. Thus it is clear why 



I 




MALK aosB-aacA^ 



i»iXG rrs 



There are the tree tops and the great 
unseen, and here it is that we find t 
Hooey Creqiers, the Gulls, Terns, llcr. 



I 

i 



The Audubon SocieHt 



«65 



udy Tanifer is confined to the tree tops and iHiy stremkcd Sparrow must 
ulatc its dr>- gns& haunts if it would persist. Birds dwdling within reach 
nkuUcing enemies seklom wear brilliant colors or bear feathers that are 
ntinuously conspicuous. They are protectively colored and often fit into 
their environment to such an extent as to be practically in\isible. The ways 
n which thb concealment is brought about are varied and interesting, so 




much so, in U*.;, li.ai we will devote the j.t *; ^-«*. -. ...i ...nr^^nf 

tu the discussion and will now pass on to a few other ma 
colocation of birds. 

In discussing brilliant colors we should rcntenibe r that very few birds wear 
the brii^t colon throughout the >'ear, the Kingfisher and the Red4Ma«led 
Woodpecker being notable exceptions. The vast majority nhcd their bright 

* '*<- 'he breeding MMon and do not don them again until the following 

. many of the DudU, however, this change from a brilliant to an 
irc plumage in the male occurs as early as June or July and by the time 
.'."-i liirds are ready to take oo their obscure plumage in August and September, 
they arc ready^to iMmne their brilliant fcAthert onoe more. It will be re- 
membered that after the breedii^{ leaaon aU birds moult every feather on the 



t66 Bird - Lora 

body, indudtng the wingi. In the qsring the molt of the Tanagen and Indigo 
Bunting and othen. in order to repin their bri^t feathers, b incomplete ta 
the old feathers of the wings and tail are retained 

It is interesting to etaminf the young of these birds in their first i^umagc, 
which in the male b brighter than the female, for almost invariably they resemble 
the female, or when there b a difference, the male in winter plumage. It b a 
well-known fact that the young of animab often sununarize in their develop- 
ment the steps throu^ which their anceators have passed in the course of their 
evolution. The plumage of the young birds, therefore, or the winter plumages 
of the males may often show rdatiooshipt that one could never g\ie9s by ex- 
aminfag the breeding pltnnagea. Thus, the hnmature and winter plumages of 
the BlackpoU and Bay-breasted Warblers are afanost indistinguishable, although 
the adults are so different in the q>ring. The spotted breasu of young Robins 
and Bluebirds indicate their rebtionship to the Thrushes, and the streake<i 
breasts of the young Chipping and Field Sparrows show the t>'pical Sparrow 
coloration from which the adulu have departed. With a very few species, the 
young in their juvenal plumage are just as bright as the males or even brighter. 
Young Kingfishers, for examine, can scarcdy be dbtinguished from the adults 
excq>t by the nifous feathers in the band across the breast, and young Downy 
Woodpeckers tend to have the whole top of the head reddish rather than a 
mere crescent of red on the nape. 

SUOOE8TION8 TO TEACHERS 

The subject of coloration of birds may seem rather technical to some teachers 
for presenting to sdiod child' so many questicms have come to the 

Editor regarding 'albinos' or v ds, regarding winter plumages, the plu- 

mages of young birds, and the reason for bright and dull colors that it seems 
best to devote two numbers of thb Department to a consideration of the 
problons involved. After all it is mudi easier for some teadiers to secure 
feathers for the sdioolroom than it b actual birds, and the most conspicuotis 
thing about the feather b its oc^r. Perhaps sometime we will devote an entire 
lesaoo to the feather, but hi the beginning it b well to consider the feather as a 
part of the covering of the bird and iu color as a part of the bird's coloration. 
If we are to eq>bun to children the reasons why birids are so beautifully marked 
or why the particuhu feather b odored as it b, we must have a general under- 
standing of the problems involved. It b not difficult, ordinarily, to determine 
whether the color is due to a pigment or to the structure of the feather, because 
if it i% a pigment it will appear about the same when viewed from any angle 
while if it b a structural color it will change when held at different angles. 
Then if the light b allowed to shine through the feather by holding it toward 
the window, most of the color will disappear unless it b due to pigment It 
would all diaappcar'if it were possible to cut out all of the reflected light from 
other windows or from the waUs but there b always sufl^cient change for <me to < 



Hbci 



Tke Audttboa SodcdM S67 



t he color is due. Mobtentng the feather is another way 
eu- — — p, :-.- -liccl of rcfractioii. 

An undentandtng of the frequenc>' of refractive colors will likewise cause 
one to be more careful in hit observations and detcriptioos ci birds and will 
also give him a valid reason for being unable to identify many <rf the de- 
scriptions of birds that are offered him in perfectly good faith. 

The question is often asked, ''Where do the bristly colored birds go in the 
fsIP" When <»ie knows that the bright plumages are worn by most birds 
< inly during the breeding season, the answer should be easy. The question is 
also asked, "Why are young birds, and the old birds during the winter, Hull* 
colored?" Mlien we realiae that these dull plumages are doubtle&!> the original 
plumages that the birds wore before they gained the bright breeding dress, 
there seems to be a better reason for them; and we are justified in this belief 
because in these plumages the>' usually resemble much more closely their 
relatives and probably also their ancestors. Many of us recognize birds only 
wh( - '(■ in their bright breeding i^umage, and it is true that a study of 

the i is quite an adx'anced course in ornithology, but the study of the 

tall hir<i> Ucumes much more interesting when we are able to interpret the 
l>luniai;rH that we see. — ^A. A. A. 




fl68 



Bird - Lore 



FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 

TWO PET MOURNING DOVB8 

My tcadier, Mn. Engleman, rescued a young Mouming Dove from the 
mouth of her Km'* dog. She put him in a tree hut later he was a '.y 

Blue Ja)*». Another Udy took him horn.- «n«l fc<!;him until he was \s ^^U 

to fly. Then the gave him to 
me and I brou^t him luime 
for a pet and named him 
'Flower.' My sister Con- 
stance climbed a tree and 
caught a liaby Dove which 
she named 'Daisy.' My 
mother fe<l her by sttifling 
l»rea<l ari<' mitL itoun hrr 
throat. 

Flower was so lame tiiai 
we used to take him riding 
outdoorson the baby carriage. 
.Although he was such a nice 
pet with us, he used to peck 
Daisy very unkindly until 
Daisy grew big enough to 
peck back. Daisy was tame 
as long as she could not feed 
herself, but as soon as she 
learned to do that she became 
timid and never seemed to 
like us. We fed them weed 
s*i-«U. grain, and birdseed. We 
kept them on the sleeping- 
|>orch all winter, but when 
li iimi nn. l/iMAN Nick (.\ge 8 years). 

from kcr; that nu two indi^'iduab. even of the Mmr 

aic exactly alike Tbey are often as ditferrnt in their behavior a* two peopl* 




\ I 



A FIGHT FOR A HOMB 



I had been watdiiiig a Woodpecker finish buikting his nest in a pine tree . 
he had built it in a hole that he had made himself. One day I woke up to 
hear an awful noise in the pine grove. It sounded like a lot of Magpies trying 
to see how much noise the>' could make. I qtiickly got dressed and went out 
there and I looked all around to see irho could be making all that noise. I 
happened to look up the pine tree where the Woodpecker had hi.s nei^t, nn<l 



The Audubon Societies s6q 

' hrre was a Starling fighting the \V(KMl{)eckcr for his nest. They had an awful 

. pecking each other in the face, and scratching each other awfully. The 

'- -'ker wouM rtm up and down the tree just as fast as he could put one 

•nt uf the other, with the Starling after him. At Ust the WcMMl{)eclier, 

! >eaien, tiew away. The Starling hIowIv poked his head into the Woorlpecker's 

1 • ■' — ••"- '1 meet the female Woodpecker. .'Kt hunt he went in and 

was hb tail sticking out of the hole. .'Ml of a sudden 

: r was a whir of wings and both male and female Woodpeckers returned to 

, . , .u, — I » .- v..„-i:j^g They looked into their hole and saw the Starling 

The Woodpeckers, on seeing him, both rushed together 

at the Marling. They went right into the hole together and judging from the 

•< -The r> that flew from the hole there must have been an awful fight inside. 

1 ..< I were two holes in the tree, one high up and one lower down where 

they were now fighting. .All of a sudden there was a triumphant scream and 

.V . .^ .1-^^ f^^^ ^m ^ y^^ higher hole and soon disappeared on the horizon. 

><i|)eckers seeing that they were left alone, took poaaesnon of the 

hole and raised a family of four, and when winter came they all flew south. 

Robert Livermore, Ja. (Age ii years), 33 Ckaries RherSqture, BosUm, Mass. 

|Thi« i« a very iotercsUnx ttory but we wish Robert wouM tcti us what kind of • 
U ~Hi;.. < kcr it was that built a nest in a bole and ran up the tree putting one foot in 
( foQ I oi another. Wr --- — ^ dering if the birds coukl have beca Nuthatches —A \ A.) 

WATCHING STARLINGS 

In the %vinter of IQ20-21, there were quite a few Starlings about the barn. 
I was watching these birds and found they whistled like a^ many differmt 
l>ir<is as do Mockingbirda. 

One evening when the work was done I went up in the bam and lay down 
and waited for the Starlings to come to bed. All at once there came a scratching 
an<i M raniMing against the boards and then they began to whistle like a Blue- 
l)ir<i. liohwhite, guinea, rooster, Blackbird, Flicker, and they gaxT many 
• •ihrr shrill whistles. When one of the birds came in, ! wn<« "'•'••• '^f*ar him 
an< i tu ilid not see me and walked across my arm. 

I have put three boxes in the bam with holes outside, and 1 hope to have 
ihem build in them and then I think I will write about their broods.— Hamby 
G. Heme. (Age 13 years). 

|Lrt us hope to hear from Harry acaia. Much caa be Isarasd by watchiag ibt 
Starlfa^ sboat thsir bmIs.— A. A. A] 



CANADA GOOSE 

•y T. Olt«BST rSARSON 

Clr jMiiMi Bmmuaum oi anbubon ^^ocittuf 

BOUCATIONAI. UUrLBT MO. I« 

Few filets in the bird-world are lo calculated to stir the imaginatiun of the 
bird-lov-er or the hunter as that of a flock of Canada Geese paashig overhead. 
In V•■hl^>ed fonnation the great grey-and-white birds move throu^ the upper 
air in wbit team to be a most leisurely and deliberate manner. As a matter 
of fact they are probably traveling at a rate of more than fifty miles an hour. 
This fleeting view of a flock passing hi|^ above the buildings ^ ' - tops b 
about all the average man or woman ever sees of the famous \ - »w. If 

the air be free from distracting noises, the observer may even catch the musical 
k0nk, ok hank that falb clear as a bugle-note from the sky above. On quiet 
mornings about lakes or over extensive marshes I have known the «>und nf 
thtt cry to carry to the ear from a distance of a mile or more 

When thus obaervedf Wild Geese are usually on a kmx journey. It a U- 
autumn, they are probably moving southward to their winter home. ImmenM- 
numbers of them pass the cold months along the coasts of the Middle and 
South Atlantic States, being especially abundant from Long Island to South 
Carolina. The center of their winter abundance in this region is Chesapeake 
Bay, Virginia, and the sounds of North Carolina. In Currituck Sound, Canada 
Geese at times are seen in numbers abnost beyond belief. I have u ' ' >ne 
wave of flying Geese follow another for a period of more than tw< < Ju- 

ration probably 40,000 being in sight during the time they were under ob- 
servation. 

This spedes b not a otmunon bird on the great salt marshes of the Louisiana 
Coast, but many are found in the bayous along the Missiasippi River from 
northern Louinuia to Miasouri. Here they feed, eqiedally among the stubbles 
of the grain^dds, and resort to the river at evening, where on the moonlit 
bars they may be heard chattering among themselves as the night closes down. 
Many go down the Pacific Coast and pass the winter n <at 

irrigated valleys of central and southern California. 1' nn 

migration, and after reaching their winter home, Canada Geese are persbteni 
sought by gunners, and many are the devices that have been invented for oui 
witting these moat wise and wary of water-fowl. 

Except on their breeding-grounds Canada Geese are always found in flocks, 
and when feeding in stubble fields, 00 the manh, or perhiii in shoal 

water m the wide eqianae of some aoQiid or estuary, it b f< > inter to 

think of approaching the birds by stealth. The vision of the Wild Goose b 
marvekHis, and iu power to detect danger b devebped to an ex t< is 

positively uncanny. When resting or feeding, some of the birds a > \ e 

their heads ele\'ated and are scanning the horixon for dangf 

(*7o) 



I 



Canada Goose 



«7i 



One successful method of hunting these birds in autumn is to dig a pit in a 
cornfield and cover it with corn-stalks. The hunter here ronceah himidl and 
-hooU the Gcc9c when they OMne into the field to feed on the com, iHiich for 

me time has been daily scattered over the ground as a lure. Along the South 
Atkntic Coast many are shot from 'blinds' erected on points of mardi or shal- 
low shoab where the Geese come to feed or rest These 'blinds' are ooQstnicied 

: four strong stakes driven into the mud, forming a square three feet or more 
across. These, in turn, support the blind which consists of a boarded 6oot and 
sides made of long grasses or reeds cut from the neighboring marnhfs In this 

c hunter crouches and shoots the Wild Geese as they approach the wooden or 

. e-Goose decoys andiored nearby. A modification of the blind-shooting is 




^ 



'4 « 



Cl'RRITl'CK UII.I 



(III- iiuiiict I 



m ilic wave* 
m on the water are the bobbiti 
tijo, are always used when avaiUiuc. i 
honk and call to the gimner any of their V 



i^ back in a box shaped like a 

of boards and canvas. Around 

OS of Geese. Live decoys, 

■' -reat hdp for they will 

< e to be pasting within 



II tnc iNUMge of the rccerr i^Kt. •« 

the bodies of wild fowl, « mually UDed in laife 

rs and sold in the markcu. When pioperl> 1 this bird aakcs 

-I rptable addition to the menu. Adult Cao^tM ot^rae wdgli from ti^t 
I |H>unds, hence unc i» indeed a pri^te for the game-bag. 



»7» 



Bird • Lore 



Along our cMtcro icaboard, numy Canada Gceae are reared as domr^ii* 
birds. The origina] parents of these flodu were wounded in winter shooting 
and froin the sama source addttioos to the flodu are made frum time to time. 
From' these decoys we learn many interesting duuacteristics <rf this great l>ir(l 
of passage. The writer knew one wild gander in North CaroUiui whose ht»- 
tory as locally recounted was as follows: Wing-tipped by a shot long ago he 
was put in the Goose-pen with other decoys. His wing healed, but he couhi 
never fly. He moved about with the other Geese but paid no particular at- 
tention to any of them for thirty years. Then he mated, and when I last saw 
him, he had been a faithful mate, winter and summer, for thirty-two year». 

It is often difficult to get these decoys to sriect mates and as indication of 




CAVAii\ i.ll>l *TTBA«TED TO A SMAU. POXD IS OXTARI" < ivu.\ i \ \« i 

OP CORN 
BM* M aad eum4 tm kf jack Mtoor 

the value of mated Geese I may state that the writer remembers the time, only 
a few years back, when in North Carolina a pair of mated decoys would readil] 
sell for $s, while an unmated Goose was worth only frn~ -' -^nX» to $t. 
man who had a 'stoc4' of two doien Geese thought him < .ate if hr hm 

as many as four or &vt pairs that were mated. 

Canada Geese are stqiposed to keq> their maio nn iiie. Howe>'er, a iniii 
natural that, with the r e cur rence of firing, evidences of strfidtation on thr j>Art| 
of the gander should be most pfonounced. At this season he goes throu 
weird contortions of his nedi, wings, and body, either mth thr 
tention of c h ai mi ng his mate or warning away any other lovdort. 



Canada Goote 173 

may wander near. I craning forward, with neck stretched to its full length and 
head »wa\-ing only an inch or two from the ground, the bird will make sudden 
rushes all about the place. His nMuth is open, he hisses furiously, the feathers 
of his wings are ruffled, and altogether he is quite a fierce antagonist to face. 

The male keeps dose, jealous watch oN-er the nest and his brooding mate, 
and if hr thinks they are endangered he at once gives battle. If the nest b 
ap{)ruai hoi he will not hesitate to attack a human intruder as the blue bntiset 

my own iMxly, on more than one occasion, could have borne testimony. 

>^ ~ r htMne of the Canada Goose is in our northwestern states and 

>>ns of Canada. Five to eight white eggs are hud, usually in a 
ieather-itnrd nest on the ground in the immediate vidnity of water. I have 
found the birds particularly partial to Uttle islets for nesting-sites when these 
are a\'ai]able. 

The molting season comes while the birds are in attendance on their young, 
and there is a time in the history of ever>' family of Wild Geese when ndther 
the (tarent.s nor the Ntmng can escape by (light. It is, however, no easy matter 

capture an adult Goose under such curcimistances. For the sake of experi- 
ment the writer has upon occasion attempted the pursuit of old Geese when 
found in ci>m(>any with the young. The utmost effort that could be put forth 

two men piaddling a light canoe or rowboat was whc^y insufficient to over- 
K'>me the rapid progress which the wild Goose made, first by swimming and 
later by flapping along the surface of the water, in which movement both wings 
and feet were used. There arc printed records tending to show that Canadian 
Indians sometimes succeed in driving the molting Geese out of a pond by 
means of dogi, and thus bring the birds within range of their arrows. 

With thousands of men constantly seeking to kill the Canada Goose, it 
MTcms strange that they have not long ago been exterminated. As a matter of 
fact, it appears that of recent years their ninnbers YuLVt been increasing. 

The food of this species consists of a wide variety of objects gathered on 
litnd as well as in the water. Small frogs, insects and other aquatic life are 
taken in a small degree, but usually these birds are vegetarians. Com gathered 

m the ground in the autumn comfidds, grain picked up among the wheat 
^tufiMr nn ! < ..n acoms are eaten. Various kinds of water plants are consumed. 
Nfi . uMiry dub house of the Camp-Fire Club of America there is a 

>f several acres where in 1921 nine Canada Geese were kept. During the 
Glimmer these birds destroyed neariy ail vegetation growing in the shallow 
wnter aboot the margins. 

nee recognizes four forms of thb Goose, varying from each other but 
' ' plumage. These, known as Canada Goose, 
H 1 Goose, and CackUng Goose are aU inhab- 

ints of North ' 



IW Ht 



Cfjc Hubiibon j^ocfcticsi 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

by T. OaJKBT nUkMUOM, Pi«ai4cat 






T. GomBT FtAkWMI. f*t$i4tml 



iMnm T. CA*f««. !».. Ji yi| 



It, WMMlaft «*!«•••. 
' — lnwM» te Uh NsUomI A-ocfaltoB of AirfabM SMtaiiw lor tte PntactiM ol WiM 




Fo«ii e» BaQvc»r>-l d» MftbyHw ui4 ba a — a t * to (W NattoMl Aatockdoa «l A« < « b — 
iMtatfto far iimfmmtUm «l WM A* m^ aSmIs (lacMponud). U U« Cky •! N«« fmk. 

JOEL ASAPH ALLEN 



On Out aomiag of Autu^ 
Joel AMpb AOea, of the Amcru an M 
of Natiosl Histor>'. N>« Vork Citv ) 
away ia the cig|ity4ourth >-ntr of 

The amouBt of ukatihc «rork : 
ptfabed durim Ms loog lifetime was \-er>' 
gicat. Yet few, if any, realixrd the extetit 
of liis acmiBfiliahtncnt* until a few ytun aRo 
wIks uader heavy pfcamre from the Presi- 
dcat of the Mtwrnm he was iiiduccvl to pre- 
pare for ptthlication hb autobk«raph> 
When this was iMued it wa» found that h< 
«M at that tiae the author of over 1400 
adcsttfc papers. Althoui^ a trholBf of 
ffcat erudition and deeply ensraased in re- 
search work in his choaen fidd of mammal- 
Qfy, he nevcrtheleas took keen intemt in the 
canae of popidarWag the subject of Natural 
Ifisloiy and in the oonservatino of »iM life. 
His aaBK has been coanectr'* iti«<- 

ofbbd-jifotectioBfciracaHly i t.it». 

a hnifer period, with one cmption, than t hat 
of any other nan in this country. 

Charitable toward the shortcomings of 
others, enter to help those in need of counsel, 
and sedcinK nothimi for himself in return, he 
uMDoaaciowly hdd, in stiuafes 
the loyal dcvocioa ol Us frloMb and 



>ked only to labor air 
ircnn- modesty cooccming hu u«n at 
..iiuncnts was a profouiHl rliararteri«ti«- of 
which his friends nex- 
His active efforts \ot t 
birds date from the \ < 
Mniaed l>>Mi-»rr>i>^ 1 i\ • 
Sutcs. 

At thr tniri) ai> 

Iran ()mitholaKi»t 

thr fall of ijviis 
i)cwl>' appointcii 
Frotcction.' The foIlowioK year this « • t. 
mittee prepared for publication a i6|>.it.< 
supplement to Scinue, and shortly :iit<r 
ward 100,000 copies of thit were i»^>.<<j 
as Bulletin No. 1 of the American Onu 
tholoKtsis' Union's Committee on Bird i'ro 
tertian. By far the most fomful artiric in 
ihi* Kullrtin was by I)t 
titlr. I'ment Uliolcsal' 
Life in the United SUtea.' \' 
1886. the origmal Audutx' 
formed by Dr. Georxe Bird Gri: 
editor of F0rea tu4 Stream, In 
name a p peare d as one of its hvz in" r 
pontors. In 1807. the New York s: tr 
Audubon Sodrty was established, ao<i I 'r 



I 



»76 



Bird - Lore 



Aim at oact bacHH MM oafy m mtmJbn ti 
Uw Boaid of Dirarton. birt ft walMr of tlw 
BmcvUvo CooHRittM, vlikii poaltiaa ho 
bdd at lam «• iJm Society coMiawd acthrc. 
Dr. J. A. ABoi taaa one of tht foumfcra and 
laaMpetalon of the Natioaal ftwofiatimi of 
AwMmwi Sff JTlftB. oMablfalMd fai Jaaoaiy, 
tges. Fkoai tlMi tkao OBtil Ui ikatb he r»- 
aa acthrr aacwber of the Boaitl and 
Ml faithful ia hia attcadaaoe at ita 
To tiM vcfy laat he took deep 
la all tiK Asodation't problcoM and 



•ta. Hia 

of the gioalea %'alur to thr a«|BaiBatiao. 

The burial look pUce ia WiadMr Ccmr 
tcry at Corawall-oo-HttdKin. oa the aftrr- 
of St p l ew b ef i. loai. Maay of hi* 
Modatea journeyed from Nrw 
Yoik, WaaUagtoa, aad elMwhaiii to be prca- 
cat oa this i mpwl ve o<Taaiow aad by their 
atteadaacc do tuch poor hoaor aa waa poa* 
Ale U> oae wboM life had been to UnrrU 
^leat ia the lata«*t» of othcm. 



NEW AUDUBON BIRD RESERVATION 



la an artide by the writer, wtiidi appea r ed 
ia Biao-LoKS, SeptcaaberOctober, iqjo, 
MBM aocouat will be found of the vaat bird- 
lilt whidi he d h cootiod to cdat oa Bii Bird 
Und, Little Bird Idaad, aad Groca Island 
fai Laguaa de b Madie, Texaa. 
of Heioaa, iaduifiag the rare 
EgKtf here collect ia Miwinifr to 
raar their yoaag. HcfealeoarelbaadtAaof 
ihowaada of bewtlai Tcraa aad f ainhim 
GaHa. Flom aa oraithokfical itawlpolnt 
the awit ia ttwiia t dhco v ecy araathat of a 
biaadhg colony of WUte Peficaaa. 

T«o tood fricads of the Awodatjoa in 
Teiaa. via, Judie Jaoca B. Wdbaad R. D. 
Caa^v both of Bnnmcvillc. iotcmtcd tbcm- 
Mbvi la cadeavoriag to aecurc f ran the atate 
of Tcaa the title to thoK ialaada, ia the 
aaaw of the Natioaal Aaodatioa of Aodttboa 
Sodftira. la order that the biida Kaortlag to 
this territory aright have the fuBert awiure 
of pnHectioa during that MaMo of the year 
whea they ataadia great need of such akl. As 
the hlaads were state property, the naoat (ca» 
ibie way of securing jurisdictioo over then 
appeared to be by Irgirfative actioa. 

Oa Augwi i8, 1911. a diw ri ag Ukgnn 
waa rKcived (ram Judge WcOi la which he 
slalad that the Texas U^datoK had Jwt 
a bin Irasiag theK aad the Three 
kxated ia the Laguaa, to the 
Aaodatioe far a period of fifty ycaia. This 
spleadU actioa was taken entirely at the 
w liritat i oB of Judge Wdk aad Mr. CaaqK 
The bw leaiiag theae iriaads to the Aao- 
datioabaafoiowa: 



A BILL 

To B« Kntitled 

A.\ A' -him/r the Cummissioaer ol 

th< i .in<i (Mli<r to lease Green 

IsiuMj. tnc group oi iabads known as 
Three Iabads aad North Bird Isbnd and 
South Bfad Island and the adjaceat flau 
aad reefs la Laguaa Madre oa the Texas 
Coaat for a term not to exceed fifty vcan 
to the National Aasocbtfcm of Audoboa 
Societies for and in consideration of said 
AasocbtioB undertaking to propagate, 
protect, and coasc r ve birds and bird-life 
thersoa; providing (or the protection of 
birds aiM bird-liie thoeoa: providing 
puahhmrat 1^ fme and ia mrbonment for 
viobtioa of thb Art and declarin« an 



Be ii enatUJ by Ike Uti^ttun of Urn State 
of Tosas: 
SacnoM I . For and in ooaslderatioa of 

the Uadertakine )>v thr \aiiafiAl As^^MLaiion 

of Audi^i 

and miwrr 
h 



I 

A 
liarrrui 

ilw 



datioashok. 



aay lease i« 
ofRaaiation or • 
such lease the ( 



The Audubon Sodericy 



l-Aod Oftcc tlMll GUKd MOK Bod tbcrrupoB 

Jill rjplus acquiicd by laid .\BMrbtkai ikail 

tenMMtc. 

^crnoM t. All Lena tlull be icoomM 

r county in whkk the Icated arm b 

ard and aitrr tbc raoonl UmvwI tbc 

IcsMc thaU haw the c adiwi rc rkht to cater 

upon, iiaw, hoM simI wtapy adaMirdy the 

h Icaae aad ihall have 

• adopt such rules and 

rrfUMtMwis •» may uc SeCCMaiy fOT thc eie* 

cutioo ol the paqMaea of thb Act; provided, 
nochiag hrrrin .k>n he coaitmtd to prohibit 
•>r iat/vfcrr Authority of any peace 

•Acer of th' Tcsaa or of the Uaited 

>tatc» to cater upoa a«r Mich leased aica for 
tbc purpose of dwhAf K Wn aay duty impoaed 

rasachoficrr w« of Texas or by 

bwtofthel r*. 

SicnoK «. Aiirr nucii lease has beca 
recorded it wall be ualawf ol for aay penoe 
except a le pn ma tative, aa 
■t or aa ca yley e of such Asaodatioa or a 
tfTit rr of the state of Texas or of the 
alter upoa such leased area 
wledfe aad ooaseat of said 
the purpose of catchiag or 
' 'f birds or for the purpose of 
or bird en or for the pur- 
inf aay bwd aests or bird 
••"'-•* '"jI for aay pcrsoe 
' T maim aay bird 
jtra or to catch, 
'•0 or above 
■ orv'cr even 
- xutside 
Afulfor 



>i may 



to 




t aay repr es catative, agcat or 

faaid/ ■ ■ - 



amy \M or bMi aad uav aaiaali that 
■ay be kaowa to pmr »• hM^tft or 
bird cos aor to pcohWt MKJi rqwaaortativc, 
a(eat or cnployt nam faMBK bird-eBi 
aad catfhiag aay biid or birds lor propaga- 
tioa or coaservatioo or trimtihc parpoMS 
oaly, aor to prohBdt pcrBoas from taktag 
rrfage oa aay leased area oa accoaat of 



i«lnirfl 



SacnoM 4. Aay penoa who shall violate 
aay of the proviifaas of this Act shall be 
deoaed guilty of a misdrawaaor aad apea 
ooavictioa thereof, shall be puaished bv a 
fiae ia a sum aot less thaa twcaty-fivc dollars 
aad aot to exceed five huadrcd doOari or by 
i nmrisnaai eat ia the oouaty jail for a term 
aot IcH thaa tea days anr BMce thaa sis 
aMStha or by both each liae aad imorisoa- 
BwaL The pitovisioas of this section shall be 
ooastnied to be cumidative of other statutes 
upoa the saaie subject and aot to repeal aay 
other such statute. 

SacTtoN 5. The importaace of thc lc«»- 
and tne short term of tais 
Sessioa creates an eaMraeacy, aad aa 
impaative public aeoessity etfsts that the 
CoaililBlhisI rule reqaWag hills to be read 
oa tloae separate days ia eadi Houm shall 
be swficaded aad tins Mil be rhtrd ^poa 
third readiag aad fiaal passage aad that it 
uke effect from aad after its passage, aad 
it is M enacted. 

It aeed oaly be added that the Directors 
of thc AsBodatiaa will, of coune, take faaaw> 
dtate actioa hnkiag to the future pnilec> 
tioa of these vaal aarMries of oar suat heni 

water binlUfe. 



ACTIVITIES OF THK BIRD CLUB OF LONG ISLAND 



Thr .Sitth Anniol kr(..rt ..| tl.r HifM 

'' t {o-iJAKT- |»iMi< .iti^n with • <'\rr», and 

■ -.in* miM h int' f< •i;t)»: ni.«trriai It will 

'«• rrtnctnJirml that !^;^ 1% the 

4 whiih ( olorrl K-acvcU was the 

Jtxl tir^t PrrxKlrni At his death hlrs. 

fdward Mitrheil I owascad, of Oyster Bay. 

succeeded to the presideacy, aad the splwaHd 

growth of the Club has beea due brply to 

Her intcmt and iaitktive. Cokawl Rooae- 

dai«hter. Mrs. F4hcl M. Derby, b the 

r Secretary. 

I ) r K rjiort coalaias a aaaibcr of aitlcba, 

jLOiAJOfi »bkh we tod disoMcd sach sah|ccts 



a* A l(>latl<'^^ <>( < ..imr I-a«*,' 'h!\tr»it» 
fft>n» the IViial i itU »'i thr .State u( Nc» 

York.' 'Vlfhiaiu Fosdii^.' 'Ncstiag-BeaM aad 
Bird-Baths,' aad 'Plaatiiw to Attnct Bbdi.' 
The T w aa ati r* * n^aii shows aa It obm of 
$iJOt^^ aad mw a d lla w s of Ujfi^tq. 
The CMb b a strw^gaiag iaitilaliea with 

ttttt^fUC tWR W i MM A (POWMf MMBMnMp 

CMMMBIBC ftft VMMNHUQT IHBV SSMDCV Ci ttl* 

fantlal people. Mrs. Dctby** v«y laler> 
ertiag rqiort aa Secretary b aa foBowa: 

"la pwiatli^ the report of the Work of 
the Bird Oub for the year i9«o-ii I should 
Uke to bmJw aB the aMaten mUae that the 
work of the diib b catlraty dae la < 



•7« 



Bird-Lore 



theit tatcrst. Samr al our u m m tt n Miy 
fad tlMt Uwy are doiag vcr>- littk pcnauU 
vwfc, sad do Ml cim acr the vrark wUdi 
tlMy Mv mldiig powihlr. but I canaot en- 
phMiw loo ■Uvngly tbr (vt Uuil tbrjr ate 
lypertiag • cwtnirthrt piooc of public 
•dttcaUaa wbidi boa alNMly was • pfaicc for 
itJwU in tbc romniiBitjr. 

"Wben tbe Bird Oub was fint oqputiacd. 
iu Piaddoit, C<ilaad RooKvdt. wa« aazioui 
to htkrt tlw wrmbitibiii extaMi over tht 
wboie of Lai« Maad. aad to bav« tbe mem- 
ben devdop kxal gnmpe giving ^ledal at- 
teatioB to tlK pvnblcmft of eacb district. Tbe 
inl part at tbb wUtk b being lealiaed ae 
tlKvr arc fifty-two vfliege* repreMsted in tbe 
Club, and cacb y«ar new nwnbet* come in 
fmm new liitlricU; but to form active local 
group* requirBd an amount and a kind of 
Icadenblp wbich bat not been easily found, 
and it bas seemed tbat tbe irock wbich was 
begun hat year in tbe public scboob bad a 
more far-reacUng possibility and frodd moie 
quiddy interest a laneer number tban any 
olber plan wbicb tbe Club could undertake. 

"Tbe program tbus initiated bas proved 
even ommc suoomsfol tban was eipected. 
Vr%th tbe coflperatioo and finanrfal assistance 
of tbe NatioMl Amociatbw of Audubon So- 
cietica. tbe Fiebi Agent. Mrk M. S. Sage, bas 
gone from one cad of tbe lafamd to tbe otber, 
witb most eacsuraging results. 

"^During tbe moatbs of the scbool year of 
1919-so sbe spoke to more tban 10,000 cbil- 
dnm. During tbe jrear jurt dosing ber 
audiences bave totaled more tban jo,ooe 
In 1919-J0, 102 Junior Audubon Clam< 
witb a membcnblp of i,o>s were formed for 
six to lea weeks' ttniy in tbe scbools, because 
of tbe inlcfest crmted by Mis. Sage in h- 
talks to tbe public. This year 14a daaa* 
bave beca oignised, with a reerabei sbip of 
4,s69* A gnatcr nuiidtci of talks bave been 
givca, by raquert, in private bouses to groups 
of msmbcn, to dubs and aasodatioas such 
as tbe HoBK Bureau, tbe State Institute of 
Applied Agric u l tu w of Fanaingdale, at tbe 
Chiklrea's Home fai Mineola, to tbe Woman's 
Club in Great Neck, and in a number of tbe 

"Gratifying as this increase in nuaber is, 
c^To more so is tbe increased interest shown 



by all wrts of people, and wbicb can only U 
known to tbe officefv who receive tbe requett* 
for iafomwtiea of every kind and the eipros- 
sioas of a p pw c iatlo o for service rendered. 
Much information has been seat out in 
regard to planting for the attraction and pro- 
tectioo of bints, directioas for tbe pladng of 
nesting-hoses and for winter feeding. Several 
hundred placards have been issued stating 
the law concerning the mlr and carrying of 
weapons and the list of protected birds. 
These bave been wdcomrd by tbe schools aad 
game-wardens, and have been bung in post- 
ofbces and railway stations. 

"An interesting con fe ren c e was held with 
tbe ofkers of tbe Forest HiUs Audubon 
Society, who presented a suggatioo for sr- 
curing the coflperatioo of golf and oountr>- 
dubs in protectiitg bird* and for plantinic 
along the boiden of their property trees and 
shrubs which will provide shelter and winter 
food. Tbe two bird dubs hope to enlist tbe 
interest and action of all the country dubs 
on Ixmg Island. 

"Mrk. Sage announced that photographs 
of chiklmi with bird* 00 tbdr hand*, if dear 
entnigb. will be made into slides and shown 
with her collection. A number ha«*e been 
sent in and have been much appreciated, 
indicating, as they do, patieace, persist e nc e, 
and coaccntratioa oa tbe part of the cbiUicn. 
To succeed at last in photographing a bird 
means a great omny efforts. 

"We record with reRrrt the death of John 

Lewis ChiUs, of Floral Park, the wdlknown 

'-'"inilturist. Mr. Chikb was one of the 

iT members of tbe Club and was un- 

laiiini; in his interest and in his desiie to 

ftinhcrtbe work of tbe Club. In tbe death of 

% de Forest Weeks, of Oyster Bay, the 

has abo lost a loyal friend. 

"Tbe membeisbip b growing slowly, and 
it b hoped that many more will oome in tbb 
>'ear. Thirty ha\-e been added to tbe list 
since the bst annual report. There have 
been seven resignations. Tbe total member- 
ship b now J57, divided among ftfty-two 
pboes. A brge proportiaa of tbe charter life 
memben bave becoeie sustaining meadiets 
as wdl. thus making it possible for us to 
undrrtskf the work in the schools. As will 

r, bo*"^'*' •" '^ rntnri nf th*" Trra*- 



The Audubon Societict 



•79 



■ • ill obliged to acrqiC MsbUace 
>oal AMoriatkio of A wM tatt 
itMi wc liiwilj iMpc that wv nmy 
or iranbcn that we may be 
rely Mi(*«ii|ipartia|. The Secretasy will 
lad to reoehr the Munea of any resident* 
ijoag UbuHl who would be wiUinit to 
'TUP mmiDcnL 



*'ln coocluaioo I with to add that wtthovt 
the constant iMpiratioa and gvidaaoe of the 
Pitaideat and without her actual work, it 
would be imtwiWf for the Bird Qvh to 
have frown to ito pccacnt importance. 
**Rcq)cctfully Mbmittcd, 

"Enret C. I^MT, 
"Stmttry." 



ANNUAL MEETING 



t S<-\rntccnth Annual Meeting ol the 

latioo o( Audubon Sodetiea 

n the Amrrkan Museum ol 

ry. New Yorii City, at to 

M . <>n Tuesday, Oct"' >ji. 

>in<Wr way for a pul'^ -: to 

re hall ui liu. Mu- 

•^ tobrr J4. at whirh 

< and ^xakcrt with .t\ ' 

. . be provided. The _\ 

n and its affiliated organizations 

iKiiuut ttie country have during the past 

' enjoyed a most sucoesslul and intcr- 

^g period. It is hoped that as many of 

< organ'xations as possible will send 



representativxs and tlut the gmcral mrm- 
bcrship of the Association may be largely 
represented at the different lessioni. To one 
who has nr\Tr visited the American MuKum 
of Natural History an inqiection of the 
exhibit oi this great inatitutaoB b in itKlf 
worth a journey of maiqr hundreds of miles. 
It is a good thing for Audubon Sodety meiik- 
aad others intcrmled in wild-Ufe ooo> 
ation to come together from time to time. 
The interchanging of e i perie nc es and the 
stimulation derived from perwmal contact b 
good for all. Bear in mind, therrforr, the 
date of the annual meeting and try to be 
present if poasQile. 



THE WYOMING ANTELOPE EPISODE 



\' ihr l..f %rsiKtim tM thr Wvominu Ix-|ti» 

t« |ia«*ni Krantinc aulhurity 

:t< I iimmiv«i<>n t<> i«ftur (irrmtLt, if 

.i;h( wi«r, (or thr killiiix of buck 

•ull moose within the borders 

ioth of these aniamb for some 

«jlulc|y protected. The 

IS »'-^'»*'"g a very rare 

aaunal. in fact, entirety cstarmfamtad over 

i.f*r areas of its wr««-»" »«««*. 

•virfav the Utter KusttheCda- 

nuisian had under conswrniiKin the granting 

of pctmHa to UU aniaiope and aooae. It 

ai^wnit that the qmthm of pcrarittinf the 

«liiughler of anlcbfie was decided n dvumly 

rrceipc of viforoaa pralala, the Wag of 

h came about in the manner indkated 

■xt fallowing tekgnini' 

Uifi >« Icly, 

.rm York. 

»i ,* lOMK xixuiiAiton with Judkins, 

f Game WMdn of Wy«nh«. 1 have 

rated to Urn aaafaHt the dedabNi of the 

Stale Gnaw CnaMaimina c mapoeed of 



(.<>\(-rnor, Scirrtar}' of State, and Auditor 
Ah4i hj\f voted to allow the killine of one 
hiirximl buik aotdope and one bundled 
bull mouse. ludkinsMysaboutthree4o«rths 
f^f license* already sold to huntas. Aifu- 
ment b that killing of surplus old males will 
incicnae the hods. I beUeve the desire of 
hKBl boatert aad guide* of enstani hunters 
to have one gnad hunt before spedcs bcooaM 
extinct b the real reaaoa for such aa uawiM 
and wanton procedure. Animab from Yet* 
lowstone Park stray down into Wyoadag ia 
the falL I was told by cattlcmea that they 
eodd easily recogaiae park aaimnb he caa w 
they arc so taaw. Thb propose d UBiag 
festival caa yet be stopped by GovenMr 
Carey aad the lice asr i caaceHed. The iins n a 
opcaa. I uadwHaad. S ep tt aib er is- It b 
aoinriouB that aataiape are aearly extinct. 
Sack a huatiat progiam wmdd be a* crael to 
the hcnutif al aatelope as It wnuM be shoddag 
to the AaMfficaa i" 
shouki receive auit 
Wire me your sugi: 
lidty. If Griaaei 



vcraor Carey 

lis of protest. 

- .teet pub* 

rk niner 

XfrKMW 



give him cmnr of th 

bad, Hanttarg. ttm 

wants a storv tv^* ' 

(Siga«i; WtuiAM C. Onftoo. 



t8o 



Bird -Lore 



Mr. GmPI i* •M*' Mcnbcr ol tbc Na- 
UomI Atmximlitm ol Audoboa SockCiea sad 
ptstty bilcicslcd to all Uw AMocktioa'* 
activitici forike pRMKtiM qf wild bifdi Md 
■■l—h Wilk • view ol wce Ma t catttt- 
■Mlioa of Iht iafanHtioa tkal bad CMM ID 
Idai. dw MIowiag tdafiam, oa AagaM s6. 
waft hwa ai i l Bd to Govaaor Cuty, pmUtaA 
of the State Caa» Cnaaahiliai of Wyoarfag. 

NatkMMl AModalka of AadidMMi Sodstica 
lor the PnUKtioa of WOd Binb aad Aaianb 
is aknaed at rRtoct that you are graatiag 
penaiiiion to kin rj«r huadiod back aatdope. 
ncaar- Hroadwajr. New Yoffc. 

(Siici : PtAUOH, PnsUtml. 

U Uccam bad abcady beca iMOBd to kill 
•evcaty-five aatdope it would probably have 
bees too late to mvc the tlaufhtcr of this 
naay aaiaMb, but It aOght be po«ible to 
iaducc the aitthoritica aot to iaiue the i«- 
awiah« twcaty-fivc liccaMa. 

Hk reply received aext day wa» a» lolknra: 

No llceaaw have been granted (or the 
UBiag of bode aatdope. Matter will be con- 
ddend Inr Caiae CoouaiMion within a few 
day*. (S%ae$ Robut D. Cauv, GMmMr. 

It was a great joy to find that ao permits 
whatever bad thus tmt been gnuted. There 
was, therefore, a poisfliility of accnB|iUshlag 
by ipaw^y action. The AawdatJoa 
filed a fonnd protest ia the 

Coveraor Robert D. Carey, 

Chcyaaae, Wiroadag. 

Oa bdiatf of Aadvboa Sodeties of the 
Uaked States I reepectfolly urge you refraia 
frooB gnatiag permits to kill one hundred 



(Signed) T. Giumrr Pbabcom. Pn$idemt. 

At the auae tlaw every effort was amde 
from our New York office to get ia toodi 
with offidals of various aatioaal organia- 
tioasiatcreMcd ia the protcctioa of wiM life. 
The Coaaenfstion Committee of the Camp- 
Flre Club of AaKtica was notified, as was 
also J. HoCBce MrFarlsnd. Presklcot of the 
AoMricaa Civic Asaodation. To Edmund 
ScyBHiur, PrisidcBt of the AuKricaa Bison 
Sodetjr. the matter was nplahwd over the 

tCKDOflttK* s«0 lOHMBQHNCn^ SCSI ft SOPQQS 

tdcgnua of psoleBt. A wire was tent to 
Mr. GrcB iafonnfaig him that Dr. Grinnrll, 



of the Boone and Crocket Oub, wm in 
MoMaaa, and Mr. Gragi nadwd hka. Mr. 
HoOaad. Vic»>Prmhknt of the Ameriran 
Gaam Protective As s ori atj oa waa adviwt) 
and tdkpapked kis objections. A t elMiia m 
was sent to Madisaa ( .' 
New Yofk Zoflngical 
tkat tkae ia ^^ctoria, liritMh Colui 
Mr. Graat wired a very stroag protr^ 
Govcraor Carey agahist the killing of ihor 
aaimals We abo wpiaJard the situatiot^ 
by wire to the Chicago oflkc of the .\mi> 
dated Pnas, with the result that the gm< r^i 
public ia the West was aotified as to « ^.a 



la conduaion it need only be added t)i.it 
on the morning of September 7, iqji, thr 
fioDowine mcMWR was received from Mr. 
GrcB 

\ cUowslOOC Park W 

T. Gilbert Fcanoo, 

President, Audubon Sodrt \ 
1974 Broodw N >rk. 

Lt\'mgrtoa pai> ■>■ despatch frona 

Cheycane that, loUumuig protcato from arv> 
eral aatioaal t uf^ prolactiaa societies, the 
Wy«nii« Game Cnmrnlminn dedded aot t» 
issue pcrmito to hwMars to lull oae hundred 
antdope and r e du d n g UMMise permite tO' 
fif tv. You have doae aae work with hmip* 
aad proo^ results. Dan BeArd who it here 
joins me ia ooagntulatioes. 

(l^pied}Wtixi .iiO. 

Such actioa as the above b takea very 
frequently by the Hoaae Office of the Na- 
tkmal Association aad this has beea tha 
custom lor away ycan^ Often vrry little is 
said of these thfaigs b a public way. for it ia 
not always wise to advertise the fart that a 
huge series of protcstt really are stimulat 
from one source. Ilowever, it has beea 
ddcd to nmke some BMBthm of tkis 
order that our mea jhe wh ip amy know 
tking of the aiethods the Assodation 
pkiys in tu fight for the preservation 
America's wild lifr. It abo faidicalm 
very great advaatage of haviag a 
active membcrddp, and shows how 
member may help the cause. But for Mr' 
GreB's tiaedy waraing, it b altogether po^ 
sible that permiu would have beea isti" 
Wyoming to kill as many as one humh> 
moose and the same number of * 
cfisappcaring aatdope. 




I. Movnr MjuTKMmo. malk. •pssmo 
a Kt?arT »iACK»i»i». miALB. unmta 
». uxmrt wjurKMKO. yovxo malc. faix 



4. MMTY Bl-A«Ki.ii 1. vnrvn rrxt»ir. faU. 

». »Mwnpr» Bi-A< Ki MM. •MM 

«. MttWSar* BLACTKBIIU >t<!UI 



A Bi-MUNIH1.Y MAUAZINK 

OBVOTBO TO THB 8TUUY AMU PROTECTION OP BUtOS 

OnWMt Oniiii 99 TMt AwmMoa •ocirrics 

VoL XXIII NOVEMBER— DBCBMBER. 1921 No. 6 



A Double Tragedy 

By DR. And MRS. PRANK N. WILSON. Ana Arbor. Mlsli. 
Wiib PkoCocrsplM by Dr. Wibo« 

IN MAY, iQTo, while looking for nests in a large tract of brush and open 
wtiods in the western outskirts of St. Louis, Missouri, I flushed two Qiuul 
from the tall grass that grew about a brush heap, and a short sotrch 
cvealed a nest containing a single egg. During the next fortnight, I visited 
he qwt frequently; each day another egg appeared until the set contained 
^urelve. Then, fur the first time, I found the female on the nest. I was anxious 
tu secure some photographs so 1 hurried home and returned with the camera 
t. The Quail was not at home when I got back and did not 
.. .uie in the afternoon. Two exposures, made just before sunset, 
!ute failures becaus e of the poor light, and although I sat in the tent 
' >t ihe following day no more pictures were secured. Further attempts 
"'-' W made because of my departure from the dty. 

ulure only increased my desire to have photographs of a Bob- White, 

• I I was ver>- happy when, in June, 192 1, a visitor at a farmhouse where I 

vas spending my vacation found a nest in a nei^kcted field, grown up to 

hbtles and weeds. It was built just at the base of a tall bushy weed in a 

r open spot and was completely arched over. There were twelve eggs 

helter-skelter, as if the bird had not yet begun to incubate. In the 

11; I put up the hiding-tent near the nest and ooooealed it with weeds, 

' xt morning, just after sunrise, I crawled in and made ready for an 

' >' -^'^ntions made on the nest of x^ao led me to believe that the 

I in the early moraing, but the haU-hours and then the 

he QuaU did not return; so, after a time, I turned my 

^»nrrows that had built about 3 feet away from the 

I i < previous eveninf and had taken it for that 

^ - •^•'t was abundant in the field; but now I 

and nnch Ism freely marked than tbt 



aSa 



Bird - Lore 



otual cgpof the Voper Sparrow, and I law that the nett waa partially arched 
over. Thb mommg the egp were hatching and the female was going on and 
off the nest frequently, bringiiig food to the newly hatched young and carrying 
away the broken ihdbu Once the male came and fed her at she sat brooding. 
I had an excellent view of them through the peep-hole, and it soon dawned 
upon me that I was dealing with an unfamiliar spedes. The median stripe 

throu^ the crown, the |dain 
breast, a bit of yellow at the 
bend of the wmg, and the 
insect-like soog told me that 
my first Grassbc^jper Sparrows 
wtn before me. I promptly 
turned my camera upon ihcir nest 
and secured a aeries of pictures. 
I was still at it when, about 
..JO p. M.. I saw the Quail 
just behind her nest. A few 
minutes htter she came around 
the base of the tall weed at its 
door and entered. She seemed 
suspicious of the changed sur- 
roundings and at a sU^t noise 
from the tent she promptly 
took leave. A half-hour later 
she came back but was still 
restless and repeated her pre- 
vious performance. Later in the 
afternoon she remained on the 
nest in spite of the various noises 
that I made intentionally and 
unintentionally. When I came 
out of the tent late in the after- 
noon, I found that another egg 
had been deposited. I had ob- 
tained several pictures but the 
darkroom proved them to be 
less perfea than I had hoped. 
Two days htter, I returned with the hope of securing better pictures. The 
nest DOW contained fourteen eggs. I had not yet convinced myself that this 
bird normally bud in the late afternoon, so I again entocd the tent in the 
early mocning, the most favorable time for picture-making, for the tent had 
been placed to the cast of the nest. During the previous night the Sparrows 
bad met with an arcidcnt tuo common to ground-nesting spedes. In order 




OaASSBOPPkk btAkkOVt 



HhAl 



A Double Tragedy 



«tj 



ires I had pulled up and preswd down some of the vcfe- 

••• (ront of the nest; and thinking that there was little dufer, 

I had failed to conceal it when I left Some prowling animal had happened 

along, and the four lusty young that I had inspected late on the previoos 

..■•»:»« ».f.re gone, scattered feathers at the door of the nest telling me that 

: had been cmu^t as she brooded them. 

I heard the male singing nearby, and once he came with food. He looked 

into the empty nest from which hungry mouths had been wrat to greet him, 

and for a moment seemed puzded (I hesitate to say dismayed) at the change. 

' hen. after looking to the right and left, as if seeking his mate, he flew away 

..iid I saw him no more. 

It was an hour or so later that I heard the peculiar call of the CowlMrd, 
id almost immediately a female appeared in front of the peep-hole. She 





m 



^4 



A COWBIKO INSFEm THI «7< ->' 

ha<l s|>ir<l thr rn))>t\ ^fiarrow's nest And wcnt ' Itarmtly 

suitnl hc-r |>ur]K>sr fnr after a brief impectloB ^ wn. If I 

had only had the camera focund on the nett I might have caught her there, 
but there was no time to reanaafe my apfMuattia. Whether ibe taw the 
frathers before the nest, or whether tooe Inednct told her that the nett was 
' icrted, I know not, but she suddenly jumped up as if frightened and came 
oil. It was then that she saw the QuaU't neat and she procee d ed to iavct- 
tigatc. Just as she was peeping fai I releaaed the shutter, but, anfortuaately, 
e focus was poor and the eapoeure fanuiequate. Perhaps she realiaed that 



>84 



Bird -Lore 



a QioUl wtNiM make a young Cowbird a poor foster mother, or maybe the 
ooite of the focal-plane thutter »tartled her, for she toon 6ew away to leek 
•ome more tuitable home for her future offspring. 

After this incident there mtzs a long, warm wait, but finally, about 3 r. m. 
the Quail came tUyly through the grass and entered her nest. She repeated 
the tactics previously described, leaving at the slightest sound but prompt K 




I 



•ox LEAVING THE XEST SHE STOPPED AS IF TO LISTEN 



returning. Sometimes as she left the nest she stopped for a moment as if 
listen, giving just time enou^ for a fifth-second exposure. On one occasion! 
she remained longer than usual; she appeared to be arranging her eggs, 
as she turned about in the crowded nest she accidentally dislodged one whi 
rolled over the edge. She came out at once, as if to recover it, but perl 
the shutter frightened her for she left promptly. After that she gave the egg] 
no more attention and it remained outside until I replaced it before leaving. 

Toward 4 o'clock she settled down and no noise that I could make seemc 
•oioody to disturb her. She yawned occasionally, pecked now and then at' 
tone insect that had in\'aded her domain, but for the most part sat nnitc* 



A Double Tngpdy 



»«5 



fttill until I came out of the lent and approadied her dotely, iHien the flew 
dirrctly off the nest to tome tall weeds a few rods away. 

A week later she was sitting doeely and refused to leave even when I came 

within a few feet of her. Fearing lest she share the fate of her neighbor, I 

concealed the nest, but this precaution proved of no avail, and 

.- ,^ ,-. securing pictures of the x'oung was never realized. On my next 

the nest was deserted, eleven damp, cold, and slightly stained eggs were 

ic, one broken shell lay a foot or two away, and many feathers about the 

rway told of a midnight tragedy for which some prowling feline that is 

; >aaed to li\-e on rats and mice and not on Grasshopper Sparrows and Quail, 

obably to be hcM rcs|x.n>ible. Hawks do not fly at night, Owls are very 

> e in the vicinity, prtnlaiory mammals are also uncommon; so I am afraid 

the cat (of which the nearby village shelters many) must be held the 

transgreieof. 




*^lll C4III OOr AT ONCt 



rHC KOO SHE If At> DlirLACKD" 



What Birds Signal with Their Tails? 

•y BSMBtT THOMPSON SBTON 

IN EACH family of birdt there aeemt to be at least one ipedes that makc^ 
wig-wag fignalt with its tail, that is, uses the tail to signal to others oi 
iu kind. And in each case, with one or two rare exceptions, the tail »< 
used b decorated with oolort or with white spots, bars, and blotches, ao as t* 
make it more easily seen from far off. 

The best known of these tail-waggers is the Robin. The dear white spotv 
at the comers are very plain as the Robin alights and then, for the benefit of 
Srhom it may concern,' gives the wig-wag sign of his race — a wag down to 
ri^t, and then a wag down to left, so the tip makes a cross in the air when 
he makes the full sign. 

The Catbird is another. He has an extraordinary performance with a 
very unusual equipment. His outfit consists of a red lantern and a black fan 
for screen. He spreads the black fan (his tail), then raises it so you see the 
red lantern (his undertaO coverts), then drops the fan to shut off thr i<>r.i.r.. 
so we get alternately Mark nets and flashes of red-lantern light, recall 
of our army and navy signals. 

The Song Sparrow pumps his tail as he flies. 

The PluriM makes an extraordinary performance with his tail, often 
swinging it in a campieU cirde. This is the great exception to the rule that 
the signal tail b always conspicuously marked, for the Phcebe's tail is vcr> 
pbdn indeed, but used with sudi energy that it never fail* to identify thr 
bird, even without the aid of spots and bars. 

Hb cousin, the Crested Flycatcher, does some adr.... iAn-worfc, great I > 
assiited by the fact that said tafl b painted reddish brown. 

The Hermit Thrush b a most delicate tail-wagger. When he alit^hts hr 
raises the tail about half an inch, then slowly swings it down again. 'Hit- 
action b slif^t, but b nuule more effective by the tail being oobred rcdtli^h 
brown, br^ter than the rest of the bird's upper plinnage. 

The Water-Thrushes and one or two of the Warblers are wig-waggers, and 
I was surprised not kmg ago to see a Nuthatch, on my lunch-counter, turn 
hb back and spread hb tail like a little Peacock, as a kinsman came flying to 
join him. As the taO pointed straight up at the time, the white-and-broxK-n- 
^Jashed under coverts were remarkable. They spread like a little aurvra 
bmealis, and surely were doing service as signals. 

Among brger birds, the ^mutow Hawk and Pigeon Hawk signal with their 
tails. The Green Heron b an energetic wig-wagger. The Spotted Sandpi|>cr 
b well known for hb tail signal; UMially its line of movement describes a W 
in the air, beginning at the tip on one side and ending at the tip on the other. 
There are tail-waggers even among the Ducks. 

(a86) 



What Birds Signal with Their Tails? 



•»7 



In general, wlirnrvrr you aee a tmu s tan tnat i!« •^tnningly marked, you 
may believe that that tail is tned in some lort of signalling. Every bird, 
indeed, has some identifying trick or color pattern, besides peculiarities of 
voice and flight. And one proof that they servx such purpose b the (MCi that 
it is by this that we identify them. A few are here noted. If you watch the 
common birds of the garden, you will surely discover many that have hitherto 
escaped observation. 

Cultivating the Birds 

By CRAIG 8 THOM8. Vcrmiltoo. B Dmh. 
Witk l>h.>l.>Kra|.k* bjr Ike AMlMr 

BIRDS have become plentiful at Vermilion, S. Dak., and before the year 
is done nearly all of them seem to come to my yard. Of course, 
there are inducements. I feed them and water them and arrange 
nesting-places, and grow raspberries and strawberries, and have a hcmie-garden, 
whiih provides them with numerous insects. 

1 have counted the following birds in my yard in a single 3rear: 

WINTER BIRDS 

I. Downy Woodpecker; 2, Hair>' Woodpecker; .). Black-capped Chidtadee; 

'inal Grosbeak; 6, 

.. -, . Authalch; 7, Red- 

i Nuthatch; 8, Brown 

9, Redpoll; 10, American 

u h; II, Screech Owl ti 

Tree Sparrow. 

SUMMBR BIRDS 

I 14, Bronzed Crackle; 

iv K'ed Blackbird; 16, 

CowtMrd. 17. Mourning Dove; 18, 
Hluc J.-i\ . i<). ni«k.r; 30, Catbird; 
.' I , Housr \N rcn . -• -'. Wood Thnish; 
23, Warbling Vireo; 24, Brown 
Thrasher; 25, Yellow-billed 
( uckoo; 36, Chipping Sparrow; a;. 
Field Sparrow; a8, Rose-breasted 
(>r<>ftbeak; 29, Summer WarUer; 
^o, Kingbird; 31, Bluebird; 32, 
HaltoBoie Oriole; 33, Orchard 
Oriole; 34, Red-headed Wood- 

l»ccker; 35, Least Flycatcher; 36. Wood Pewee, 37. Towhee; 38, Ruby- 
throated Hummiiigbird; 39, Cedar Waxwing; 40, American Coot (evidently 
exhattHedin flight). 




THE n-ICKCa AT THE DOOa OT HIS NCST IX 

THE tx» mm nut Knonoui wwch i 

nXBDPOt HUI 



iU 



Bird-Lora 



MIORATINO BnUM 

41, White-throated Sparrow; 42. Lincoba't Sparrow; 43. Oven^r* • 
Ruby-crowned Kfaiglet; 45. Gokfen-crowned Kinglet; 46, Bladi-and \ 
Warbler; 47, Mar>-land Yellow- throat; 48, Tenneeece Warbler. 49. hi 
poll Warbler; 50, Myrtk Warbler; 51, Magnolia Warbler - ni;... » . 
Thruih; 53, Veer>' Thrush; 54. Hermit Thn»h. 

Besides the migrants named, others were seen but not 

One of the duel reasons for so many bird records in Vem .^ ihe interest 

taken by the sdiool teachers and the instruction in bird-life which they give 
to their pupQs. During a stereopticon lecture on birds not long ftince. the 
children were able to name every bird thrown on the screen. After the 
lecture a teadier proudly showed me the Bluebirds which her pupils had 
drawn in colors. 




THE MOl'RKIXC DOVE l> 



The sympathy of children in Vermilion for every bird tragedy is very 
marked. Half a dozen small girls brought a wounded young Bronzed Crackle 
U> our home one day to see if anything could be done for it. After a hard 
storm a group of children carried a dead Hermit Thrush to their teacher for 
identification. After a vidous winter storm a group of boys brought a wounded 
Lapland Longspur to our door. • They had gathered a number of crippled 
birds into a hayloft where they could feed and be warm until well. A girl of 
six, between sobs, sodded a boy of ten because he had wounded a Grosbeak 
with his sKngnhoL And a little lisfnng lad of four rang the bell one day and 
timidly remarked, "I came to ask if a bat was a bird." Few are the yards 
where the children do not know the location of every nest and diligently 
guard them from all enemies, 

So general b bird knowledge in Vermilion that men over seventy years 



Cultivating the Birds «tf 



IB, Catbirds, and many others. 

I birds build their nests as near our houses as possible. A pair of Robins 
the bracket under my roof for their nesting-site, although the yard is 
full of trees, and as I write, their fledglings are calling loudly for food from 
the grape-vine trellis. Dtiring the ooM spring rains those same <****g*"^, 
which were then si^tkss, featheriess, wrig^ing bits of birddom, were snug 
and dr>' under the roof. While the mother brooded them the father proved 
xid pro>-ider. coming regularly with bug-steak and angleworm cutlets, and 




WKOrtUALtS. 

ts quite unconcerned about high prices. When he came the mother would 

.use herself up and to one side and be would feed their tender young under her. 

A sense of protection from enemies seems to induce birds to build on one^s 

.urket, or sometimes on one's window-silL It can hardly be for protection 

irom storms, for just over my roof a Mourning Dove has placed her nest m 

the comer of the caves spout, which b on the roof, not tmder it. Drenching 

rain and biasing sun do not disturb her in the lea>t 

\ ^laHnlead plum tree holds the nest of another Mourning Dove. I have 

cd both of them at the work of nest4Hiilding. Most birds are yet in 

c 'tribal stage* in the sense that their women do the drudgery, but the female 

louming Dove has modem ideas. She iitt oo the nest, or rather where the 

' 41 b to be, and the male brings materiils for the nest to her, drappiat it al 

her side, and together they build the nest around and under her. He omally 

briap a siaiie piece at a time, and when ht ooowi with it he it jotl at apl 



»90 



Bird - Lore 



to V^t on her ts on the branch tt her side, or he ttept on her back as he walks 
acrcMa to place material on the other side of her 

Dovaa are peculiar birds. They do not lift their heads when they cinnk, 
but subnoge their bOb and suck the water up. They do not feed their young 
like moat p****t«f birds, but regurgitate half-digested food into their throats. 
A friend, looking at the parent Dove feeding her young, said, "They are scrap- 
ping." It looked as though they were 'scrappinfr' with clenched \>\\U. t)Ut it 
IS the regurgitatbn process. 

Althou^ the Dove is proverbially gcniJc, I once saw ihc male drive a Uluc 




l! 



tU OMMIlfcAk. AND rut SROWN THRAMtfcK AT THfc BATtl 



Jay froiii the trtrv in which the female Dove sat on their nest, and when the 
Jay stopped in a nearby tree he went to the nest and took the female's place 
on the eggs, as mudi as to say, "Come and rob the nest if you can." One 
morning the Robin flew to the bath where the male Dove was drinking, evi- 
dently expecting to scare him away, but the Dove rai««e<1 *>"»H wwa^ in i.r,.f..vf 
and stood his ground. 

Last fall a pair of Red-headed Woodpeckers bq;an exca 

box elder limb in our yard. We wondered at this, for althou^.. 

vates a winter home, the Red-head goes South for the winter. Do they begin 
their next year's nest the autunm before? I pbumed to cut off the dead limb, 
but my curiosity was aroused and it was allowed to remain for 'scientific' 
purposes. I knew that Red-heads were buy birds, watching for insects from 
fence-posts, and sometimes even taking them in flight, like fl>xatcherB, instead 
of industriously aeardiing and drilling for them like well-bred Woodpeckers, 



Cultivating the Birds 



291 



but I had not MMpectfd them ol bdng too Uiy to excavate their whole neat 
in the spring. No doubt I miajudge them, and they may have other adequate 

oaoos for their conduct, but, sure enough, as I write (the following May) 
ihey are back fmiahing the excavation for their nesL Of course, I cannot 
swear that it is the same pair, but it doubtleaa is, for they have made them- 

Ives very much at home about the premises, as though knowing th ems c lv t s 
on familiar ground. They eat suet at the food-box and drink at the bath 
like old-timers. 




\ Ix>\\.N\ WOOM'Ki KKR. AM' A 1! 
\\ THLkF. UILL UK No JKKKI.St. 
MUtUUY LEAVES 

-*ronagc that it never had l)ciorc. Suet 

>titute the bill-of-farc, and my summer 

Thrashers, Chickadees, Downy Wood* 

IKtmcr^, iuon/r.: «. 1 . -. ^ Grosbeaks. Robins eat suet 

and even feed it t< ihey dearly bve dieese rinda. 

hrashers and CatbinU like the same fare as the Robin; but Grosbeaks cart 

nlv for sunflou 

Nil the birds i each other's enjoyment of the food-table. The 

itbirds ihp in stealthily for a bite of suet as looa as Urger birds leave. Downy 

irceps up the post on which the table b placed and surprises the feeders by 

appearing suddenly from below. The ChiHradfiw are imther timki among to 

any gianta, but they dart stealthily to the far corner of the table, snatch a 

' tr. and hasten away in an ccrtaqr of acfaievcnent 

1 i>e boys take about as rnoch inlenat in my bird families as I do, for they 
cm to belong to us all together. They come through the >'ard e\Try few 



aoi 



Bird - Lore 



dftys to tee how many cgp are laid or bow the young arc getting " 
•hying ttooet at the ttK>-4iquiiilive •qturreb or ricking the dog on 
neighborhood cat. They showed roe where a Mourning Dove had ^jpropriaicn! 
an old Robin's nest for its own nesting-site, and wliere a Sumner Warblct 
had placed its nett in one of my raspberr>' bushes. In fact, they allow nothin;: 
to etc^ie my notice. 

A pair of Flidiers made their nest m a short iog which 1 set on toj) oi a 
post for them. The upper end of the log had a deep decayed knothole ca\ity 
I cleaned it out as well as I could and covered it with a board, but at be»i 
it was a dirty sort of (dace. Having seen their wdl-made, gourd-sh^>ed exca 
vations, I was not sure that they would take kindly to my i m p r ovised cavity 
But when their nine eggs were laid I found them on an exquisite bed of dear. 
chips which they had chiseled out of one side of tlie knothole. They had 
thrown out the dirty chips, using only the small dean ones for their nest. 
These they formed into a neat low mound on the broad bottom of the cavity, 
and their eggs were laid in a shaUow depresskm in its center. 

The Cardinal Grosbeak has been seen in the woods of the Missouri bottom 
for several years, but they are now venturing up into town. The>' were fre- \ 
quenUy seen about homes last winter. Male and female came for a time to a 
friend's food-box to eat sunflower seeds. In the wpnag I saw a pair in my own \ 
back yard, and from all signs a pair is nesting this season in our nearest ravine. 

My yard was as ftill of birds as my bushes were of fruit when my raspber 
began to ripen, but I wanted a few berries myself, so I turned the bird-bat 
upside down and bade my feathered friends good-bye for a little while, 
half a day nine-tenths of them were gone, ^\'hen the berries are safe in 
for winter use I shall fill the bath again and invite the birds to return. Fr 
past experience I know that many of them will respond; but some of 
will iooo begin to gather in flodcs for their southward jotimey, and I 
see no more of them imtil next vear. 



^r" 



Billy, a Great Horned Owl 

By DBLL COLBMAN. MllwaskM. Wis. 

BILLY and his sitter, or brother,— I do not know which— were bom in 
a Crow's nest la miles north of Decormh, Iowa. A farm-hand brought 
them to town and I bought Billy for a dollar. When he first became 
one of the family he was wrapped in a grayish down with a few pin-feathers 
fw wings, but when put on a ration of liver, English Sparrows, rats and mice 
he acquired weight and feathers. 

.\bout the last of May he had become an expert flier and a puoiu nuisance. 
We ne>-er kept him shut up or cli|^)ed his wings and so helped him indirectly 
to a great many adNTntures. 

I )uring most of the day he sat on the peak of the roof to the consternation 
• 'fall ri>spectable birds who mobbed him unmercifully. He would sit through it 
all ^••Liicly because, abo\'e all, Billy was a gentleman and never lost his dignity. 

No :iooner would anyone on the street come out and sit on the porch than 
Billy would make an informal call, proa^>ted, of course, by the hopes of some- 
thing to eat. He would always alight on the walk, hop up the steps, and then 
bob his head. If this did not get any results, he would utter a soft 1 1 1 op, 
and if there still were no signs of capitulation, he would fly up on the person's 
knee, head, arm, or shoulder, and this always brought some sort of result, 
usually ending in a flurry of feathers and BiUy on his back in the grass at the 
foot of the pofdi— and why? Because BQly was almost 2 feet tall, weighed 
in proportion, and had claws as big as my hand. 

One morning, two dogs came into the yard, a collie and a bird-dog. bccmg 
Billy, who was ritting on a stump, they gradually approached. When within 
20 feet of Billy, the bird-dog slunk away but the collie was curious — so was 
Billy: He drifted off that stump and onto the ooUie's back. With a ydp, 
the collie set about going away from there - Billy decided to go with him — aod 
did! He dug his daws in and hung on, ha lancing with the aid of his wings, 
and. believe it or nol, be actually lifted that dog off its hind feet for about 8 
icti. When the excurstoo reached the sidewalk, Billy dropped off at the feet 
of a litUe giri. With a screech, she foUowed the collie. I called BUly back 
and kicked him in the chicken-coop. 

This was another of his traiu: He would follow a Plymouth Rock hn aU 
ovtT the place if given a chance and never harm her, but was death on cats. 
One day a stray cat got in the yard and BiUy saw it. Quicker than a wink 
he had that cat back of the head and it was the end of Mr. CaL I tried to 
get it away from him and that was the first time he ever got in the least savage. 
Ordinarily I coold roU him around, scratch his bead, carry him anywhere and 
any way and he would never even offer to get mad, tnit this tima Iw hm^ oolo 
that cat with one daw and sunk the other into the calf of my leg and tried 
his best to bite my hand. I had lo give up. lie never bit or struck at mt . 
with hia taiooa again. 



}Q4 Bird • Lore 

It b A common belief that Owb cannot tee by day, but Billy could catch 
a ■pe rm ophfle in the brightest sunlight Occasioaally I would tuck Billy 
under my arm and we would go out in the country to some dry pasture where 
I would set him on my knee and wait Soon Billy would see a spermophHe. 
watch it for a moment with a fierce chance then glide through the air on his 
5-foot wings, and, nine times out of ten, he would bring back that 'gopher.' 

Toward the ktter part of August, Billy began to wander, sometimes staying 
away two or three days, but he never objected to being caught and would 
even come when I caUed. He was not so tame always, however. A friend of 
mine teased him one day. Billy stood for it awhile, but 'enou|^ was too much. ' 
That boy received four gashes on one arm and a finger bitten to the bone. 

Unfortunately, Billy acquired a taste for Ducks and killed seven foom a 

n)an*« flock in the npxt hlock. Tfie man took nromtit rrvrnirp tiv shooting 
BiUy 

When Billy was killed, he was almo&t full gruwo. lii- 1 duwn 

feathers but his 'ears* were an inch long. He had big >l.. o pupil 

<d whidi he could dilate from the siie of a pin point to that of a pletcly 

efladng the ydlow. His throat was pure white and hi^ 
with penciled bars. His tail was fully developed. I did no i .„. 
but iMve his daws, wings, and tail in my room. 

And so endeth the tak of one Great Horned Owl that was gentler and 
more loving than almost any other pet I evtr have had, and I have had a 
Crow, two Red-shouldered Hawks, a Blue Jay, two Screech Owls, a YeUow- 
bellied Sapsudier, a squirrel, a coon, and a blackanake. I might say that 
I have never kept a single pet lodced up nor prevented them from leaving 
when they so doired. Indeed, it took me three wedcs to get rid of one of the 
Hairiu. I even carried him five miles off and rdeased him in the woods but 
he was home before I returned. 



I 




«^«* 



Th^ Migration of North American Birds 

SKCOND SBftm 

XVII. RUSTY BLACKBIRD AND BREWER BLACKBIRD 
Compitod by Harrjr C. O bfh oli t r. Cbitfljr from Dau in tb« Biolocical Sunrcj 

RUSTY BLACKBIRD 

The Rusly Blackbird (Eu^kagus caroliims) occurs over the greater part 

i' North America, exclusive of the western United States and the idands 

' 1 the Arctic Circle. It lirrrds north to northern Ungava in Quebec, 

rm Ontario, central kccwaiin, northern Mackenzie, and northern Ahiska; 

est to western Alaska; south to southern Alaska, central Alberta, southern 

\ iscoosin (casually), central New York, southern Maine, and New Brunswick; 

id east to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. It winters north to .Nebraska, 

lichigan, and southeastern New York, and south to the Gulf of Mexico, 

Morida to eastern Texas. It occurs casually in mij^ration west to British 

ntna, Montana, and Colorado, and accidentally in California, Lower 

difomia, and Greenland. 

SnUNG MIGRATION 



UM AI.ITN 



«lymn' 



an 

k. I 



N. U 
H 

!• I I 

UN 



.Ort 

-sOm.. 



J 

7 

|8 
It 

S 

lO 

<; 
I.* 
j6 

IJ 
lO 

»$ 

8 
8 

4 



tt 

le 



6 
M 



•prtacMrival 



1_L 



April6 
Itardi IJ 

Marchia 
Mardi >o 

.\pril6 
Muclia4 
Mardt 14 
March .- 
March 
April ^ 
April 16 
AprUa 
April6 
Aprili 
May 4 

y---'' 

M . 

Aprils 
April4 
Aprils 
April 16 
llMdi; 
Maidi la 
llardiab 
MaicktS 
Maidi 17 
March 17 
Maick 14 

MSfca ap 
Aprilb 






Maick JQ, 191J 

April 17, 191S 
Februanr a, 1890 
1 UuKh o, 1889 
I Raicwttitcr 
March aj, 1899 
February at, 1909 
February 8, 1888 
March 17, 1918 
February 8, 1879 
March It, 1910 
March a6, 190a 
Jkfarcb IS. 1908 
Marrb Mt <9>i 
March ai. igij 
Aliril a4, 1910 
\ ! 16. 188a 
.-. iMi 

:m 

1*94 
i.S.,0 



Mat«ii t, ttt«5 
March $, 1910 
February ao, 191$ 
Februanr a6. 1889 
•• ' 1918 

x:. — ,_^ 1904 



(8S9) 



»96 



Bird-Lora 

SPUMC MICSATION, CODtlDUed 



LOCALITY 






Vtsiuf 


OUa«m.(> I 

NatiaMd,i(m. 

MaOmHuWh 

Uahy.Wlt.. 

LumomOfUian 

MlMwpnlk. Mion 

Sl ViaccBU Miaa 

AMcMaaitoba 

FoctS^pmi, Mackouir 
Fbcrtaf.ABMru 


aS 

6 

lO 
«7 

! 

< 

17 

a 
«7 
4 
J 
3 


April ao 
MMdiao 
Mafdia4 
Maidi aa 
Aprils 
April 3 
Aprila 
April9 
Aprilo 
April 16 
May 10 
April a6 


March 19. 1894 

Maidi 8, 1919 
Maidi 8. 1914 
Maidi a4. 1919 
Maidi a6. 1889 
Maidi 16. 1904 
April 1, 1897 
Maicfa aj, 1910 
April 15, iQii 

Apnis*, t9ta 



8PRINC MICKATION 



LOCAUTY 


Naabw 


■ptiac 4apMtw« 




Rakkl^N.C 
WMhT^na.D. C 


ts 
aa 


April6 
April 18 
April 19 
Mays 


April a6, 1909 
May II, 1917 
May 1,191s 
ll^r>7.i88s 


RcBOvo, nL 




May 10 


May as, 1910 


MorrtaUmiLK.J. 
New Yoric aix N N 


ij 




May 18, 191 7 

May I J. 1903 


Sbdtcr Mand. N \ 




May 6. 1898 


Gcaev«,N V 




May t 


May 7, 1918 


ProvidcDtr, k. I 




Mayo 
Mays 


May 14, 1911 


Bo«aa,Maai 


18 


May aa, 191J 


RathBd.Vt. 
NeirOriMiM, U. 




M«ya 

April a7 


May 8, 191 a 

May 10, 1899 


Sc.Loaii,Mo. 




April 18 


May 1. 1Q09 


Port ByiioB, nk^ 




April 19 


May 1. 1917 


Chici0o.lll» 


IS 


April as 


May 5. t< 100 

May 8. 1887 


S0^B.Illd 




April aj 
lKy9 


OlMriia,Oluo 


aa 


May x>, 1917 


YoonatowB, Ohiu. 
Am After. Midu. 




April a3 
April 24 
May 17 


May 6, 1913 
May 3, 1907 


Saalt SIC karia, Mich 




May a6, 1918 


Laadaa,Oot 




April a9 


May 6, 1916 


TORNlto.OBt 






May 3, 1904 


K«iktA.Io»a 
NatkMl, I««r« 




April 18 
April as 


April ao, 1897 
May s, 1909 


MadhoiLWb 

Unity, Wii. 

LaaMboML Minn 
MlMWpBJi. Minn 


la 


April t6 
April aj 


May 7, 1909 
April 30, 1913 




April 17 
April as 


April 19. 1888 
May 1 2, t9ao 


SLVlMi^Minn 






May 1, 1897 



PALL lOCRATlON 



LOCALITY 




fdlanlvd 


ifflsfta- 


Sc ViMnt. Min. 

MlMMpolfa. MJM 


3 

4 


Srpcmbrr 5 
Sqilrnriier a 


Sqitrwbrr, a. 189O 
Sqitfiiibrf ai, 1905 



The Mlprmliin nf Nnrih Am«'ririin Bifds 

TALLMIOK Alius, CunUUUOJ 



»97 



-aiCU4TY 






'•■lor. IT 
Madbga, 



Wi* 



Satkittl. I0M4 




K.-l v.. r^a 




MAfir 


\| 


Ml.! 





^ iMUur^ioirn, Ohio 
<)biiyB,Obio 
N«dM, lad 

hiofo, nk 
i'offt Byron, lib 
Mbcos,Tenii 

i«nrard. Mam 



\ 
....... ., V 

\rw York City. \ \ 
'■lorrotoim, N. J 

'caovot P* 

>S aahtnKton, D. (' 
kji'-ii'h. \ ( 
\.u..^--.i.:. , \... 



i 

6 
8 

■4 
4 

4 

s 

s 

4 

8 

16 

5 



o 

5 

16 

9 
>3 



SqitoBbcr 34 
Sfp t c m hr r ao 
October 7 
October 14 
October 12 
September 30 
OctoberQ 
October 15 
October ai 
October! 
October9 
ScpCeniber 25 
S r p t rm b er 17 
October *o 
SeptfHiber r j 
October 10 
October 7 
Squewber ic 



October 16 
October 7 
October la 
Octobers 
October at 
October a6 
October 39 






dcpvefltter o^ too8 



Sc|itonber 
Scptcabrr 
Scptanbrr 
Septemb e r >6, 169b 
Septcoiber at. 1898 
October a, 1918 
September ta, 1918 



October 5, 1916 
September 10, 1900 
OiMier 7, 190S 
Aufwt JO, 1906 
August JO, 1919 
September 39* 1909 



Sfptfmhrr 16, 1910 



September jo. 1886 
September aa, 191a 



Aogwt 31, 1909 
Srp t wber $, 1915 
Ocubtx }, 1908 
September 1, 1914 
October 4, 1914 
September 14, 190J 
Scpteadber 16, 1885 



October 14, 1895 
October 19, 1913 



FALL 


mOKATION 




LOCALITY 


Hmmkm 
mcm4 


A««(Mi4aat«l 


LMM«4M««f 
fo8 4iOUtw> 


'■ Uptafl, ABiertJi \ 


October 16 


November 9, 1909 




Octobcr6 


October 13, iSsq 


", tfuiilobs 


14 


Novembers 


November as, 1019 
November 39, 1896 


..ccat, Minn 


.» 


Nwcwber la 


lUUMSpoUft, Minn 


J 


Nnrwritirt 


Novimbw 10, 1899 


-lacriMfO. Minn 


6 


WiiiiimliM ij 


Dmmbers.i8S6 


..;.. tt .. 


i 


Wb»-*W2 


NowenrfMr aS, 1914 


; 10 


November at, 191 1 


8 


No¥— hw4 


November 13, 101,, 
November a4, ii9i > 


4 


November t6 


>S 


October 17 


November s« 1890 


J 


October ji 


Noveeriber $, 1904 


} 


November 16 


November aj. 1901 




J 


October M 


October 51. 19*0 






Novtmiiw II 


November 16, 1913 






MbwAw i» 


Decrmbir a$, 1916 






NbvmAw i 


Nswiber 19, 1906 
NovwAir ij. 1891 
Noveoiber a8 1907 


IIU 4 


Wofv— ber 11 

Nowmcr 10 


November 18, 1914 


1 4 


November ai, 1908 


)• 1 i i 


Ociobcra 


October 4. iM? 


s 


Ortatnf 16 


Nat ill ir io» i8i9 


to 


Odobv IS 


nil ill 11 a;. 1907 






NtMBkwo. 1900 



*9S 


Bird -Lore 
FALL MIGRATION', continued 




LOCAUTV 


Hmmkm 


''snar^ 


fai^lVMCM 


Mmumi.t^^'*^ 




« 


October M 


Nov«idbva.><x^ 


Okmonh ' 




October JO 


No««ariicr4 


RvUuMl. \ 




Novmbcr to 


Novcnbcf : 


Bo«aii.Ma>^ 


1 1 


Novcarficro 


DcccMbcr ; 






Novoabcr i8 


NOVCBBoff ; 


Cm. 


1 3 


October SI 


Nomni 


On. 




Novoober ij 


Novtfti 


New 1 orm t ity, N . \ 

Monta4nni.K.J 




i 


Nny—biir lo 


Rare »intrT 




lO 


WewJiir 9 


Nortmhiir at, igoo 


Rmmm-o Pa 




.ft 


Wowirtw 4 


Vntifnlirr ifi iM(>* 



I 



BREWER BLACKBIRD 

The Brewer Blackbird {Empkagms cyamouphalms) ukes the place of the 
Rusty Blackbird in the western United States. It ranges in western North 
America from southwestern Canada to Guatemala. It breeds north to central 
Manitoba, central Alberta, and central British Columbia; west to south- 
western British Columbia, western Oregon, and western California; south to 
northern Lower California, southern New Mexico, and central western Texa.s; 
and cast to central Texas, western Kansas, eastern Nebraska, eastern .Minne- 
sota, and casually to Wtsconstn. 1 1 winters north to southern British Columbia , 
aouthem Montana, and Kansas; east to Louisiana and Arkansas; and south 
through the western United States to southern Mexico and Guatemala. It 
migrates east to Iowa, and casually to Illinois; and occurs accidentally in 
southeastern Ontario and South Carolina. 

SPRI.Si. JiiwRAnON 



I 



U>CALITY 


N«ah« 

MBDffB 


Av«faaidM««f 
iVriagufhral 


«di«Mrtvy 


Hofoo Lake, Minn 


6 


April 24 


April?. 1889 


Elk River. Minn 


4 


April 2j 


Fw. so, 1906 


SC Vincent. Minn 


3 


April ao 


Onagi, iUm 


»3 


Aprflio 
Mafcha4 


Vennili.' 


\ 


Marrb 9, 191 1 


Gmnd t X 


4 


Maidia? 


Feb. 2j, 1014 


Chailnn. n i >4k 


J 


April 22 


April 17. 1913 
Maica 2S, 1910 


Aveaw, Manitoba 


19 


Aprilg 


ladbn Head. Sa*k 


7 


April 22 


Aprfl8,i9os 


EaetewLSaik 


7 


AprOao 


Apn II. 1916 


Bealah,Cob 


i8 


April 25 


Apifl t6. 1917 


Donrer, Cdo 


g 


Aitril 3^ 


A|ld«,l899 
Apil a7. 191S 
Maidi 29. 1913 


YeOovstooe Park. W>io 


J 


.\1«> s 


Ri^icrt. Idaho . 


i 


April 6 
May 1 


Trny. Montana. . 





April 15. 1894 


Great Falb, Mflolana 


II 


AprUai 


Aprfl 7. 1910 


Fkptaff.Albata. 


6 


April 2J 


April 16, iQi J 


Edfonton.Afcerta.... 


4 


A|irU2o 


April 10. 1910 
Marck 23. 1908 


Okiw^B Laadh«. B. 1 


9 


April 6 



The MigratkMi of North American Birds 

FALL MICKATION 



i99 



^UKTAUfV 


NsaUt 




Ut«M4aU«l 


ii«Suidv, V 

Rap«t.Iii> 

Vrn4i«»li>n< 

Minn 


i 

i 
J 


Ortobcr6 
November ij 
October 17 
October 14 
October 28 
November 2 
November n 
November ij 
October 14 


November as, 1910 
Ortober i«, iqos 
N<n'rmber 24. 1900 
No\'rmbrr 1. 1917 
November j. 1908 
October JO. 1910 
November ij. 1901 
Dccembcf 25, 190s 
November 27. 1898 
October M, 1897 



c:«rmrl. IIU 



CASUAL RBCORD6 

December 4, 1866 

.\|>ril t4, Kjio. June 5. 1904 
M.ir.hi i>>; \o\-rmber 7, 1886 

!»<ti-nil)<r i;, l^^' , l>r«rmhrr lo. 1886 



Notes on the Plumage of North American Birds 

SIXTY-SECOND PAPER 
Br FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

• Vr t ri>nli<i>icir) 

Rii«^»v P'-^rkbird ^ i.uph>i\^uy amlinus. Figs. 1-4). The common name of 

t^i^ I ^ l>aM<i (in it> wiMtir plumage which is broadly tipped with 

vn, largely concealing the black base of the feathers. 

.... .\..^^g^ l]i£ tttxci are alike, both being dull slate-cok>r slightly 

The post Juvenal (first fall) molt is complete and by it 

ic birds {>asH mto the first winter or 'nisty' plumage. As shown by Figs. 3 

'! 4 the MTxcs are then superficially alike, but examinatioo sbowt that the 

t!> IN blacker than the female. The difference between them b e co mct more 

arkni a» the season advances and the rusty tips gradually wear off, until, 

\r>r\\, the male, without gaining new feathers, has beoocne ^oa^ black 

I ). and the female (Fig. 2), slate-color with usually some trace of rutty. 

Brewer Blackbird (Euphapu cymocepkaius, Figs. 5, 6). In Brewer's 

'"''-' the rusty tips, which so strongly characteriae the winter plumage 

^ty Bhu:kbird, are too small to affect the appearance of the bird 

I nature, and at all leaioni the male, after the postjuvenal molt, appears 

'^'v f,!ark with the head and neck much bluer Uack than in the Rusty 

\i.\tn in the winter female the rusty color b not mfideatly proooaacad 
.irked difference between winter and iumraar bfatb, and at all 
■lale differs from that of the Rusty Blackbird, mtidi aa ottr plate 

ties. 



Bird-Lore's Twenty-second Christmas Bird Census 

BIRD-IjORE'S Annual Bird (>n«u<% will be taken as usual on Chmtmas 
Day, or aa near that date tis circumstancni will permit; in no cau $kould 
it be tariitr Ikan Drcrmber 3s or /<J/^' iltan the 27iAr— in the Rocky Moun- 
tains and westward, December 30 to 35. Without t^-ishing to appear ungrateful 
to tbote oontributora who have assisted in making the Census to remarkably 
■uccenful, lack of space compeb us to ask eadi census taker to send only 
mm oenna. Furthermore, much as we should like to print all the records 
sent, the number received has grown so large that we shall have to exclude 
those that do not appear to give a fair representation of the winter bird-life 
of the locality in which the)' were made. Lists of the comparatively few species 
that come to feeding-stations and those seen on walks of but an hour or two 
are usually very far from representative. A censua-walk should last four 
koms ai Ike very least, and an aU-day one is far prejerabU, as one can then cover 
more of the diflTerent types of country in his vidnity, and thus secure a list 
more indicative of the birds present. Each report mii*t cover onr day only. 
that all the censuses may be comparable. 

Bird clubs taking part are requested to compuc int ^an• x.iiikm 

by their members and send the result as one census, with a t of th<* 

number of separate ones it embraces. It should be signed by ail «i 
1H10 have contributed to it. When two or more names are signed to a n-jHiri, 
it should be stated whether the workers hunted together or separately. Only 
censuses that cover areas that are contiguous and with a total diameter not 
fWffding 15 miles should be combined into one census. 

Back unusual record should be accompamed by a brief statement as to Uu 
idenHJUt^ion. When such a record occurs in the combined list of parties that 
hunted separately, the names of those responsible for the record should be 
given. Reference to the February numbers of Biri>-Ix>re, 1901-31, will 
acquaint one with the nature of the report that we desire, but those to 
whom none of these issues b availaUe may follow the form given below. 
The date is importa.nt, and the spcdes should be given, in the order of the A. \ 
O. U. *Ckeck'List* (which is fc^kmed by most standard bird-books), with, as 
exactly as practicable, the number of ind iv idua l s of eadi species recorded. 

Yooker^ N. Y. (to Braoxvillc and Tuckahoe and back).— Dec as', 8 a.m. to 4-10 p.m. 
Clear; s ia- of now: wind wcM. lifht; temp. jS* at start. 41* at rrturn. ElevcB Briks on foot. 
ObMrvcrt tflfeClicr. Herring Gull, 75; Bob-white, i> (one covey); (Sbarp^Unned?) Hawk, 
i; . . . Ruby-cfwmed Kinglet, 1. Total, a? tpedm, about 470 tndividuab. The Ruby- 
crowB was ttudkd with S x 8 glaaci at ao ft.; e>'v-riag, ahienoe of hcad-«tfipc» and othfr 
poials aoced.-— Jamis Gatks and Jam Ra.\o. 

These records will be published in the February issue of Biro-Lore, and 
it is particulmly requested that they be sent to the Editor (at the American 
Museum ef Natmal History, New York CUy) by the first possible mail. It u-ill 
iom the Editor much clerical labor if the model here gieen and the order of the 
A.O.U. 'Chech-List' be closely foUamed.— J. T. Nichols. 

(900) 



/f^otcs from i^iflb anb ^^tiibp 



IwOiAtrd on thr GuimBmi ride oT tbe 

I >(-trotl Rivrr. wr haxT nuintatnrd a feeding- 

>tatt<in for bini» for thr past three winter*. 

I hr tir«t and Mcond ifMfn «c had only the 

'ta. kiJSHxd CUcfcadee. Downy Wood- 

-xkrr .in<l the White-brcaatcd Nuthatch. 

- iW iQio-x> we had. n. 

' C«nlinal Graahcak. < ■■^, 

>nd bvc Ameriaui CroHbflb, two mnicy and 

hne fcnalea. The Croaabilh nhowrd pnrti- 

aDy no fear, and came intrrmittrntly for a 

^nooth, gorfing thcmad ves on sunflower seeds. 



age. The Warblen anong tlicm were utterly 
fearloa. aligfatinff on our hata, ahouldcrt, and 
handa. pecking at the »tone of my ring and 
accepting 0ica from our handa. 

.\moag the birda «aa a hat (they teen to 
mignite), and a Sparrow Hawk flying with 
the ahip made frantic cfforu to catdi the 
birda on the dedc. As we approached within 
several milca of land, they all kit horricdly. 

Last summer from one to three Sparrow* 
would trail the numemus Robins on our kwa. 
Nearly e\'ery worm •ccured by a Robin 
would be instantly seited by the Sparrows 




RED CtOSSBII. 



They raaained landing oa ovr Advm tat 
Mitrt iirnods than nay other hinia we have 
■ cd, frequently ovtt an hour at a 
iimr n c •occaMM in taking a number ol 
plMMognplia of thcM, om ol wndi !• pr^ 
»i ^rte d nMcwIu* 

In Squ w rt b e f. aevtqd jrann afo. on board 
the ore staancr J. A. Pamtf to Lake Sopt- 
rior. over jo miles fran any land, we aewka 
to firw! t hr decks of the veMd alive with bifda, 
several bondrad of them. We ideMited thi^ 
Ten ipedea, not indudinc any donbtlol 
; hMa whidi were to an ilM» of I 



off with while the Robta wwM 
patiently bunt another one. TUa eraa while 
the Robina were feetfaf tbdr yoeag, who 
must have Buffered to ooMeqaioei. 
The Spanowa follow the Cardtoal to o«r 
itof to know Umjt are 
ilhera. Aahecradtagmto, 
con or fOMOwer Mad« they i 
plooe he dropa aid l ewe t li 
fram Ua ■oMik, wIMi be doea not 

We have tried, naauccoMf nlly. todrdaato 
the Sparfowt^llAtt D. Pgaitt, Oj^fkny, 



(y>i) 



joa 



Bird - Lore 



Bifd ObMnratloo* During a Mild 
WtetOT la CMtral OkUhoma 



Hw oROMMlly mOd •oUbcr of nort o( the 
fiMt wfartcr iMy Iwv* had tooKCUag to do 
with the pitMBoe. b Jaaoafy, of three Spar- 
nnra that fonncrly we have tecs ody as 
t^iitm aad (all miKraDt*. oamdy, oo Jaauao' 
I J. t9at a Vkldtc-orowncd Sparrow, and 
thrre day* bicr. a miite-thraatrd 5iparrow 
and Verier Sparrow. Mort MupfWag of aU 
waa a WcMcn Lark Sparrow, for thcae birds 
are aonnaOy Hmuncr midcnts here, arrivinf 
the bst of March or f&rrt of April aiKl kaviag 
b ScpCcnbcr. Ob January 6, a warm sum- 
nar-like day, I tint diaoovrred hb^ appar- 
ently b the best of qiirits, but a week bter. 
after a 4-inch snow, he looked rather forlorn. 
cnddBiV one littk fool b hb fcathere while 
he ale grew feeds. On February sj. I acab 
Mw hfan near the lanir pbcc, and thb tine 
he was riagbc the unnfatakable song of hb 
kind. 

There were two snows b Felmiary, and 
they were the occasions of many bird guests 
coining to our feeiHng-atatians, wUch until 
then had been patraniaed only by Phunbeous 
Chickadees and one nab Downy Wood- 
pecker. Teas Bewick Wms surprised us 
by eating suet^ bread-cnoBba, aad nuts; bird 
seeds were enjoyed by Juncos, Field Spar- 
row* (pcriiaps the western stdMfMxica), aad a 
Uncob Sparrow, whib Cardinab Uked all the 
eatables. It was a treat for our whob family 
to watch thcae fascinating visitors withb a 
few feet of the window. One of the Jnaooa 
was cwiottrfy mottbd with white spots oa her 
head, back, and throat. We saw •Spcckba' 
Fdwnaiy 7. 8, 15. t8. 10. ao, and aa. The 
Uncob Sparrow caaw February 7, 8, aa, and 
aj; it was rather bdH co s e and drove the 
geatb Field Sparrows away. Thcae last were 
the taBMM, dearest littb birds, and they paid 
for their feasts by singiag most raHMnHnrt^ 
on our g ro u ads from February i a till the 
middb of March. 

Soaw of the adgraats arrived thb year as 
BUKh as three wvdcs ahead of the dMcs bst 
year, notably the Brown Thrssher. \eapa 
Sparrow, and Purpb Martb. Others were 
about a week early, for instance, the Cowbird 
and Broaaed GradJe: but ooM weathet the 



last of March seeom to have delayed soaie 
^Mcics. As to aasting. a curious thing hap- 
poMd with a pair of Bludiirds and two pair* 
of Texas Wreaa. for thr>' buOt their nesu in 
bte Frfimary instead of the middb of Mardi 
as usual, but they (Bd not by for several 
weeks, the first Bluebird's egg being found 
March a4. and as the Wrens still have *$aK% 
ApHI 6, their date of bying could not have 
been muck earlier. The Crows and English 
Sparrows we have observed ar> *.itrr 

thb year than last, for b I oac 
dowayyvNmgof theforaMroo ' 
thb year, five bBad aad nak 
April 4: whib the firrt brood of baUiirown 
Knglish Sparrows was discovered March ao, 
in igao. and not until .\pril j, b igai. One 
pair of WcOem Mourning Doves are unusu- 
ally early, havimr a f uD set of eggs about 
March sa I v^ found no Robb 

nests tin A|>r. >- year two Robins 

were seen on ncsto March aj. and no bas 
than sb were bcubating «gp the bst day 
of this month.— llAiOAttr M. Nn. 
Sormam. OkU. 



Mlaaeaou Migrauon Notca 

Possibly an ilrro b rvKard to cble of fall 
migration b thb vi "^t 

On August so. I ' ••> 

Ninths wlu occ ur red. 1 liavc noUccd thi* 
oo two previous yean as occurring about 
August 15. when thouMnd* went around thi> 
end of Lake Superior during the afternoon; 
all these noticed were within three-quarters 
of a adb of the Lake shore. 

On September 18. the Blue Jays went 
south in force, hundreds flying through nn 
yard. 

On Ortobrr a. small unidentified birds 
went south b numerous flodts, edged about 
by hundreds of Hawks. Thi* »cmwd to be- 
tlie mab migration of tiie smaller tirds. 

My hoaae b about lfiree<|uarten of a mile 
from tbebke. oa the edge of the city, and all 
the birds abo%-e observed were seen between 
the houM and the lake shore. Probablyi 
had followed the northeast shore to avoid 
lung flii^t across thr lake.— Hoicn < 
DNb<l,JrMa. 



Notes from Field «nd Study 



303 



.n new jcr»ry 

liy September, of ais 

owishy bftok* ol the 

it> tM^n lu'* «itiuMd AH intemt in 

in|» mmnnf the bifd ctudaits here, 

-aicuam tbt and white plumage 

to make than notked by the 

' ifllC the ihore and by thoae 

tig Iron the oppoaitc bank 

: -: i .... lleroa cautiouily walking 

>ng the ahorc lined with cattaib, then 

iiUng ia the water for fiih, when, at a •hort 

-tancr. wr could plainly tee •everal laige 

''tida. The little Italian boya, who 

otr pla>T'«wnH hcrr, infornwd us that 

V hail her- -tore than a week and 

at ihry wr- Crane*.' 

rhr foOowIng day we again watched care> 

^ > trough our ^aiM* and concluded, from 

ycOow bin. and dark Icgft, that the 

i« cadd be nothing but the American 

.rvt. which doubClcH have wandered north 



4x birds stood quiet on the shore, 

i«g to a safer dh l anre oiriy as some boat 

v«rd liv Then we watched one walk up 

Blue Heron, and it seeoMd an 

leasing to both. 

Tie of the year the birds arc, of 

iT^-. *cm without their priaed aigrettes, 

( their siae and white plumafe make them 

\IUXK B. HOOKKB, Red 



Scarcity ol Nighthawks 

\ note on the abov« in Hiu^-Iamz at July 

'nd August, by Mr. Fred J. Picrte, drew my 

Aitmtimi to the dtplorahlr fact that it b not 

t his district of the Arrow Ukca, B. C. 

ghthawhs are he<«min g scarcer. 

trtotUacoantrylnMay, 1913. Thai 

(hthawfca were especially abuBdurt. 

AflBings, and eves during hot SMUMf 

ric could hardly look at any petot of 

Mnthoul senng scvenu tcpencnied by 

->ii s>ccka» 6oatiaf W|k up in the ann 

.alt. On Jhm aj of that year. I ^Mnt the 

•1 miatshsn N'allcy. Aflar dark Ike 

lied alivr with theae biidk OMheaid 

vrw cries 



accQQiDanied lyy a oottunual ' 
BoieeeeHlled by IhebinlswQopMigwNnKraKd. 
That fan a vast number of them arignlad 
south, and we looked forward to seeing them 
return in stienglh the foBowing firing, but 
were wofuBy dlmppoiMcd. In 1914, very 
few viritad these parts, and the same may be 
•aid of subsequent seasoni In the evcodngs 
three or four might be seen. 

Here the falling off in numbers was both 
very marked and very sudden. Appcaringin 
vast numbers in the qwing and summer of 
1913. in 1014 they had almost reached the 
vanishing point, and this scarcity haa con* 
tinned. Perhaps theie were a few nsore of 
them here this surnmrr than in 1914 and the 
following lean yvar^ l>ut it U 1 \rr\- «light 
increase, if any. 

What caused thi> Buuuru ainunuiiuo. I 
have proof that forest fncs caoK great havoc 
with the eggs and young, and the smoke 
hanging about a district during and after a 
fire cauam the birds to temporarily leave the 
n e ig hb or h ood, but forest fucs cannot entirely 
account for the great reduction in numbers 
of this graceful and attractive bird. — J. E. H. 
Kkuo. M.D., Edgamtd, Lnetr Amm Lske, 
B.C 

Olivr-auieii r u 

(>n SatunLiV, S., . —~ 

good fortune to see an ( >! i lyratcher. 

It came to our telephunr wur, n • - '^-t 

from our piaoa, and stayed fr< 

minulmtohnlfanhour. Wr 

wcB, even uring our tuM e< 

wassodose. Thefluffy 

trere very oomfncoou* 

bars. I am positive o< 

«w the bird again tht ..... -... ■- 1 

since.-<Mrs.) C. M. Lowvut. S»mtkM, 

N. r. 

A Pnandly Wood Pvwm 

A friend and! had been far a cru m c o untr y 
waUi and wen cMiriag down • kOWdv. watch- 
ii« the birds, wIm aiy atttMimi «a* snd- 
d«4y •unclad by a Wood Pcwce. wkkii iew 
to a dMd twig, not J feet above My head. I 
caDed my oompaidan's nlMNfaa to it. tad 
aa 1 ^Mke the bird darted at ay I 



304 



Bird • Lore 



M daw UmI I iMtkKtivdy •«trvcd. He 
it« back to Ub pnck, aad i0 • mfaititr imdr 
■irtlwf dut, alaMMl bcwhiiv mt with kb 
•tap. TUi tfaar «v raaUMd tlMt be flew at 
w pwpoMijr MM for a mwmhI fcwd wv 
■iibt be ilapiifaig oat little bird. Wcmovrd. 
bowever, aad the Fewer movcri also, thb 
tiae aiiglitiiit on the (round almost at our 
feel. Ha ■iimim J uttarty aaahaid, lohbling a 
bag or two aa thoa^ abowfaig bb 
kta aad '^^i-ttrf Ua bead to 
look at ua ia BHat Maadly fMhfaa. Afaia 
aad afaki ha dided arooad m or 6ew to our 
feet, HBtO, fiaaOy, I kadt« aad, talkii^ to 
bin Rcntly, hdd out my band with ooe fager 
outstretched as a perch. For a few tetoada 
he fluttered around mc. then made a dart and 
pedted my fager with hb sharp Uttk bOL 
Three tiaws thb happeacd, and eadi tiaw he 
alighted not more than a foot or two from me. 
After oaore advances he flew to a high tree 
farther down the hill and we thought he had 
goac. While wc stood watddng a Waibler, 
however, be rduroed aad thb tiaw brosbed 
my fager with hb wii^s. Our little flirtation 
(he really did flirt, always keepiag near me 
and yet never perdiing oa my finger as I 
courd him to do) must have lasted fully 
fifteen minutes, and it was only the fart thai 



IrouldnoC stay longer that eadal our 'afl'air* 
He waa still watching me whca my com 
paaioa aad I aqiarated and i ooatiauad m> 
way down the hill.— Bkatocb Sawvc* 
RoetKii^ Alhmmy, K. V, 

Robin and Saaka 

A few weeks ago my attention was at 
tracted by the auioas of a female Robin. J 
apparently havfaw dUkulty in the UDtag of f 
a huge worm. On aty appraadi she (few up 
in a nrigbhoring apple-trtr, carrying a nukf 
inhetbiOI She soon flew down oato the bwn 
again when, after some vigorous blows of her 
bOI, the snake was killed It proved to be « 
mnunnn garter snake and measured s trifle a 
•over lo indiaa in length, with body wt-ll ■ 
matured. Its node had been broken. I» 
thb unique? While I handled the snake the 
Robin pe rd ied oa a fence about lo feet away. 
intently watdiing me. 

Bdag much interested, I bad proposni 
awaiting further devdopment*. but »«* 
unavoidably called away, and on my return. 
some time afterward, the snake oould not br 
found. Query— Did the Robin take away 
the dead snake f. A A 

MAaaiALL, Rear A :<•! . 

Jamattmm, R. I. 



THE SEASON 
XXVIII. August IS. 1921. to October 15, 1921 



BonoM RxoiOM.— Evideaoea of the bcgla- 
ning of an unusually early autiunn migration 
were apparent at the end of the period cov- 
ered by the sununer report from thb ragiim. 
During the last two montha the birds haw 
continued to pass throu^ ia an almost unin- 
terrupted streaa^ maay specks arriving 
before their average datca and some species 
a p pea ring b numbers far above normal. 
Perhapa the most striUag evcat of the 
origratioa waa the eaorawos awabcr of Bbdt- 
poO WaifakcB that, day after day. duriag 
SiplMifcw, pasaad southward, makiag lab> 
nrnyt hot alaaiqf progrem throo^ whatever 
wwatiy afforded food aad proCectioa. A 
BlackpoO mfgratiaa of sudi 



not been noted here for several years, and it 
magnitude b especially surpriainr 
tumn because the bird waa por>i 
acated in its passage northward last Hiring. ' 
Oa four days in Se p t eaAe r , the i8th, loth. 
soth, and S4th, the Blackpolb sang frrrlv. 
an occurrence of tuffidcnt rarity to merit 
mentkm. It baa often a p pea r ed to me that 
uausoal behavior of thb kiad b not a local 
depa itar e from the normal, but baa its origin 
ia soaM coaditioa at work over a wide area. 
Juaooa aad White-throated Sparrows cmmc 
early aad are itfll well repweatad. In mid- 
Septeadxr a fKf^t of T ow h e w appeared in 
remarkable numbers aad surpassed any 
migratkn of thb bird iareoeat years. During 



The Season 



305 



• k, Ar,t half o( (V«.^i — vHlow-bdlkd Sap- 

wcrt unu' xio. PrompUy, 

-<ibcr I, %he Mynir Warbler rtpboed 

idcpoll, and tbc mifrating Bhiriiifib 

owrhead ia tbe cariy mnrafam, 

•lolt call which b a» chaiactar* 

■ ic ai October la b the 'wink' note of the 

•bolink in the early houf* ol dasrll^t in 

1 )icmii0HiiMi|/fMltoOctoberi8. 

< •' ' • t Vr 16, b tb: town of Bdmoat, 

•rgr Ncboa and I had an cqMrieace 

I widi we nd^t have ihaiad with bird- 

.cr». The mom i a g was a favorable one 

r otMcrviaf fairdt — warn and ranny. with 

wind — and twenty-five to thirty tpecies 

irne aliaott immediately under notice, but 

was soon apfmrmt that the bird mo»t 

'• represented was the Ruby- 

;;let. a bird which b usually met 

th iinKi> . or at moat, not o\-er two or three 

icethcr. Hut here were haU a doaen in the 

vkme tree and twice as many more within 

^rarinK, many scolding all about us and 

eral singing a short \-arbtiaa of their song. 

' e estimated, quite coBservatiwIy, that 

rre were a hundred Raby<<rowns within a 

* hundred >'ards of each other, and even 

m we did not determine the limitt of the 

ing. Mr. Brewtter says in The Birds 

( andiridge Region,' p. jSa, "the . . . 

lie birds arc sddoa very numerous, it 

'-tag unusual to naet with more than three 

or four in the cowM of a riagle day; 00 

r.r>».iWm>l ocras i on* . howev er , I have kaown 

V as a doaca or fifteen to be noted." 

>a\r never heard of aa eacefttion to thb 

•tement before.— WiMoa II. Truot, 

Maw Yoaa Rxokw.— Up to abool Sep- 

tnber so, sovth^bouad laad4iifda wtrt 

corded from near New York at very carfy 

4tca. The hdght of the Bbckpoll Warbler 

«vc caoM about Sep t ember 14. and a few 

-tacoa, Whlt^hfBatad Sparrows, aad Brown 

reapers had appaaiad here aad tiMva bciofe 

the sock. Oa aboot tha wlh, howavar, the 

pcadohaa Nrong la Iba ollMr dJiartlca, 

'ercaft* bbdi balac late lathv than aaily. 

''iigratiaa was alacfc tnm giplaaiiif so to 

October J. bat baCweoi the jd and the 8th a 



wave of birds of uaoMad miiKnituar pmmni 
through, pcrhapa leaddag ita oeat oa the 
night of October 4 to 5, when aaaay Thrashes 
anixtd. Although their advance guard was 
so early, the mala fHgbt of bte Sparrows had 
yet to reach us fai mid-October, Uiliitc^ 
throats aad Juncoa havuig only just become 
commoo. 

Except for casual occurrences, the Hen- 
sk>w's Spanow at Bridgehamptoa, L I., 
Stf U nber it, and Least Bittern at Shinne- 
cock. September la (C. Johaaton); the Yel- 
low Warbler and Yrlk>w-brcasted Chat in 
CCatral Park, October $ (L. Griscom); four 
Roae^weasted Grosbeaks, Van Cortbndt 
Park, October 10 (L. N. Nichob), appear to 
establish btcst dates for tKr Ww York 
region. 

As regards the abundance <>i «-«n»um spe- 
cies. Tree Swallows were much b evidence 
throogbout thb period, not occurring in vrr>- 
Urge Ikxks for the most part, but streaminK 
staacfily overhead for boors. Sapsuckert were 
unusually Bumerous, after the early October 
flight. Both qwcica of Kii^lets seemed more 
than noraaJly numerous, so the scarcity of 
Golden-crowns, extending over several yean., 
may be mnsi drred at an cad. Myrtle War- 
blers became abundant 00 the morning of 
October 7; Red-breasted Nuthatches were 
uaiversaUy distrftoted, but the writer ob- 
served no great numbers anywhere, and (ailed 
to find them in a favorable Loag Island 
kwaliCy OB October 16. 

On September as, Mr. F. Kcmler secured 
a Hwmwiagbiid which had fktwa iato one 
of the bboratoriea of the AawicaB Masiam 
of Natural llbtory. It sqaaalad aapQy aad 
ooBtiauouily while he hdd it la hb head, aad 
when Ubeiatad at aa open wiadow loat ao 
time in taUi^ ito departure with the dliact, 
rhythmical, rfi^tly uadulatoty fH|te which 
aagrating HuaMMBgnids eoiploy. 

The estcBt aad character of the Blue Jays' 
mignitioa b aot fully kaowa. Bcyoad a 
<|uialioB, thb biid b aagialofy, aad yeC ccf> 
lata ladividiab hi thb kUtiMla are MiicDjr 
SoBM yaari afo a pair aartad aariy. 
to the wiiiai's hoaat la Eaglewaod, 
N. J., srhkh be b coBvhMid wwt aMBg 
several blnb that had bMB M vi|«M)r 
BN waMiow oaram me 



30* 



Bird - Lore 



vtaicr. TWipacfaidiMiMtoidhMriljroecar 
•t Cu&m Cfty. Loag labad. wUcli it m 
iaaktad tUad of wbmAt Utci, MmModed by 
opf fUim mmdfhW tor Uw. BIm }»y* 
oo oonifi kownrcf » n W B od w mvm MflK miw 
or t«o to the Darth and to the touth. On 
the nwtviaii of October j, and attain on 
October S, tiro or three Mn^gUag Blue )my% 
were mcm fljrniK ow^, hw d wi SovCh, vnQvea- 
thHMbly ■ignliag bifdk 

A ModtiBibi'd waa obaervcd at Garden 
Chy oa October 9. The peraliar statoa of 
thb bird oa Loai Ifhad has beea worked out 
from paat reooada a* faOowft. Caeoal tiaa- 
ricat in May (May lo); rare but feaerally 
dittrtbuted early (all tiaacknt. AuiEust 10 
(iO>o. Napeaxve Beach. W. T. Ildmuth) to 
Scpteaiber 9 (1917. Maatk. J. T. Nirhalt); 
Icai rare local winter piideat October t (1890. 
Thttiataa. 'Warbler' for 1913) to March 25 
(1917, Gaidoi aty. j. T. Nichoby— J. T. 
Nmots, Nm KarA Cily. 

PniAOKtmiA RsoaoM.— The weather for 
the period oader ooaaidetrntioa has been any- 
thiai but ieasoaable« uauaually hot da>i 
prevailiaK. The tenperaturc for September 
av er aged w ar mer thaa for twcnty-oae yean. 
October has beea quite falMIke to date (Oc- 
tober 15) and the wooded tectioBa are putting 
oa their autuam drcm, thoa^ aaay trees 
•tin arc greea. TTw fim frr»i <»(ntrTcd 
Ortober 13. 

About the usual numiK^ ui ituu>. icms, 
aad shore>birds wen obanvcd at Stoae 
Harbor. N. J., August 14. Aawag the btter 
were a I*iping i*lovets, 1 Knot, aad so Wil- 
lets. Two wechs later, at the mmt point, 
with Mr. Pumycn, thb bunch of WllleU had 
apparently beea reduced to oae bird, and 
that one waa crippled. The rest of the birds 
ao doubt had 'poascd oa' via the shotgua 
roalc, as the Yeaow-4cg seaaoa opeaod oa the 
i$lh. Two TuraatoacB wctc aoCad oa this 
Of course, the oompaiative aboa- 
of the shorc^binb caaaot be jui%ed by 
two tfipa, ao it may be well to state that 
Dowitchcrs, YcOow-lcf^ Inlets, aad Cur- 
lews have beea rrpoited to have beea esccp> 
tioaaOy pkatifuL 

Dufiag IJsptraibi r there seeaMBd to be 
I icaitity of bird^ c^tadaflly Wai^ 



biefs aad Spaiiuws. (m ScpCcmBcr 11. at 
Fish House. N. J., ao aative Spa nu ws «>rrr 
•eea, but t Rerl-«T»f \1ito, t Blaek-ai>'! 
Mldtr V throated Of n 

Warbkr j , SepteaAcr 1 >, 

(an all-day trip), a Chipping Sparrows, 
I Sai« Sparrow. 1 Towhee. 1 Myrtle Warbler, 
and I Maryland YcUow-Throat; at Cape 
May. N. J., Scpirmber a$, 4 Savannah Spar> 
rows, a Song Sparrows, t Towhee, 4 YcOov 
Pnfan Warblers, and 1 Maryland YcUow. 
throat. Hawk*, which are quite certain to 
be nua w rous at Cape May by the last week 
of the amath. were also ahaeaL la fact, the 
only refreshing sight of the day was a IkKk 
of perhaps 10.000 Tree Swallows whirh 
swaroMd along the wiresandover the t»f< ••< 
the baybcrry buahea. Where were the birdsr 
Had they sou^t out the aaire quiet and 
shady nooks to avoid the eaoessive heat? It 
b quite probable, and so^ many were over 



With October came the great rush of bter 
fall birds, sane appearing in greater aliun 
dance than normally. TheRub>'-andGolf)m 
Crowned Kii^lets, the erratic Redbrra-t'.' 
Nothatcfaca, and the Brown Creepers were 
aasoag these. Oa October 3. a Browa 
Creeper worked oa the truak of a poplar tree 
here in the dty for a half hour, never going 
farther up than the kmcst branches, then 
dropping to the foot to repeat the operai 
After the Creeper left, investigstioo prov 
the bark of the tree to be infested with a dsi 
colored aphia. Every day since. B 
Creepers have beea seea hitcUaf; ' 
up the truak of thb tree. Evi<: 
aphb b tu a si dered a ddicate tidbiL 

A nuaiber of birds have been somewhai 
Utepassiag South: Green Heron. October 1 1 . 
Ind%o Bunting. October la; RedsUrt. Ocio^ 
her ta; Tree Swallows, October 16; Oven 
bird. October 16 (all at Camden); Rtiby 
throated Hunuaiagbird, October 9 (( iix 
May). 

Raptorea were abundant at Cape May 
October 9; Turkey Vulture, 40; Marsh Hawk. 
1; Sharp-shinned Hawk. 10; Cooper's Hawk. 
1; Braad-wii«ed Hawk (?), ts (too high t<> 
positively identify); Sparrow Hawk, 3; 0» 
pcey, 6; BaM Ea|^ a; Duck Hawk, t. Two 
Pactocal Saadpipcss were noted the saaw day . 



I 



The Seatoo 



307 



til wfld fowl nifrmtioB b wcO unikr 

' >n ^tf H tn it tt »s» •> Pialaib were tccn 

•ad OS October 0, laa« linn of SooCcn 

•^moMd down the coMt. On October 15, a 

^rapnper reported a fhotwand Canada 

« •««« on the beach at Cape May. Twcaty- 

6ve Pird billed and one Homed Cirebe were 

^ J., on October 1 5. — 

Jm. N. J. 

WA m tmnm RnaoH.— Orahhologicml in- 
rtt about Waahiagton during Aogurt and 
,>tcaiber, iqji, centered chiefly around an 
itaaOy early misntioa of northern bifda. 
'^ irf autnnn mifratory ■avaacnts in 
inily take place during the period 
t nding from the middle of Augmt to mid- 
tuber, and while the general time of thb 
^nuion has been practically the tame thb 
xr, many of our timadenta and winter 
lion have been earlier in their first aouth- 
rd movencnta. Thb was particularly ob- 
%slile among the Warblers, for some of 
innc came in Augost, far ahead of their 
normal appearance. Such were the Chestnut • 
'rd and (k4deo-wiaged Warblers, noted at 
rvy Chjue. I>. C, August 13. by I)r. A. 
tmorr and Mr. B. 11. Swales; and the 
«<!Lin Warbler, ab»er\-ed at Plummer 
Md.. on August 14, by Dr. Wetmocc. 
tiore. one Warbler broke all former 
for early appearance— the Bay- 
brr^.icd Warbler, found by Mr. B. H. Swales 
at Che>y Chase. D. C, on August 17, the 
pmriously earliest autumn arrival of which b 
September 1. iIq6. Still another, the Myrtle 
Warbler, teen on August 14, »t A l eiandria. 
U Mi» Katharine H. Stuart, was a fuO 
ance of its previously rarliast 
^rtraibcr 14. 1918, except for a 
• ordof August 7, tSsg. 
"ther ipeci m were reported earlier 
r before fai the antwrni: the Uaser 
^»-lc9», semi August ts. at Hunting 
He Va . by Mba Katharine H. Stuart^ the 
hii est reootd of whkh b Aogust 

at. : the Philadelphia Vfam.fowido« 

Sqitcmber 4. by I>r. A. K. Fbher. at PImi- 
— ., -I X., -hbbcii«thraedBysahMMl 
nA fsoord of SeplamlMr 7t 
V. ttuutc ateu b> t>r. Fbher. 
I oduoad perhaps by the very warm ^ 



of Sqitamhcr. at bast tkiMi 
tarried kmgcr than ever before. ThoMwore 
the Bam SwaUow, seen on September aj by 
Mr. F. C. Unoob aloi« the Anacoetia River, 
advanciag by two days iu hitherto btart 
record of S rptnnli r r at, 1910; the Purple 
Martin, noted also on September aj by Mr. 
Unoob b the same kxality. the btest pre- 
vious occ ur rence of which b Ukewisc Sep- 
tember at, igao; and the YcOow-breHtod 
C^t. reported by Mr. C. H. M. Barrett, from 
Anametb. D. C, on September sq. one cby 
bter than its very latest previo u s record, 
September aS, 1906. 

The PDmted Woodpecker, ahvays a rare 
^Mcfcs about WashintfUm, was seen on Sep- 
tember 1 1, by Dr. A. K. Fbher, on Ptiimmrr 
lafamd, Md. Thb kxality b one of the few 
in our region from which thb bird has been 
reported during the bst twenty-five yean, 
and indications point to its breeding in the 
neighborhood of thb bland. 

The American Egret was reported by 
Dr. A. K. Fisher, on the Potomac River, near 
Wajkhington. on Augmt 39. Thb Heron b 
apparently lew frequent of late ymn than 
formeriy, although seen at least once practi- 
cally every summer. The Little Blur Heron 
was noted on the Potomac River, in the 
vfcinity of Waahtagton, by Dr. A. K. Hsher. 
on Aoguiit s, bvt did not appear to be as 
rom m n n thb smnmer as uniaL The Rod- 
breasted Nothntch, which was practioaRy 
absent from WaaUaglon durbg the iiHwnn 
and winter of igao-ai, has afaendy poK i* ■■ 
appearance, and, it b hoped, win be normally 
numrrom thb winter. 

The Bobolink, here nguded as one of the 
moot popular autumn gime Wrds, was prm- 
cni In rsceptionaBy bi|r nwnbers during 
the im two weeks of Septemher. and several 
thonmnos were obtHvtUtt ahnoet every day 
on the maashm of the ndddfe portion of the 
Aanoostia Rhrer. By the a$th of the month, 
however, they had pmctically dimppmwd. 
bnvh« only a low scattiNd iMUvidaab In 
riprmit the former gnat fbcfca.— lUunr 
C. Ow— mjw. BitUgkal Sarsey. ITni*- 
faitan. D. C. 



Onnuii, Ono 
allytfiy 



.—An 



30« 



Bird- Lore 



UoMJhr «H A«;iat utd Sq Uw be r , w that 
thr vcReUiian look oa a (mh gnmtli. FriNt 
bcUaf oBtiltlMBifktolOctabcria. Evoi 
Ikb «M Mt ft kflttm fRMt, to llMt at Iht cad 
of tht fMiiod covwul HI tlw npoft tknv vw 
M tbHurfag of tlw fnlhur. 

TIm (hrt MurlMd faifliii of nlKRUrttocotiiM 
■hot Stpt—b or I. WaHikn of BMay qM> 
drt wcrr pmcAt during the iaicrvml beCwwa 
thk int wave and the bcfiiming of the ttorm 
period which cuhniBated b the tmt of Octo- 
her IS. Ob the gth, they woe eepwiaBy 
aoBeroas. A few White>thn»l» and WUte- 
civwiM aad Hennt Hwihca arrived ahou t 
the 7th, but the hdk of theK ^wdei came oo 
the front of the ilomi which bi(Mi on the 
tcth aad caded oa the lath. Oae of the 
l a te i w U t fcaturet of thk ctonn, which was 
acoOTpaaied by high wind aad Mne pellet- 
now, was that it seeased to drive the smallrr 
hinb away fram the lake-slwfe woods aad 
tUchds wcO ialaad. Many of the Sparrows 
aad moat of the WaHilcfB, cwept the Myrtle, 
aad the Hcmdt Thrash were driven out of 
the lagion catirsly. But ao aew migrants 
caaw ia. Chiaawy - Swifts survived the 
■torn^ aad were ia their usual auaibers after 
it had pawfd la the two p ie tediug years 
the Swifu have goae south by the aaiddle of 
S € p l en d> er . This year aost of the Swallows 
had Mt the icgloa by the aiiddle of Septcai- 
brr, only stiao^fen trmahrfng 

(>n the whole the birds have rcffected the 
weather lea iaiaiag later thaa is their cna> 
torn, very Ukdy becauM they have fouad food 
abuadaat in the dense (olkge, and because 
they have not fell the pinch of ookL But die 
dense (oliafe bM BMie biid-stttdy dificult.— 
l.TMoa JOMB, OttHim, OUa. 

Oncaoo RaoiOH.— Thb region can report 
three ncatiag icoofds, even at this late date. 
Mr. B. T. Gault write*, on August at. "Saw 
a fdnale Cardinal feeding a young bird just 
out of the nest. An old and apparentl> 
ahandoaed Best just shortly afterward caught 
aqr eye aad thfariEfaig it adght have beea 
occupied by the Catdiaala, oat of pure aoioa- 
ity I iaspected it, aad ia doiag so tushed a 
fcnade Towhee fnxa her two fresh eggs." 
Dr. R. D. Paid reporU a Moutaiag Dove's 
Best with youag at Palos Park oe s^fitiirfrfT 



1 1. Every year t hear of oae or aMft bi< 
Dove's aesta, aad (or this reasoa bcUevr tlu- 
tlw opening of the hunting srainn on thcx 
Midi riMuid be TrttilH until 

ijj it now opena ScptcnHKr 



■son on thcM i 
at least Sep. | 
yteadier i in 1 



Aasong the shor»4iinls the aaost ia^iortani 
reoord b that of the Buff^breastcd Sandpiper 
Mr. G. P. Lewb observed two at the Liornli 
Park beach on August ?» ^•^'' s. i.im.t-^r . 
II. and 15; Mr. B. T 

bird at dose rsnge on bci>trm[>rr g, «oci tar 

writer took a fcaale at Beach. Hb, on Octo>, 
ber a. These appear to be the ftrst 
for thb state since 189S. 

Other shore^iirds reported from 
Park by Messrs. Gadt and Lewb are: I 
backed Sandpiper, Scpteaabcr 4; Knot, 
tembcr 11 and ij; Golden iVver, ! 
13, 18. and Ortober a. Pectoral, Least, 
palmatad, and Spotted Sandpipers, Bl 
beBied and Scndpafaaatad Pbver, 
stones and Sanderlings were seen here ( 
the btter part of August and all 
September. Solitary Saadpipers 
ported twice from the Desplsbcs River 
Upland Plover (ram Palos Park. A flock 
Black4iellied Plover has beea at Beach 
August sS, wbea two aiales b summer f 
age were seea. On Scptcasber 17, 1 cra« 
behbd a log and watched twelve of 
birds, three adults and the rest birds of 
year. They were bst seen on October 
Besides the Buff-breasted Sandpiper. Sai 
liagB were the only migrant shore4iinb 1 
here. Two Scmipolmsted Plover and » 
Bock of Seadpalmatcd Sandpipers »U>xd 
a anid (bt bddad a breakwater in Ev 
(ram August ai, to Scp t wn b ff ij. 
birds were occasionally found with tt 
some Spotted Sandpipers, once a Sand' 
and agab a Green Heron b the gnua o< 

The 6nt Warblers were reported A 
a 1 . (ram River Forest, nbc ^lecies beiuf; 
induduv one Golden-wbged Warbler 
aSth at Beach the writer (ound Baybr 
BbckpoUs, and Redstarts mmmoB , « 
(ew Bbck and White and one Magi 
August ji, Tennessee, Bbckbumiait 
Wlbon's were added to the list (ran 
EUyB. September 4t • Prsirie Warblr- 
seen at WIBow Springs (G. P. Lewb). 



The Season 



3op 



caaUBOBd to pMS thimigb dvriaf SqM— »hr r 

.„<.i,u ^«, «...«»w«u »ii4 October i6 (ooDd 

< ttill Ifa^erinc. A 

«>ari>iinje > >ro> van rrpoftcd io HlOnboh 

Puk Aagwt JO and ji . and Pyhde^ihfe and 
Blue-bnulH Vireot Uwie Stf Um b tt aj 
<B T (.auU>; alw a Biw twadad at Paloa 
Park OQ tbe astk 
The rr^t <>f the mlgiarina moved aloac aa 
«.old snap *Urtcd tomr at the 
...« ;>ut at thk writinf the weather 
aguD and no more are coodag ia. 
utird week in Sfp trmbr r mm KiafMs, 
wB Ciccpcrt, jVBCOtt and HcnHit 
Ihnabci here and the nest week Whil»> 
throated and Tree SparrowB and Yellow- 
beOied Sapaudccn appeared. The Red- 
brcaMed Nuthatdi, which b an irregular 
migrant, is rather mmmoo this (all. A large 
"""•^•'■r ol Sharp ihinned Hawks appeared 
nbrr n. sec* at Beach by Dr. C. W. 
(• ruling and by the writer at Evanttoo. 
There were pcobabiy a few Pfgaoo Hawks 
among them; onefooDd dead at Beach, Octo- 
ber t6. N um e r o u s Short-earBd Owb seen at 
Beach during October, also one at Lincoln 

Park. 

'lore HBTOinmoB upccief reported are: 

... r — . Linciiln Park. September s; 

<iw itavr jackaoo Park, Sep- 

>cr .. (. r Lewis): BickneU't Thrush. 

KlaiKl Park, Septobber aa (H. K. Qoale); 

iur tloa Park, Septal* sa (Dr. 

K i i ufted TitmouK. Rhrcr Forest, 

■ '-rt li; Montana JuDoo, September aj 

. :.*- :t Park; Doableoeslcd Cormanwt 

and Duik Hawk. October a. at UnoOn Park 

" ' ' lult); Purple Plad^Ai«ust 18. and 

rd Mar«h Wm. October a,at Bcack 

' . Sanborn). 

!hc northctn binb sscm to be oomlag a 
<- earlier thb year; CrosAflh warn teea at 
irh on Augua at by Mr. S. S. Gragoiyand 
on October a by the writer; also Pteo 9Ukim 
there 00 October Q The Rad-haaded Wood- 
pecker (rncrally »Uy« all winter whaa the 
acorns are plcntilul, as they are this year, and 
they arc reported from the daaas to be tn«i|y 
•toriag tlM« «ad« tba balk and la tha cmcks 
04 the trees.— Cotw CAMrastx 
'"man tf Ktpttt 



Itasca Stats Pabk Rbokw, Mimm.— 
Amgma t$ I* S^pttmkir ly The weather 
throughout this period continued untMoaDy 
warm, and no severe boat ouui red as b 
usual here at thb thne of year. There were 
only two or three really cool days and oaly 
one cold night, August so. when the teas- 
peratnm fcO to 34*. Hoerever, by Septcadb« 
t, fai spite <d the abaence of frost, a black 
ash tree here and there along the shore of the 
lake showed a tinge of ytUow, early for this 
tree, which is usually one of the last to turn; 
the loog-beaked haael bushes were shedding 
their fumet leaves; tks gbat brakes, so 
ahwdant in the und e tgio w th of the formt, 
were yellow and brown; and an orrvional 
vivid patch of brilliant scarlet rrvraird the 
\liginia creeper in its autunma] gb«y. The 
last days of August sad early September 
brought the usual gorgeous display of wild 
asters of many kinds and many hues, so wri 
come just at thb time when mo^ J thr othci 
wOd Ikywcrs are paming away. An e^»> 
dally beautiful and densely i owa re d violet- 
blur specie* filled all tibe open places, while 
the forest shadd harbored the laige-leavcd 
aster, the great sterile leaf -durtets of which 
are such a conspicuous feature of all the 
woodland unde r growth in thb region. The 
dainty roae<alored gerardb and the bright 
blue lobcUa were in fuU bloom ia mid-Auiast 
on the mndy shorn of Oe Soto Lake la the 
southera pert of the Park. They, widi a law 
other bto-flow«ring plants, form a b sa atl lai 
frii^ just above the water line. The wfld 
rice was ripe and falUag by Augurt jo^ aad the 
abundant yield thb year promised a goodly 
feast for the birds. 

By Ai«HBt IS aU the hxal braadii« Bbck 
Tana had foac. Savaial thra«|k migraats 
wara teea a little btar, Iha last OB the ssd— 
aUlnthewUtaphmMts. CiaslidP|ycBtciMm 
•o coaBBMi hara, ware to be <M»«Blarad h 
arid-Aagost in littk partlos ol sb or savan. 
avidaatly broods that had kept tagKhar, 
waaderim through the woods and being 
partly cared for by the paraala. A amb 
Coaaactfcal Waibbr was saaa on August 
IS. We wsM too lata thb year la I 
hunt (or the aosi af thb shah 
■ay be Immd ki Jum brsodlag k 




;io 



Bird - Lore 



AmuM tb clifaMMjr Swifts aad Trae Swal- 
lem% wtn ■rftanttt. the krtUr la iod» 
fcadtaf over te rarfwi aad rice alaag the 
Ukn •ham. Rfld-«3rsd Vim* «wc vtlU 
fwdiBf broodiol ymaif. out ol tlw »Mt, at 
btc m Ai«wt to. On the kttcr date, Sap- 
•udtcn, old aad youag, aad oar H uaun i n f 
bird wtn mcb driakiag Mp (naa boriap ia 
Mvanl bifdi ticca ta tac laaw |iwc wbcic 
they «cfc fooad aiarfla^y capVBd two yean 
agck The tfoea thca la oac, laiie biidMc 
tapped a$ fact fram the grooad where the 
fnt tfaaba were givca off. are aU dead aow. 

Th« firrt advaarr rouri«n of the great 
aouthward awvcment at Nighthawfcs that 
aaaually lake* place through the Park ar- 
ri«Td oa Augiatt so. From that date uatil 
the ioth they were paaciag daily ia evea 
greater aunabcn thaa UMad, aad oa wvcibI 
day* there were ahaort uahrokca flighta 
from early awraiag uatil dailc. On the evrn- 
iag td the a4th a gatheriag ol leveAl hundred 
aMraiMi il ovtt the lanter part of the lake 
aad uatil duik the air wa» t'tllnl »i(>i > Hi- 
great, whirliBg aaaaa oi ImrI'- 

Atmut Auguit i>, Dudu1jn(«ii in Ji|>}K«f 

riaceouranhral, Auguat I. Frona thb tioir 
they iacreaacd ia auadien, cUcffy W<km1 
Dudca aad IfaOanb with a few Blue-wii^{cd 
Teal, but were at ao tiaae auaicrouft. They, 
ia oouuBoa with Hocfca of Red-mngtd BUrk 
biidft that caoae about the Munr time, fed in 
the friage of wihl rice that cacirdtd the lake. 
Loom were auich Icm frequeat thi» year 
thaa fbnaeriy. The hnt leca oa the lake 
waa aa old bird ai mnt p aai ed by a half- 
growB youag oae oa Aognat i7> Aa iai- 
■Hture RodHBodted Grclie wa» aeca oa the 
sjd. the tm record for thb qicdcB ia the 
Park. 

A riagle Ydfew Wariilcr waa leca oa Au- 
gurt 19. the fint tioie that it hat beea fouad 
ia the Park duriag the suouaer aaiatha. It 
ouun ipariagly ia the ipriag augiatioa, 
aad it b a auip ri riag fact that a bird ao 
abuadaat everywhere ia the ttate should be 
catirely ahacat duriag the aotiag eeaaoa 
f foca thb huge area where there are UHuy 
pbcca wcB suited to its waats. The Chest- 
aut-aided Warider. so siadhr hi habits, b a 
regular breeder. 



On AtlgUM 34, .1 • '• ■•'..•> > (.r. ■, s 

weresecaat VMi I - ■ :■>/ 1'^'!- > 
dcatly haviag nnh ■■■■ ■ tvi.i. .Mit.- 
they nrraainnilly (<i><u..,i i.. li.. i.«w :■■ 
rest there awhBa. Oa the aaaw date, a kmr 
Great Blue Hcraa was fishiag oa the bkr 
shore, probably a mignuit from farther 
aorth, as the iahabitanu of the two coo- 
siderahle hevoarba ia the Park hwl all left 
before August 1. 

Oae day late in August, sixteca Turi»> 
Bussards were leea soariag la company, 
which aumber about le p r e a eats the toisl 
bte suBuaer pnpdatiaa of thb bird for thr 
Park. Year after year the couat varies but 
little. They are very load aad sociable in 
their habits at thb time of year, and th<Mtrh 
scattered s u aiewhat durinR thr day t ' ' ■ 
assi nilih Bh^tly to roatt together in "' 
trem oa oae poiticular point. 

On the last day of August canv 
migratiag flocks of RoMrt* aT>d 
time until we left. Se|>' 
was full of them. Afti: 
were joiaed by countlcM Mirkrn. which, 
they too fed on the grouad* were aftca* 
miagled with the Robias as though ducking 

Four beUted Martins were seen fl>-ir 
about over the bke oa September 7. 

»jirouK Rr.i.toK. — Septeadier 14 

.15. The fall thu» far has been mil 

with no killing frost in this locality. Fi 
October j to 1 1 . the temperaturt fell at ni 
almost to the frccxing point and there 
fairiy heavy white frosts sufhckat to ki 
out^de of the city such scasittve sar 
fhiwcn aa dahlbs aad scarlet sair< 
weather siaoe has beea warm an tj 



Orcumstanres have preveated the writ 
betag much aheld this fall, but rqxtrU fr 
othera iadicate that the migrstioo has 
tfaiued, as it begaa. ten days or more 
oftheaormaL T» 
at Miaaeapoiis, 00 
Judsoa L. Wicks, could he accouat- 
as early south4iouad adgraats, s> 
breeds ia MiaacaoCa oaly in Camadum 
cbtioafc She abo repotted aewly hate 
youag Soag Sparrows aa lata aa August 



The Season 



3«« 



Local Docks, nmHiy Mdknb ADd Blue- 
wtiifBd T«b1, were pl aoifu l ok the opening 
diyt of tlw MBBon and Umit-boft iMn Mide 
bjr bnntan all over the Mate. Bat after the 
int t«o or three daya' wkhn>»ai1 bom- 
bardnvnt. noat of the Ducka not kiUed left, 
and iinoa that ttaw the ahootii« haa been 
rather poor. A few Canvaritncfc Dacha have 
brcn at llrrao Lake l ece rtly bvt for the 
auM part thr northem birdi have not oone 
down yet- Mr. Aurad Petcnon, a oonca* 
pondent at l*ipeitonf. in touthwcatem M in- 
oeMta, wrote October to: "Thia ia a re- 
markahir year for WUsron in South DaluHa. 
I never taw m nauiy of them before." There 
arc no recent recoida of thia Uid acatiag in 

I nncaoln and it ia comnMi^r leigaroad here 

Atrnmicnt. 

On October ii, the tot White<rowned 
and Harrk' Sparrowa and GokkD^reated 
Kiaglcta were aeen at Lake MlmMitiwila by 
Mr. F. W. CwnniiMii Whitc-tlwoaU had 
been abundant for aoinc time. — ^Tkioa. S. 
^ ansa. ZeAfkaf Jfairaai, I'mimnily tf 



Cm RacKW.— Tema, Pkd* 
Ird Gnbea, two Corannuito (Dooble- 
^4ed), ni— rrniM ■hof^hi iih , tofether 
h m few ■T'tfMt Phtfafla and Bloe- 



ced Teal, were rrcnded by WHUam 

trewa during early and nahhUc Augurt. 

•m hb iawinhle itatiaa hi the Eton Band 

• '■ the MiHoufi River, bdow Kaaaaa C3ty, 

he waa able tMa year to leoord an onafaal 

faivarian of Little Blue Hefoaa, a aouthcm 

^lecka aeen here only for a HmHiiI period 

t>rtw«ai Aogort 15 and Siytewher is. 

<^ler number* than oaoal of both omturr 

'ia and the pure while juvenilei were wen. 

c int to appear were a f ew of the faMnatort 

lie binb on Aogoat 10, foBowad doriag 

by both old ami ywi« in 

TWa early date waa alao 

fnarkad by a fight of Laaat Trma (happily 

«f Great 

at one thne. Betwee n Augoat tt and 17 
Kiogbirda were niinwwwn, and though lawct 
prry wma varied and abinwIiBl, thaae birda 
preferred the dogwood bcniaa baiovod of 



Andrews »utca that thia fight of ri^iiiih 
devoured the entire oop of dogwood beirica 
on the wooded blafb between Coartney and 
Eton, leaviag the hordea of later-arriving 
Robioa to acek daewhere for their favorite 
fruit or eat Icea deurable fare. PramAagUBt 
19 to a4, mined fhidta of Tema were naMcniaa 
on the river. Ifr. Andrews knowa theae 
binb wcO and hkntUM the Ca^iian, Co» 
■nn. Black, and Lcart. and tUnka it Uka|y 
that Fotslcr's were among thcna. Bctwoen 
August *s sad S ep t — b ar 9, mmll Gtebas, 
Mvcral Term, Herring GuUa, PIntaila, Bhie> 
winged Teal. Bank and Bam SwaUowa, 
Martina, Blue Jays, and BhMbirda farmed 
the proceaMon, and on the laat aaamd dale 
ndgiating Hawks of several ^lecka pamad, 
On the nth, Mr. Andrewa noted ?• focka of 
Blne>wiatBd Teal of from 10 to a too biids 
toa flock. On the 18th, the Pelioana (WUle, 
of oouise), nearly a thoumnd strong, arrived 
about on tchedule. The fait few MaUarda 
and a flight of Marsh. Pigeoo, and Red- 
tailed Hawka were noted on the 18th. Daring 
the nest ten days there were BttsaeroaB 
fights of all the more co mm o n water- and 
siMte^dRb and Hawka. 

Mr. Andraws stalm that on September S9 
there were rsfis of Bhm-winfed Teal in sight 
of his cabin, which he estimated lo contain 
10^000 birda. Knowing the habitual and 
mfe c o oaer vst is w of this observer it caa 
wdlbe 



The fast flocks of Msissdi of a«y sine 

Geese and Widgeon (BaU^aM) wen aolad 
ontheSth. Mr. Andii m stalm farther that 
he haa never before Msa such grsat oompaaim 
of migrstiag Blue Jays aa during lals Sc^ 
Ismber and early October of the prsawt year; 
and that the Rohy-thioat remained later this 
hi than for M^ 
Notos for the 
those famished by Mr. Andrews are 

The wiiiar aolsd that ths ps»> 
DkkciMsl WW not heaid singii« altar 
the second «osk hi Angust. Thisssemseafly 
bat records lor prsvioas jrears are not 
avaflablr. tt waa also netsd that the last 
bbd of the pnOrie rsglew to 
Is Bei^ VIrsn, In 



3»i 



Bird • Lore 



0» oaljr oat alikt tUi idl wcfc < 
ta.'vcnUk for hmiteg aiglrt migfanto. TIm 
cvoriag «f ScptaMbar 4 «m wmoi ud ttS 
villi low4Magfaig ni»<loiMb. aad aboot « 
o'clock tlw pipfav of •hM»Midi ud tlw 
■QMvkiag ol HanMM b^pa, with occmIi— I 
Ml« ol ochcr bifdi iitfcnpanad at taag 
fartanrak. Tbe pawiat tbraop wmt tnvd- 
iat o««r the pcmiHe Rfbiaa aad woe hcaid 
tartfl loiv after ndda^bt. 

Fran SqUcadwr 16 to 19, the uMad heavy 
■ibiallMi of Nlfblhawfca, Robiaa. Meadow^ 
Iai1a» Blvdbinlk aad other ffr m f ^ tpKkm 
oocanadf with tlw F^'Mw ■^■'a* ' ^ and cadi- 
ttaf aaia ^ pria g . 

lac Bial angiaat Sparrows aotad were 
teveral aonia of Soog Spaiiuwi oa Odolier 
ta Thb b about aa avcnife date. The fiae 
weather ooatfaiucs ia thk icsiao, aad the early 
cold stom» la the North have cauMd ao 
aaaNal or afttirT aW f effect oa adiiatioa tl'tf 
fcr Malh.— HAKtr lUins, itaaMr CHy, M0. 



Dnivn RooiOH.— The paat eight 
have givaa the writer loaw plea..Aat MupriMa 
la the biid liae b thii itfioa. 

A Red-aaped Sapaufkcr waa eeea ia a park 
adiaceat to hie boeae oa October S aad 9. 
This wdMpeciw la BMre or Itm rranmoa be- 
tweoi the **«^*'M» aad ttadier, bat b eddoai 
•eea oa tlw pialaa early la October, iMaca tiK 
fluipriw over nadlwg it here at thb taae. 
T%t Millar Iva aavcr before detected thb 
bud aritfaia Deavcr, aad kaowa of ao pft- 
viow record of ita umui ea c eb the dty. The 
Ciwper (Rocky Mooatala fomO b aot cooi- 
noa ia Colorado, and, as a nue, c oa wa down 
(ram the *hilb* oaly b e ati aa w^y cold 
weatlMr. The writer^ lacorda dww that he 
has Boled it b thb lagiaa oaly dariag the 
wbtcr aaaiths, Deoeadicr, January, and Fel>- 
ruary. NevcrthdeM, one waa seca b Cbeea- 
BMa l^rk (Deavcr) oa September 17, anotlier 
oa October 9 aad two oa October la, all 
b the same park. While watddag the bird 
of October 9, the writer waa astonished to 
bear it sbg, the soag beiag eoawwhat rfadbr 
to that of the RobjMSWwaed Kb^kt. He 
had aevcr before, b anrc thaa forty years' 
encrlsaoe, heard thb species siag> Thesoag 
heaad thb bn was soaHwhat sfaaOar to that 

by 



Waswiags are Odoiado's mi»* rrr»t..- 
visiloes. The writer has seen t 
Waswbg b Cobrado oa but lour 
ocoMiaas sksoe 1893, to wit, in ka • 
snd loso. OaSqileadicr 15, siaitv! : 1 A 
of thb qiedes were ssea b hbyii/<i. a;,,;. 
they liagrrad a lew adautea aad dbapprarad, J 
aad have aot yet teappeared. AO were 1 
young of the year. Oa the mme data, two 
FoorwiOs weiv ffushed b OinMian Park. 
Thb b noteworthy because the writer has 
new before seen the wpn€k» b Denver 
darfag the fall adgiatina 

Bsfb faH thf Ro bin — ^ p^aftw tttmnuf^ iKU 



b ^ if yi tt f i fp f ^f ^ that thb f p *''^t 
over the area b successive great waves. Oal 
Ampwt j6, most of our local Robias had] 
apparently departed. The striking tartity 
of Robias noted at that date continued m n! 
Septeadier 1, when the qiedcs appeared m 
laige aiaabiri over aight, cspedaly b our 
dty parks. Ia thb wave there were a great 
maay individuab patently to be Ha»ififd 
as of the castera su hsp e c i t a , thoagh 
western form was, natundly, b the majoi 
Then, (or a (ew da)** (until Scptcadier 7), 
Robins were agab rebtlvdy Karce. but (rami 
the 7th to the 10th, each day brought many] 
more. Near the writer's hoaw there b 
old ncglacted cemetery, l o c a te d oa oae of < 
hi^iest pofats b the dty; (ram it one has 1 
u aub stim - t ed view (or miles to the sout 
west, aad the aorth, b fart; the eye I 
follow a cbab of mountab peaks (rom 
Pmk to Long's Peak, a line more than 
hundred adbs b lci«th. In the late a(t 
nooa aad ap to evcaing twili^ Robbs 
flocfca, never voy laise, can best 
constantly over thb mdnrace, winging 
true a south course as thoagh compass-f 
troOed. During eadi Robb wave tht» fall 
thb hi^dy interesting si^ has beca sr>r< .•<! 
bdore the eye. The days of September ; 1 . 
>S» >S> *9t oad SO mw great s s e emM agt- ..( 
Robias feeifiag b our parks durlag da> lu-ii 
with the oBual southward departure .<t 
twU^faL 
la theae last Robb waves aoae of tlx- 
form was noted. October 1 bnMJi.h( 
Bwer temperatures; no RoI'Ihn 
were seen where there had been hundred* 



The Seaaon 



'<tw Waibler oust tiavd oo • very 

ilr . for nuiy ycm pMt iU latest 

hju bcm August ag, or jo; 

■ OS Aufua ji. The Bbdc- 

«b(ak b often M«n hrre •• Ute a* 

mirr to; tU» yw all Mcm to have left 

igurt j8. 

iibleiB have been very scarce here this 

the PUeolatsd was sees on August 99, 

n September 4, and 25; Townsend'soo 

nlirr to: Mrginia's on Scptcoiber 8; 

: 00 Scptcinber 14; Auduboo's 

■ .>..» during the but week of 

and today (October is). All 

'^ were seen In ow parfcSf and 

he writer saw an Audobon's 

rart of the city 00 some trees 

> Mint And a single Ruby- 

^ Botiffd in the sane 

r 36, attcndon being 

ted to it by its weak attempt at its 



' ThroriMs have been inrgular in ap- 
>g in the miao; the OUw-fancked 
A on Srptf lw f 8 and was agafai seen 
Hiobcr I, while Audtdian's Hermit 
h was noted on September »$ nnd on 
<ri4. 

;cle indMdanls of the followii« qiecics 
iMpecies were detected in or about 

Kas follows: Cassin's Vlrao on Scp- 
8i Rocs Wren on SepCcBibcf loj 
- jdled Towhee on S eptwnbsr ii; and 
<nd*s Solitaire on Stpt m atm t. 
I tic Cray hwdwd Jonoo arriv«d hoe for 
Us uMial winlcr rashkaoe on Sqitsinh i r t4, 
and the Pink-sided JuncD not nntil October 8; 
tKr^r two beini the only winlcr Joncos which 
reached as so far. A Skte-colarad 
juii' ■> was seen on October O! this spedes Is 
lanrr or kas a stngflcr b ColoTMla. 

lie Wrsn wns last nocleed on Sep- 

the Plumbaons Vfano on Ssp* 

^'\ ood Pmoc on Scptcnmer sji 

nsfer and the Waibttng Virso 

'>«r to. 

-1 Grackles wore sosn f 1 iiJIng on the 

4 the so called 'iinrisn oUrr/ nnKh to 

writer's sttiprise, M tUt fralt Is pnawd 

■"•'■' t>y roost. If not an of oar othar bMs. 

r seaaon hns boss one of unbfolwn 

'■<vather, wHh cool night Si nnd wHh no 



precipiutian caeapc a slight fall of snow on 
the night of October 6; aU traces of thb had 
disappeared by the foUowii^ night. The 
writer has seen more dUkrent species here 
during the post eight weeks than he eqiected 
to enc onn t er oonsiderii^ the mild weather, 
but fewer hMllviduals of all sorts except 
Robins.— W. H. Buotoid. DemMr, Cdt. 

San Fkamciwo Rioiom.— The withdrawal 
of summer birds seems practically conylete; 
only an occasional Alln's Hununii^^bird 
contests the right of the Anna's to comer the 
supply of nectar. The Pileolatcd Warbler 
was last seen September 5, the Russet- 
backed Thrush, September 1 1. and the Black- 
headed Grosbeak and Western Flycatcher, 
8q >t rmher ai. There is still a poaslhOity. 
however, that the Flycatcher and thr 
Wariiler may be recorded again. 

The winter bird* to far noted are Town- 
scnd's Warbler (September 13. Dr. GrinneD), 
Golden-crowned Sparrow (September aS), 
Attduboo's Warbler (September 29), Hermit 
Thrash ( S eptem b e r a^, Mrs. Kelly). Inter- 
medfaUte Spnnow, Sierra Junco, Ruby- 
crowned Kinglet, and Sharp-shinned Hawk 
(October I. Mr. Stotcr), and Fox Sparrow 
(Octobers). 

Among the transients teen were the Lewis's 
Woodpecker (October 1, Mr. Strai«), West- 
em Tanafer (Septcnrfter 4), and Western 
Cno tcn t chrr (Septanh rr ag). Unusual birds 
seen on the caapos of the University of Cali- 
fonb were the Bam Swallow (August 84), 
and the Western Bdttd Kfa«fisher (An- 
gust so and S e pto wd t er 7). 

Mm. KcQyV notos on the shore birds in 
Ahuneda show that the mate ndgmtion of 
Curlews and Scmi-pnfanated Plovsn btpui 
July to and ended about Augort sq. WOils 
seen tot on July S4, m« Mfll plMtlhd «• 
October It, the flock* naniaf op to dbiljr. 
Mnifaled Godwits cams b nhnol Joljr a9, bm 




tol on July 51 and 
atflflipt— birsd. WoBleni 
Sn n d p lp ef s have the lon|Mt HMoa. They 
wort MMi ifst on Jal^ i« aad continued 
•bandutt thfovghoot the period. Tht tol 
Rod-hnckod Snadpipw «m notod on Oe- 
tobor S, ond the Bbck^bMled Plow, wUcb 



^t4 



Bird- Lore 



I to Scpuoibcr 6;b b»- 

.nL Ob Sw p twtwr »$• 

' f bay.uidoa 

>iPlwlMopc» 

'>aad.— 

Los AMOiLBt R Baton v—lfid-Augwt 
ilMwcd Mne KwUiwud movcmaU ubooi 
bad-fainb, • few FtjrcBtdwn, L m ac wi t 
(Dvky?) Wafbkfs, ud om yooag Rflbin 
wfUmnlted brcMt appcMiag in a PMadcBs 
fudca M Um i$t]i. Augiat i4« >>. ud » 
bfo«gbtnpoft*olD«k)rPMnrflb b abun- 
I fai ttvtnl fooChOl cafloM. AocuM i8, 
■pic llaitim and twenty ViolH 
G^ven Swdltmi, apparently weaiy from loof 
flgbt. fcrtfld at Echo Park. A pair of Wat- 
cm BIttdiiidi that have returned for wvctal 
Maaona to a oortaiB foediag-table on the iSth, 
thia year dehyfd their oaadac ontil the aoth. 
Auguat aS, Puipk Marth» were asda aecn 
abom Um boihfag at as Broadway. Very 
laifB BttHrimt of Cliff . Bam, and Bank SwiU- 
km* were fidwred in aaanhea near Uie ooaat 
dCDtcBtDar X* 

Coata't HuMBnifnrdi were recorded for 
the bit tioM oa SiptwrfwT s; OMm, Sep- 
6f and Wcalcm Kib^IwhI^ Sep* 
I a. 



rfcMi.^fa<« deecandad to Eatom Caflon 
Dalitica about Paidwia early in 
A Greeo-taOed Towhea and a 
RiMKt-badtod Thrwh were anwog the mi- 
gRMts tliat nade a brief etop b a garden 
tlwre. Lawrence and Willow GoUfinchca 
viidted the sonflower patchca with the GrecD- 
backa. GandMl't Sparrowi fetahHAad an 
aaHy record for return, appearing on Scp- 
tenber 9, 14, and 16. By the ai«t they were 
abnwlant* Pfpita were fuit recorded 
S ept em b er la, the Kfa^let and the Hennit 
Tbfwh Sep t em b er ja Audubon's Warblers 
and Poi Spa r row s October s. ^^otet-Green 
Swalkms were agab seen S ep t e m b e r ti, and 
on the saase dato a wave of Waifako «m 
reooadedf T«arHcnd^ bCQg 

Wcrtam Tsaagen and 




with aaaay Warblers on 
It reports fron Bear Valley, 



San Bcnmidbe Moonlaba, b lata AnguM, 
the great abundanoe of Ciiipping Sparrows^ 
RoUm, and Wcrtcm BliMfab^ CkUfomk 
and Camb Pvpb Fbchm and the Greea- 
tailed Towhae ware abrndant, and kuge 
flocks of ravbg Piflon Jays were also en- 
countered* Brewsi s Sparrowa were seen 
only on the north or desert slopm of the 
momitaina. A list from another mountain 
hxality includes the Black<hinaed Sparrow. 

About twenty Piflon Jays were noted at 
Upper San Antonb Caflon S epttw hr r 18. 
Pfleobted and Lvlmccnt Waiblam and the 
Watfalfav Vfaoo were atfll th«e. Many 
Tbarber's JoBOoa and CUcfcadem ware about . 
and one Sierra Creeper was observed. 

The migrstlan of shore birds began earl^ . 
and most of the oommon yecirs have bem 
abundant. Marbled Godwits and BUck- 
bellied Plover seem to be bcreasiag under 
p rote ct ion. Ten oboervatioa trips have been 
made to various pobts along our shorn 
during the p e r iod covered. Dowitchers aod 
long billed Curlews have appeared on but 
two of theUsls^and b very snail numbcn. 
lNrenty*two Avocets were seen near Ocean 
side September $. Small numbers have br' 
seen at several other pobts. On the satnr 
date, so WUte PeBoua were at Lake 
EUBore. Large numbers of Bbck*nrrked 
Stilts were found at Castak and Crsne I.akcs 
August a? and s8, where also 50 Northern 
Phalaropm were n oted. Small fl ocks were 
seen on the ocean Sqi t embr r j and $, and oo 
the rath a very large number were observr>i 
at Playa del Rey. October 6, a small nunl^• 
were seen at the same place. 

On August 30, at Anaheim Landina. 
Sabine's GuDs were seen by Mrs. F. T 
neO, Mia. C H. Han, and Mrs. Anhi. 
Thqr seemed very weary and csfaausted eni 
allowed approach to withb jo feet, where 
complete hkntiflcstioo was secured. Or 
bird wore the dark hood of sununer plumage. 
The day was also marlud by an immcast 
flight of Tema, ombly the Forster's, but it 
waa thou^ there were ooasidersble numbets 
of Commnn Tema SBWWig them. A few 
Bbcfc Tema also were aotod. Two Jscgen 
harried the Terns. This has bem observed 
oa four btcr datm whm the Tema have beco 
An animated spectacle w^ 



The Season 



us 



pracated aloag abocv on ScpCeanber ji. vritli 
MMCi of TwM sad S PdkmaA iridng date 
ia, the ifny iyinf hish at every phmge, bMt 
oor** cajajrnwnt of the tcme «m BMurad by 
the bdttviar o( j Heemui'* Gulb, that 
couiied uBonc them, robbiag the PeUcaas 
ol ihdr catch. 

A CM|iiui Tcra wa« obtervcd at BoIm 

-ika S< |H ihrr «, aad agiia a few days 
Utcr. About so YcOowMfi vera mm oa 
both thcK daiea. About »$ WUta-wiafBd 

>t*n were wttm oa Septcnber t >. 

A few Lcaat Tom icaMdaed at Ptaya del 
Kry until Sip t wa b rr aa. whea oae waa ob- 
-r\-cd to feed a full-ffowa yomiK Tcni that 

-id upoo the uppa beach aawog Saoiry 
liovcr aad about soo SandoliBg. Oa Oc- 
6, the yooBg Tcra was agahi wea 
! the Muae oooaiBaioaa, but the paicata 
la cviueaoe. Whether the j^ouBf 
bird waa dJ i hhid or it wm ria^ily a case of 
Uie ncitiag wUcfa debyod the tiaie of 

:4rture beyoad the UMial date waa aot 



\ Kaot waa l ecowled oa September 5. by 
Mr».C. H. HalL Homed Grebca were aoted 
no the oceaa October 3 and 6, ia company 
'h Wcatcra Grcbca. Oa the bttcr date an 
i>rry vWted the l^ooaa at Playa del Re>-, 
<1 a Looa waa acl l ffd oa the gt ^ ft 



Black Turaatoaoi returaed ia July aad 
Augurt to thdr icfdar wjatcr haoata asHag 
therockaofWUte^PMat NoWaadariiv 
Tattlcra have baaa icooided. Youag Wart^ 
era Gdk, biida of the year, were int mem 
SrptCBihcr ti. Septcnber as, huge Buarfwra 
of PHg>««w both adub and Inuaaturr, were 
aoted, aad oa October 6, the youag birda of 
the year were auBMraui. A few Califoraia 
aad Boaaparte Gdia were aoted October j. 

October 10, a aieariber rcpoita 17 Phala- 
ropet aear the pier at Ptajra del Key, 5 of 
which the lifted aa the Red Phakrope. Her 
list include* 3 Homed and 3 Wertcra Grebea, 
a Baird's Sandpiper*, a L4X)a aad a auaiber of 
Surf Sooten. Brown Pdicaat were described 
aa paMiag MNrthwaid ia loag fies at freqneat 
intcrvab t hr o u gho u t dw day. 

Fraa Sep t rm b rr i to date, every group 
viaitiag the ihorea haa rqwrted ea o n aooa 
fighta of Ducfca paHing touthward wril of! 
•bore. On October 6, at Playa del Re>-, a 
huge praportioa of the vast flocks hurr>-ing 
out of the north turaed inland on aii^ting 
the inner lagooaa fluihed with the water of a 
very high tide, bat acattcred out oa aMcttag 
the fwOada froM the guaacra, or lUag 
higher, headed away for the aouth Aorea, 
kec|rfi« iMide the Paloa Vcrdea hflk— 
i- aAMcn B. ScamtiDn. L$t AmfAs, Cdl^ 




Si6 



Bird - Lore 



ANNUAL CONGRESS OF THE 
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 



The thiny-niadi Araiid CongraM ol the 
AoMrioui Omhbobiiits' Unkm wm hdd I0 
pyhiMpbk, Smmhn S to 10. at the 
Academy a( Natural Sdencaa. 

There waa a lafie attcndaace and an orcI- 
Icnt pn«ram, while to the (acton which 
have contrfiMted to the growth of the Dcla- 
wan Valley Ondthologkal dob may evi- 
dently aho be altrflnited the ettocna at- 
teadim the acknUfic oMCtiafi and eodal 
«Uherii«i ol the Omgreaa. The folloviag 
oficcta were i«0ected: Preridcnt, Whrnier 
Slooe; Mcc Prcaidents, Geoc|e Bifd Griwiell 
and Jonathan Dwight; Secretary, Theodore 
S. Pafaaer; Treaaurer, W. L. McAtec. 

The foDowii^ Members were elected 
Fdlowt: Gtovcr M. ADea. Boston. Ma«; 
W. H. Bogtold. Denver. Cola; Allan 
Brook*, Okanagan Landing. B. C; Jamca 
P. Chapin, New York City. 

FIvo aarrrlatff were dc\'ated to the rank 
of m e— bet a hip. four Honorary, and fourteen 
CorreipandiBg Fellowa, and Mine 350 Aao- 
ciales were elected. A list of papers pre^ 
•cnted and of photographs eidiibitcd is 



(is roift ) Robrrt Cttthiiu 
(iO The DbuflMUioo td Bird l->(r 
Itaftralad by batcni-dldr* 



■laO Fkaak M. aapmBa 



Z^T<^ ««« 

ana 8m namane 



PROGRAM 

Tduoay MoaKiKo. Novutacs ft, 10 o'Ctoca: 
(t) Obwrvatiaasoa Some Watcr-BlRbof the New 
Icncy Coast. IBnstrated by laatcn-siides. 
(IS mln4 j. Fletchv SireM. Beverly. N. J. (>) 
la McMrkm-Chailas BarMy Cory W. M. 
~ IH. (1) Nolm on tlie Hsbhs 

of the Florida Bmtu ol in Owl. 
Kfc. Kwastt Sqoarr. Pa. 
HTvaoons oi vms 
ihiOeCMiUs. (isaihi4 Mka 
M. W. Dator. HU^m Vum. Pa. (j) On Some 
of the Breadhg Bbds of the Saskatchewan 
tratcd by lantern dHw (ao adaO Go 
Stmrt jrt. Phgi li hihis. Pa. (6) laMoKinMn- 
WOhm Pahnsr. Cterlae W. Uchmoad. WMh- 
k«iaa.D.C Piiiiliiil by Harry C. Oberiwbsr. 
T^annAV AvnouiooM. r^se o'Cutat: (7) 
Notes 00 Edwte Carter, a PriiaiiniBt Nataralbt 
of Colorado. (10 ado.) P. C. UbcoIb. Wasb- 
kf^lm, D. C. (t)The WBd UCs School at 
McGreior. Iowa. Gootn BcwwCt. Iowa City, 
la. (tsaifai.) Prewotad by Harry C. Obcrbolaer. 
(«)Bifd Uc of the Cbaoo. Ohatratcd by 
■dMsB. (semin4 Ales. WelaMMc. Wadn 
D. C (M» BbdCoiBctli« to Paaaam. 
lad by kate m Mu Us adn.) R. N. 
Davk Sci aat on. Pa. (it) The Aadaaa Condor 
as a Coartal Bbd. nhtrrted by laatcra dMei. 
i4 Robert Cwitaiiw Marpby. (i«) The 
of Corjr'ft Sbearvatcr. Wim rat rd by 



WW _ w ^w,— w— — .— w Ntivumui 0* 

O'CLOCK: (i4)Praa«M h Bhd-Baadha. (; 

Bbd-Baadbw Notas of loai. (jo adn 
Pnmha Baldwfak. Ocvdaad. OMo. 

afam--Jofll Atapb Alsn. Fasak M 1 lu. 
New York. (17) The Problem of Fkl 
§rortwt. Wkb tfiuuMion. (so ayn 
Lodbw GriKom. New ' ' < Rsporito- 

la Brb«h^[ «> a Faodly Dmstralr 

by lamaro-eHdaa. (is mm > .mim Jrf. W. Dalr^ 
Ubtan Farm. Pa. dot Aa ApprBdaHoa . 
waHam A Wmwr. a Llttle>Kaowa P«ana> 
Twifai V llhistratad bv kntar a rBd r 

(IS aai vera Raiw. Norristowa. P-> 

(so) Idniiuyinx lae Dadcsof ths Bastcm Uakr 
Siatm at Long Raape. Dhatrntad by macten 
aadcharts. (jotSnlLMnow Grimom. New Yorv 

WanmoAY A iiaai mo n . >.je o^Ctors 
(AB papctB Bhntratad by owtba aktarr 
NewUasfarMotioaPktansaf Btods. (^m... 
Arthw A. Alsn. Ithaca. N Y («i) Bbdruk • 
HoBaad (40 mhu) Adi^ih Bonlcl. Ovarven 
Hohad. (r^StadkoofSomeFanriaarBkdii 
Motioa PIctares. (40 mhO Tbemaa S. Bab«t 
lammpoHi. Ilbw (^^Vlews of Wcalam Mr 
IJck by Wai. L. Fbilcy. (10 mb.) T. Gibr 
Pfeanon. New Yorii. 

TnvasnAV lloeimm. NovBavaa 1 
o'Cuick: (TUs teadon was devoted cat > ■- 
tacbaical papen end dfacnalanft.) (■ 
cantiBaow flliUlialhwi m IDwlraicd ' 
Spcdes of the Genns l><gto tf« . Ilh«u.v 
msp-«lklca (to aria) Frank If . Chapma 
York. (>6)Tbe CbMrificatkm of the 

MHhr. The DtatrftatfcM 
Hook -««» TYododytr 
mfai.) FrAuk M. Chaumaa and Lndkw Onv >« 
New York. Pwawitedby Mr. Grimoa. (aS) U) 
New FamBy of Naotrankal Bbds, the k>, 
phofaeaMaf; (10 nda.) (*) A Saaotk" 
the Orighi of Disslataxy. (10 min.) W 
New York, (so) YHbw^eg 8k. 



■M MiM Waalrstiil by Chart. (i$ adn) J. T 

«) On Some Kfw Vt^k ( loi Sur«raioa« in Krfiar 



rfianl 



lure ( I j mm ) A i> 
(At) Check LMs Abn» 
Oberbohcr. WaAtaslon 
TaraaoAY Amcaiio- 
Soaae Rcamrks oo the .\ 
BiaiiL (aoafai.) Mrs. K 
New York (s4)8omsc 
of Brad. (k> min.') 
bwtoo. D. < 
Some MaM.v 



V 

other lihMtr 
Marpby. ' 

Bifai.) Arthnr"H PMtwr'lli^MhiM^ l> 



2^ooti ^etos anb CtfbiefcDs; 



UrK IIikToucs or Nobth Amkucan Gli i 

AMD TkKNS. OftHKK LOMCfPKKNBS. B> 

Akthvk Clkvcl^xu Hi: NT. Bull. No. 1 1 j, 
U. S NaL Mu*.. Washington, 1911. 
X+J4S page*. 77 haU-tone*. 16 colored 

Mr. Beat's volume 00 the life historici of 

the divii« faMi (BuD. U. S. NaL Mut. No. 

to7) havlagacqaabtedoniithologbtswith the 

<*riik scope and importance of hit great 

iimlrrtaking. it b lafe to aay that tUs addi- 

tior. to the aerie* will receive an even heartier 

■vdcone than was acooided iU pmkcewm. 

DoubtlcH no oae b better prapaml to 

■e this n waograph of our Gulb and 

than b Mr. Bent Hb years of de6- 

ntidy directed 6eld-worlc have permitted 

him to study in their haunU a large part of 

' he sprrirs treated, and thb experience has 

■'A only given him much origiiial material 

•ut has enabled him to quote with discretiaQ 

rum tJie work of others. The wImIc makes 

^ fully adequate and authoriutive picsea- 

^»tion of hb theme. We wbh we could 

[teak with equal enthusiasm of the form in 

'hich it is presented, but the typography 

« not attractive, the paper cnqiloyed is so 

(in that the print shows through it, giving 

he page a 'mes^' appearance, and the use 

Mhe book title instead of subject-matter 

rsfling for every ri^t-haad page b greatly 

• hpnTTPtted. Doobdcas these are matters 

Mr. Beat has ao ooatrol, but we 

^ hr oould iaiprove upon the 

rrsagement o( hb text. Under the grncml. 

nirr hcadfaig uf 'llahits.' (or example, b 

<l. under side, suMwadhits. para- 

4|>n» on 'PlnaMgBs' aad *E§t^,' aad acar 

Se end of the biopaphy a section on 'Bc^ 

ivior' b givtn wiMfeia b ofkca repeated 

>irh that has alrrndx bcca stated uader 

Hi'. t».' 

i " work blllttstrated with a huge number 
photographs from nature aad admimble 
■•■' "f cms in color. K M r 



Tba Ornithological Maga«inr« 

Tna At'K.~The July number ui ike 
<>«* bflgfaw with a ilbnMsinn of 



N IT Mouady, in which 
lotting a singing 

^' - • l<itcr joins him and 

near which the nest b buUt, a male bird in 
the majority of cases really selects or estab- 
Ibhes the general site of the aest. Aa ex- 
haustive paper by Horace W. Wright 
sununarises the occurrence of the Mocking- 
bird in New Ei«land and Canada, that b to 
the northeastward of iU range of abundance, 
with special reference to the Boston region. 
Thb paper was completed by its author at 
the very time of hb death in June, igao, and 
has been edited by G.M.Allen. Conclusions 
are that thb spedes b pashii« northward 
the limit of iU range along the coast to a 
considerable extent by resident individuals. 
A comparative frequency with which biids 
are obeervcd in fall and winter may be ex- 
plained by their seeking shelter at those 
seasons in park and viUage shrubbery, where 
they arr likely to be eaco u a t ered by bird 
studeata. 

'ImprcHions of Bird Life in France,' by 
E. L. Poole, b presented in the form of an 
annoUted list and illustrated with a half- 
Ume plate of sketches by the author (the 
Aquatic Warbler, Spotted Flycatcher, and 
the Garden Warbler.) There leems to be 
possibility of error with some of the hleati- 
fi ca ti oas. Otherwise it b very stnprisiiw 
that Lanu mtUm^tpkalms, not the abundant 
Unu ri4tkmmdmt, was the Black-headed 
Gull observed. And whereas the Carrion 
Crow which b Ibtcd should have brm 
present, cootrsry to what b ssM, it • 
but slightly from the Rook b sis', ai.-. 
voice b said by other observe r s to rr»rnil>li 
somewhat that of our AflMricu Crow. 
*Notc8 on the Winter aad Early Sprii« 
Birds of Southcastcra Arkaasaa,' by Chres- 
wcO J. Iluat« gives aa anaotated Ibt of qA 
apecfaaaad nwea, prafaoad by atvand pmes 
01 cnMHal riadabla dasolptiva ittscua* 
The early dates at whirh certain 
arrive and neii« •»-•• T'H-' »•! -— 
taitflrMuMEs 

*TIm Birds of Lake l'uti|o. tMMixM, uy 
William Ray Alba, b a gcnml dbrawtna eA 



^117) 



3«« 



Bird • Lore 



bfavMUt about thb thOow bkc, in • (Ut 
phk At a U|b aWlttdB, with nhtlaa to 
pkywo^nfUK iimulu oBa. '^••p t w u thfri y 
of Ldw Fdop6 aye pm iiwflwni the 
of ilwg» Mi A. Stv«al ipadai of 
Plovtr woo taUag !«■ advaataft of tha 
Aaatioa. Tho wilier cMiMitod that lor 
mtk arfb of Aon Vme llMn awo «dl b 
caoaMoftaattHMaaadbinb. Bjr all evidence 
tiMjr wart dMjr wiatar raridaata." 

A coaridwaMr pwpo rt ioa of the gawral 
■ittfba dwl wiiii aMUan of fBtbar tackakal 
iatoraat. Kaaaaid dhcaMaa nwH i Hr aad 
tiacUfIa ia caa ooOactioaa at laa|ti^ a paper 
•in doMbtltai be of arach practical 
to OB ooDectork Swaaa reports oa 
a ooHectioa of HainB fnaa Vcnesodaj 
Blahop dhridea tbe Coaunoa Looa into two 
rMBi, tbe biidi aertiag ia tbe Wert beii« 
■aaBer; Baafi aad Pa»rd give tbe caateiB 
HMadtTbraaha aew aidMpedfic aaaae, aad 
Filcn icvlewa tbe tnipkal Giacfclea of tbe 
SMva J7elMafKalM(« 

The ■iiiiBtaM pagea of Hkaecal NbteiT 
ooalaia tbe otoai variety of oaUcrial, in- 
dudug laoaal ooatrflMitioaa from Alabaaa, 
Kcatacky, C oa a ec t i cii t, Vermont, and tcat- 
tcriag. F. C IJacola reports oe a Oimijub 
Ten beaded bjr Dr. PUUpa fai llaiae aad 
fai Wcat Africa. Ia prwvirioMlly 
four Swans obe cr red ahmg tbe 
Hodma to the WUrtlbv Swmn, S. C. Bishop 
b appartatljr naaware of tbe flodc of feral 
MoU Swaa there resident. A. C. Gardner 
describes a Uagbird'k nest on tbe top of a 
street electflc light rcOecior, tbe light beii« 
In use every aiiht. C. A. Uraer adds several 
birds u» spedm rsoorded as faaiutad bjr tbe 
Slarlii«. 

A printeri' strike cmosed thr latr appear' 
ancr of thb number — j 

TU COMDoa.— Students of life history 
and habits of birds wifl 6nd much of btcrest 
fai the July nmnber of Tht Citi^r b three 
articka oa tbe lbod-«tarii« babita of Wood- 
pacfccn, aad oae oa tbe flocfc-behavior of tbe 
Boab-TU. Ia *Tba Storage of Acorns by tbe 
CaUforala Woodpecker/ Henry W. Hcnahaw, 
wiiliag froai Us upeiin n f ia tbe West aad 
smnmarising tbe nherrvatlMis of others 
concHidca that "tbe boriiai of boles, tbe 



search for aooms, the csrr>'iog th< 
boles and tbe fitting thrm in, bear i 
Uaace to work in tbe ordinary art 
lana, but are play." Gigaoos^wr^ 
eatlag acoouat of tbe stotagr 
tbe CaUloreia Woodpecker In i 
Caltf.. «berc tbe bfad bM takr< 
s new tourcc of food supply 
'FMd Notes,' Morton E. Peck rcconte the 
fact that a rdated species fai British lloodun* 
frequently fills boles in trees with aooms. 
Tbe Flock BdMvior of tbe Cbait Busb- 
Ttt' h dmciibad fai detaO by R. C. Miller fai 
a pa|icr which is stjried a amtribution to tbe 
'new Sdcnce of field peycbology.' 

An artide oa 'Geaera aad Specia' by 
McGregor b brief but to the pofart b sUtfaig 
deariy that "Nama are for tbe use of people 
who talk or write about things, aad aaows 
whose laeaaings are frecfoeatly changed arc 
unfitted for any p ur poae.** 

In a 'Syaopsb of Cattfatak Fossfl Birds' 
by Loye MUkr. tbe leadfaig authority on the 
subject, it b i i Hfww I h i g to aote that the 
total number of foosfl birds now kaowa from 
tbe state b sixty-five, of which siity-lonr are 
from tbe Ple is tocene and only one from the 



CoatrSmtocB lo Th* Ctrndpr apparently 
somrtimra fiad dificulty b apreming tbcir 
fakaa b ocdbary words, and b tbe effort 
to ooavcy their meanfaig ac cura t el> ladulite 
b pictumque tons or cob words which are 
not only sdditions to tbe vocabubry of 
ornithology, but abo to the English language. 
In tbe preacnt number we are told that while 
tbe oraitbologist has tieen engaged with 
prafaleaM of distribution aad sptdaUm 
(p. iti), tbe study of birds frodi a WAssmt- 
JMc ataadpobt has beca nested (p. lai); 
that Bu«b-Tlts are Batumi mgom^kMsa 
(p. I »$), meaning simply that tbe birda avoid 
open piacca* and that b British Honduras 
Woodpeckers drop aooma b '•eamtrUs' 
(p. tji). Tbooe who fiad aomeadature dry 
reading will be rdieved to learn (p. 117) that 
tbe subject of generic subdivisbn onljr 
*trupuf periodically, while on p. ijo they 
wiU find that tbe name FUuttgy^ ttx ap- 
plied to a species bag ago extinct, has proved 
to be a Sy ao m rm and i« "herrfiv officiallv 
c rwa ated "■— T S. I" 



EditoritI 



3«9 



25 lib Ho ic 

I la Um mm*r aad P fU c tt w •! 

ovviciAfc oa«A* or ni* ao»vw>m mmhiiu 

KMmi by FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

C—irtfcMilmMitWi. MABEL OSOOODWKIOHT 

PwMtilWi ^ O. APPLBTON «i CO 



xxm 



1. mi No. 6 



r«k«te**ttate««aMi.«M 4rfkr«rfi 



iMMar-^i* cMfk. 



^ Ui-'d <■ 



/« INn» Tm m !*• Mbarf 



In K w k w if dw Ule-wotfc of th» kte Dr. 
). A. ADca, OM b impiimtiA by the fact that 
'hit leadtf Ia the noiv tcdiBical p*^ t* T of 
>ttnwitir oraithology wm for thifty-«z 
■ mn activdy idcattted with the cmuK of 
•ifdiiralectioB. The IcMttag artick fai the 

nt 'BuOetia' of the AflMtkan Oroi- 
ihologkU' Unioo't Coaunhtce on Bird 
Procectkm, pdblUwd ia i886, was from hb 
:>ca and wm m bgkal wpajtinn of the 
mpottaaee of bird coMcrvmtioB. He was 
ne of the B wb cft of Um committee, later 
*M a director of the New York Sute 
VoddMB SodeCy, aad from the thae of iu 
•rfaaiatioB obUI hi* death lie was a director 
f the Natioaal Amodatioa of Andaboa 
^odrtim. 

Further faMpdry would show tlwt aioat of 
i>r. ADca** amocialci ia tho woA of bird- 
Uw ida^ ^ffcftt^ f orai- 
Maiben of tlM Aaicncaa 
>raithok«irt»' Uaioa. ladeed we thouM 
tnrn ih.At the iimaiwi aaw ft UMia t for the 
(•rocrvatioo of oar bMi nrigiBatwl ia tluit 
^. aad that from the bccfaudag it has had 
Um MVftort aad activt ooOpwatioa of the 
ondthdogitls of this aamliy. 

Uadv tht wise gii*«<i»w of WWam 
I>atdMr. tht Uaioa't riaamlttM oa BM 
f'rolactiaa, of which he mrvod for ymrt •• 

hairmaa, bocaae, b dicct, the father of tho 
N'atioaal Amocialioa of Aadoboa OoiiiHim 

The dfbt of bifd cwmrvellnaiiti lo the 
A O. U. dom aoC, taiwovor, cad h«a. The 
Uaioa was aln tht panal of tht Divlrioa of 
OnMMh«y of tht UaHtd 



Drportmmt o< .V|{riculturr iNaw Bumu of 
Biolocical Survr>'n aad evcryooc (amtliar 
with the history of birdiMalOGtioa ia thia 
ooMBtiy kaowi that tiM taocns of tUt 
BMi vM ma t b ia ao aaali measurr due to the 
accurate iaformatioa c o ncnain g tht eoo- 
iMMnic relatioas of birds, wldch waa aade 
avaibble by the researchci of tlds Burma. 
The day b dawaiag whca a pim for the ooa- 
tcrvatioa of biid-life amy be based oa seatl- 
meat akae, but the piooects ia thb Md 
fooad l^bkton deaf to aigomnts wUch 
were aot severely pmcUcal hi tlMir aatort; 
aad it was the eoooomk oraithola^st to 
whom oae turaed for ooaviacfag facts ia 
rcisid to tlw dolbis aad ccatt value of biida. 
At aO timm there have beea aawcbtrd 
with the prol>siioBal ocaitholoffati ia the 
Stjtkt to ttve our Uids, aanbcfs of aica aad 
wooien wito, actuated by hnoMae aiotivm 
aad love of the BMOt beautiful of saJawte 
foms, deplored their waaton dertmctioa. 
Be t weca these groofM, whom we may do- 



there has existed the vtaHst lutfornqr aad the 
stro^^ of the birdi>rottctioa movcmeat te 
thb oouatry owm arach to the aabed fnat 
which hm evca been presented by bird- 
proCtcton. 

May wc suoest to the friends of birds la 
Eagbad that they draw a otoral from tht 
history of the oiovcment ia thb coaady. 
They have far to fo before Eo^ish biidi r»> 
oeive the proCtctioa wUch AaMficaa birds 
aow cajoy; bat they wBI aol, «c fear, 
haste oa the road oala 
OKnt travd haad ia haad. 



Btai>-LoBB sfria csprmsm iu 
to the aatribolan wlw have amdt *Tht 
Scuoa' so impoftaat a part of thb aaifsdat. 
Thb biHaoathty Mtrvty of ooaditbaa ia the 
bird worid by aathofitba situatad at statioas 
dblHbalad from tht Allaatk to tht PhcMc 
foroM a soarot of eoadsastd iafocomtiaa of 



vahtt as tht 
vatioaa afbrds 



of 

Wt 

wH eaaparala witt 



thtfar aolhon ia 



SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 

Btflt«4 ky A. A. AU.BN. PkJD. 
kMimm aM iwaahalliwM ntoliw to ttm woft of tMi 
4tVUt«M« to Ik* MItar. CmwB l'*hr««hr. 1iImc». N. Y. 

CONCEALING COLORATION OF BIRDS 

In the laftt iMtie ol Biio-Loke we diicuMed the general oolocmtion ol birds 
and planned to consider the principles of concealing or protective coloration 
at this timt 

There is unc principle which underlies the coloration of all pn>UHii\(-l> 
marked birds which does more than anything else toward rendering thttn 
in co nip i cu oiis, and that is the principle of 'counter-shading', as it was luuned 
by its ditooverer, the late art ralist, Abbot Thayer. It had long been 

known by artists that to nuw ^ ts ^)pear solid and conspicuous on the 
canvas, one must paint in their shadows, but it remained for Thayer to apply 
the reverM of this practice, and to point out that the wzy to make solid objects 
appear flat and inconsfNcuous was to paint out their shadows. He applied 
thb principle to the coloration of animals and recognixed that protective 
cokNmtion b brou^t about largely by the lightest colors being placed <m the 
throat and bdly, ftdiicH parts are thrown into the deepest shadow, and the 
darkest colors on the top of the head and back, which receive the greatest 
light. Between the back and the belly there b a gradual change to lighter, 
exactly counter-matching the amount of shadow, so that the apparent solidit\ 
of the bird b thus destro>*ed or 'painted out' 

Thb princqile has been admirably illustrated by the celebnite<l liini artist, 
Loub Agasstt Fuertes, with the two Inrd nnodeb here diown. Tuo IiI«k ks <•! 
wood were cut out in the general form of a bird and colored uniformly dark. 
He placed them out of doors on a gravel walk in good light and then, with his 
brush, proceeded to paint out the shadows on one of them by adding touches 
of white paint so as to balance the shadows exactly, with the result that. i<> 
the amaaement of onlookers, thb one gradually dinppeared from view. 

The principle of 'counter-shading,' like other great discoveries, b very 
simple. The human e>*e, and probaMy all e>'es, judge the solidity of an object 
b>- the shadows which it casts, and an object which throws no shadows upon 
its underparts has no solidity. Through 'counter-shading.' then, the bird loses 
its solidity, appears flat, and being so, it faUs off into the background and 
becomes a part of it. If. in addition, its cobr pattern b similar to its 
haunts, it becomes practically in\isible. .\nd so we find the Grouse and the 
Woodcock, living on the forest floor, with a color pattern of spots and patches 
of light and dark brown: the .Sparrows and Meadowfauks of the fields are 



The Audubon Sooi-'fl 



3'« 



>tr(-.ikct\Mtfi ^ :" I 'I rufous Jikr the <kadgraa«c«iiOwbai«in«;gularly marked 
like the rvjUiU* Ija-rk "f trees, ami Sandpipen anH Pl^^v^r. ar*. «prclcrf1 like the 
sand of the seashore or streaked like the drift. 

\V > t» thi-^ simulation of cok>r pattern is odcn carried tu the extreme. 

Iht:;. .;.. -utterrlies and moths whose markings imitate exactly the dead leaf 

or the bark upon which they nU. Furthermore the shape of the wing b 

oft' c the simulation more complete. 'Dead leaf' butterflies, 

< i-uring worms, are famU! ^'^ •ramples of insects in which 




IW 



M«M»i 



brL A. 



%V H D 9m* 



the shape has been modified as well as the color, and this de>'ice of nature for 
ip\ifig protection has been called 'mimicr>'.' If we det'mr mimicr>' as the nmu* 
lation of shape, as well as color, uf animals to their environment, we will find 
it of rather rare occurrence amang birds and never as perfect as with insects. 
^ ' ' with its feathers drawn dose and its ear-tufts erect , hciwever. 

a broken piece of bark, and the Nighthawk. sitting length- 
wise on a limb. stmuUtes the broken stub of a branch in shape as well as 
cok>r. The Bittern, standing among the dead cat-tails, with iu bill pointing 
toward the xcnith. and the Least Bittern on its nest in the pote shown in the 
accompanying phntogrsph, are, likewise, examples of mimicn**, for the)' 
resemble in shape, as well as in cok>r, a (imjccting snag or a broken reed. 

In the plumages ot certain birds that are normally very dificult to tee when 
at rest, we find a ver>' different color pattern which seems at variance with all 



3" 



Bird L4>re 



that Imu been MkL Instead oi thcrv being a gradual iranaition from the dark 
to the light arcAft, there b a sudden, abrupt change, often heightened by a 
blick bonier. On the hc«d of the Wood Duck, for eiample, the vv ' 'he 
throat cxtoidB up on the dieeks in the form of creacenta. The^ i>cf 

with the white stripe* through the crest and the black-and-white ban on the 
aides, would seem to nudce it moat conspicuous. Simihurly the Killderr has i(> 




TW l.<«>< HMIv** a^* 



brown head separated trum iL^ sunilarly lol' '•- 

ring, and its snowy breast is croased by tw a: .t< k imiki- i . •> 

these marks, one 6nds that both the Wood Duck and the Killdeer in their 
natural environments, are very inoonqMcuous, and we are led to 1 ' 'itt 

these 'ruptive marks', as they are called, ser\'e apparently to s{>tit , i nl 

into tevoal pieces, destroy its continuity of form, and thereby conceal it by 
making it unbirdlike. Those who followed the de\Tk>pmcnt of 'camouflaK*' 



I 



The Audubon Societies 



3»3 



til i .^Ki rrc(»gniz4: in i.-uiiiviviliading and rupUve marlu two of 

the i ti were uiillzcfl as much as any to conceal battlcahipa, large 

guns, ammuniiion trains, and even snuill buildings. 

One other class of nnarkings we might comiidcr here since they are simiUr 
III the ruptive marks in being themselves extremely noticeable. I refer to the 








wHEJie 'cuLoa rATTcax' (*> 



B I 
C I' 

O brsM («all«fi> «i4 M— <fc i« I 




3^4 Bird - Lore 

KMaUlcd 'flash oolon* or 'btimer marks.' The white tail of the deer and the 
cottontail, which are raised and made as conspicuous as possible when thc 
animal b fleeing: the white outer tail-feathers of the Junoo at ' ' ^Tcadowlark; 
the white patch un the rump of the FUdcer, and the striki . and-wUte 

wings of the WiUct, all fall into this dass. These marks were at one time 
supposed to serve as signal- > >unK or to others of the species to keep the 

flodc together, but Dr. C. < < rriam has suggested a still better use for 

them by exphuning how they may serve to g}\x protection from their enemies. 
When the animal or bird b fleeing, the eye of the enemy naturally fastens upoa 
the vcr>' conspicuous flash color and when ?hr >fmHmvhrk. for imtanrc. dmps 




tPTIVF. MARKS OF THE KILLDKER 



into the grass, or the I of the tree, the banm r 

mark suddenly disappi-- the eye ui ihe enemy, through the persistt ri< t- 

of \ision, follows <mi in ;..^ .^...c direction in which the bird was going bcfwn- 
realising that it has stopped and, in the interval ekp»ing, the bird slinks off a 
few feet further or slips around to the other side of the tree and b nowhere t<> 
be seen. The Willet, upon alighting, often lifts its conspicuously marked wing^ 
hi^ o\'er its bade as if to attract attention to the very spot where it ha^ 
alighted, but always, upon dosing them, it runs along the beach a few fi-ct ^ > 
that the eye of an enemy can search in x'ain for the conqMCtious quarry that it 
marked so carefully a moment before. 

These then are the five main princqiles underlying the cxmcealing coloration 
of birds. Some authorities have gone so far as to daim that all birds arc •>'• 



i 



The Audubon Societies 

.1. . ..i..,...t i,ut iii^ majority feci that the colon of aome birch canoot be 

f the foregoing principles, that they may even be conqiicu- 

>usly markcfi. A Cruw on the snow or against the sky, or anywhere except 

n a coal-hole, is btmnd to be viatble from any angle. But the Crow has been 

iiduwcd with an intelligence and a wariness which need no concealing colora- 




FLASH 
Wkas M MM iIh WMm b w 

.ufcli^ Ill I II kkdi-MMl-wte' 

tUi fat • 1- 

tion to supplement them. Dr. Chapman has suggested that one can usually 
trll from the actions of the birds whether they consider themselves cooipkaous 
• •' '>.>t, for the protectively colored species ahrays permit of a dose approtch 
< those that are cootpkuously marked fly at the fir»t intimatkNi of danger 
and never rely upon concealment even when wounded. 

•UOOBSTIONS TO TBACHBR8 

The principles of protective coloration, although quite simple, usually 

-~ ome sort of a demonstration before they arc fully co mpi eh en ds d 1^* 

tbserveis. Once they are fully uadentood, however, a new world of 

I houKht is opened, and it b sofprieing 10 dlsoover the numberless ways in which 



3i6 Bird • Lore 

tbc>' may be applied In making denonstratioot, one tbould be careful ahra>'ft 
to stage them out of doort where the li^t ONnet from above and from all 
iidea, othefwite one it doomed to disappointment. It is not difficult tt - -t 
Mr. Fuertcs' demonstratioo with the counter-shaded model by sul 
tennis balls or blocks of wood for the carved naodeb. The advantages of 
niptive marks and of cobr patterns simulating the environment can likewise 
be demonstrated. 

In studying the birds of the open fields like the Meadowlark, female Bobo- 
link, Vesper and Savannah Sparrows, etc., attention shoukl be called to the 
predominance of streaks corre sp onding in pattern, if not always m cobr, to the 
Ul^ts and shadows among the grasses. Comparisons should be drawn with 
such woodknd birds as the Grouse and the Woodcodi, or even the woodUnd 
Warblers iriiidi though often bristly colored, have irrcguUr bk>tched patterns 
simulating either the forest Boor or the light filtering throu^ the leaves. If 
one has access to a museum or a collection of mounted birds, he can readily 
demonstrate many different types of color patterns in tenns of the birds' 
habitats or places where they spend most of their time. Of course, there are 
many uniformly colored iMrds and others that defy any theory of protective 
coferation to explain, but these are the exceptions rather than the rule. 

Children often bring insects to the schoolroom and many of them demon- 
strate the princqiles of protective ookMmtion far better than do birds. Counter- 
shading, color pattern, ruptive marks, flash cokMrs, and mimicry are abundantly 
illustrated by \'arious species of moths, caterpillars, grasshoppers, walking 
sticks, etc., and a collection of insects might well be made to demonstrate 
the different principles. 

QUESTIONS 

I. What is OMUit by 'oouBtcr-«lMdfa«'? 

a. Name fhrelNnbinwhkhc(Nmtci^«lM<fiiigbsniBBportant featuieoftlwbiid'scolora* 
tk». 

J. What is the inportanoe o( bavfa« the color pattern of a Urd'% pluaM«e riaflar to that 

of its CBvilOMMBt? 

4. Name five dUlcmt types of color patterM and a liird on whidi cadi b foand. 

5. Eiplaia 'rupthre oaaiks.' 

6. Naaw five birds whidi have ruptive marks. 

7. Eipbla Ihsh oohMt' aad teO how they arc of ad^'antage to the hi. I 1- v,>Mt^ tt t . 

8. Name fiw birdi which pomms fladi colors. 
0. What b ■waat by •afanicry'? 

la Name five birds that mimic thdr furrouaifii^is. 



Tlie Audubon Sodetiet x3j 

FOR OR FROM YOUNG OBSERVERS 

A TEACHERS EXPERIENCE IN BIRD-STUDY 

To enjoy life- <>ru- should be in touch with nature. I find that little extra 

lime need be spent in studying birds compared with the real enjoyment obtained. 

When I was a child I saw and knew several of the most common birds but I 

•i since I have been teaching children that it takes only a short time for a 

'i, if he b properly encouraged, to know all the common local birds 

.. :..c interested in the rarer ones. 

The first year I taught I was rather timid about starting my pupib in bird- 

uiy hut found, later, that it was very etay and pleasant work. That year 

(- of my pupfls and I learned eighty iMids that, with the exception of about 

: cm. were new to us. You see I was just starting, too. The next year even 

!>ils learned to distinguish from twenty-five to forty-five birds, 

,^......> became interested. I have taught three years in the country 

tools and find I have a wonderful field of work. Thb last year I organized 
AufiuU ■ ^ of twenty-five in my school. Besides the pamphlets of 

< AuduU^:. > 1 use the small bird pictures put out by the Church and 

Aieht Co.. New York City, and some small pictures put out by Brown ft Co., 

hi find a great help, especially when I need a wide variety 

... .-^mall expense. They aid in studying the Audubon Leaflets 

<i I found my pupils enjo^^ed having smaller pictures to refer to in place of 

' their larger pit tures from the .\udubon Society by frequent handling. 

1 ..i> year I ha\ c found many interesting species of birds and my pupib have 

md even more than I. After our tpnng vacation wc found a Flicker had 

* in the roof of our schoolroom. From our windows we saw many 

;rds. We did not need to search for them as there were many trees 

.ir the schoolhouse. Thb year I have noticed many more of the same kind 
>'ir'U than e\Tr before. It may be that with better education the birds are 

tcitcd. I havi- rw.i M>.iriK«Hl for nests thb spring !»»>• H«vr fumul manv 

thiiut effort. 

I r.l) t \|)cct to enlarge my bird Ibt thb year and hope tlial 1 nuiy again 
'>< < >>nu a4.quainted with the Warblers and birds which stay here only throu^ 
(- migratory period and which I missed thb spring because I was unable to 
^ire time enough when the>' were here.— Rum H. Maitin, Canton, lUs. 

JtmAn% who Imvc Mvrr tried binl-fltiKly b iMr idMiob Uttk kaow the naults UmI caa 
obubed with Ultk effort. It b mA BimiMiy to kaow aHay bMs b oMkr to awkc a 
sdmbf. Mi« Martin*! tjqw baw b slaMM mm to be thrift. A n V > 

A BIRD TRAGEDY 

The rain came down in torrents, drowning out all other sounds. It had 
• vn storming for nearly half an hour, when foddenly oune a blindiBg flub of 



^ig Bird • Lore 

lightning, a terrible cnuh o( thunder, a nnoroent of silence, and the thundir 
rumbled away into the distance. 

Mother, my sister, and 1 were all alone on this stormy evening. We hurried 
to the window, thinking the bam might have been »tnick. One glance proved 
that it was not the bam, but a large tree had fallen in the orchard — the ot 
with the Flicker's nest. 

To me the Flicker has ahrays seemed out of place. He would fit belter in 
a fairy story. Before we knew his name, we called him 'the golden-wingeri ' 

The rain soon stopped and the sun came out from behind the cloud. . 
in the west, giving a golden tint to all of the fresh earth. 

I ran to the tree in the orchard. At the sight of it, I stopixd sud ' 
The tree was broken at the Flicker's hole, and the mother bird lay 
muttonleaa. I'll ne\'cr forget the way I felt. 

She was wedged in so tightly that I could not get to her, but with a neighbor 
boy's help, I managed to pull the bark away and lifted her out. Her eggs wer*- 
br^en, but her body was stOl warm, and I could not bclie\'e she was dead. 

When I carried her to the house. Mother said she was lifeless, but I wa» 
positive I felt her heart beating. All night long I held her in my hands, hopin" 
she would re\'i\>e, but morning brought the truth. 

A tiny grave under the apple tree and a golden wing among my choicest 
poMcssions are all that mark the memory of that storr^^ «>• min^ — Vikgivt^ 
JiTNE Ratuft (age 14 years), Dover, DH. 

THE LONG-TAILED CHAT 

He's a jolly fellow. 

And he chats all day. 
His breai^ is yellow. 
He swings and sings in the glorious ray 
Of the sun, so bright. 
' ' is frolicsome and gay, 

cttngs by night 
As well as by day. 
" — By Pwu> Wuuo K*^ 8 yean), iiofnana, 1 ..i 

A CORN-EATING WOODPECKER 
Down on my Grandpa's farm, at Luvcland, Ohio, a Ke<l-hcadcd I'ickcr l>i 
eats the com. He comes to the com-huuM: and slicks his head through t ' 
cradu and picks up the com. Then he goes to a post and puu it on top whi 
he sits on the side. He puU his head over the top and cracks up th- 
eats the pieces. If any little pieces fall on the ground he does not go ^. .. : 
but goes back to the oom-house for more. Out in the garden there b one >> 
stalk with an ear of com on it. He sits on this too and picks away the com. 
Deknik<- T Peaslks (age 7 years), Norwood, Ohio. 



Cf)f Hububon ^ocirtifsf 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

B4ited by T. OILBSKT PSARtOM. PrasMnt 
c uw|w 4 fn . uirf wad all rraiMuaMa. far 






. ui4 wad all rraiMuaMa. far Am aad <— t /ft w Uiw . to 
ol A«d«b— Socirtia*. i«74 I w^ way, N«« Y«Hi t Mjr. 



71»7 
• iLinT rfittoN Fni<'4*ut 






\air p«ne«. dvbi. Kkeal «r coaipaay hi tf mpmtkr «ritk tWaklacta •! tMa AModalfaa aajr bicaM i 
'•bar ol it. att4 all ai* wiloiaM 

I laMSi ml Unahtnkip ia tW NaUoaal AwochHaa al Aa4«bo« Socicliaa lor tW Pvolactlaa af WM 
••4 Aaiaah- 

ts ammtar 9/9* far a •mmWiw MaaikatafelB 

tiM nM I, — H i — a— !» ■■<> ■ M a MaiiSbarM* 

ai^aaa aasMHBlM a panMi a Pacnfl 

tSvM* caaariaMaaa yanaaa Pa«a4ar 

Sag^aa* aaaaltaflaa a faraaa a Bwalaclii 

> r>ta 09 Bt9«ssT^— I 4a karabjr ahr« aad baqaaatk l« tW Natioaal AaMdatfea ol Awlabaa 
^<*cti<a for tW f RXactfaMi of WM Mr* aad Aaiaato (lacMporatad). of tka Ctty ol New Vort 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 



'>c trvcDtccatb annual mfrting ol the 
maX AsocMtiaa of Andubon Sodettcs 
hdd in the Amrrkna Muaeum ol Na- 
Hbtory, New York City, October 24 
:S. i9>i- Many nicm b rr a were prcMnt 
luok part in Ibe vmriooa diacuariow tbat 

■ th*' poblic nceting on Ifowlay night 

' over 600 frceted tbc Amo- 

L rriu Tbc ■cMJoB waa fonadly 

o|«m«d by Dr. Frederic A. Lucaa, Difcctor 

<•' tH« AoMrkaa Muaeun of Natural Hialory, 

extended a w>d c D— e to tbc Audubon 

Thb waa rrap ciad w l to by tbc 

4 tbc Aaaodatioo wbo abo ipoke 

"datioa'a activUka tW 

tent of tb« wibmhl|i 

^ Ibcfc were active 

\ Mtdatkm fai every 

uair in < i. and alao la 

Liii :i . .. .„ ;c». He tbM 

1 I)r. Frank M. Cbapnaa wbo 



'•■ad 
"Otrn* hat* on t4tb ■ 
y, at the tfant wbr> 

br 



dubon laws were paiMd by tbc varioua state 
ksiaiattirca. 

T>r. Theodore S. Piafaner, r c urra r n t in g tbe 
United Suies BiokfiGal Survey, told of tbc 
GovcrBOMBt'a work for wild-life oooaer* 
%-atiaa aad tbe ooflperation it bad alwayi 
received froaa tbia Aiaodatloa. Loaia 
Afurit Faertca, tbe caiiacat AoMrkaa bM 
aitiat, Ibca dciigbted tbe aadkaoe by 
drawfa^ oa aa CMd ritaated oa tbe nMlnaa 
a terka of oolored pictarca of wOd binK at 
tbc aaaae tiaw taaitstiag tbe soafa aad cbU» 
aa each bird took ita fnal form aad tinta. 
Tbc cveaiag waa coaduded with tiPoo feet 
of awtioai^ictare ffaaa of wOd birda aad 
aaiNHb takca by WOUam L. Fialey, tbc A»> 
•odatiaa'* ^nt for tbe Padftc Coaat Sutaa. 

Oa Tiiiaday awmhu. at 10 o'dock, tbe 
•ad ddciatca Ratbeied lor tbe 
Tbe reperta of the 
wtfe giwia Tbcat 
win be fouad prialed la f aO ia tbb inMe of 

Mm Hdetee Meyer aad Tlwodere S 
PalBMr,«lHeeletwef< 
tbe Board ef Dtrecl 
rcMected. Dr. Rob«t Oiilaia Maipky. 
ef Hew York, wee eladid ta n tbe vaoMcy 
CBweH by tb* deatb of IH jorl A Allra 



3»V) 



JI30 



Bird • Lore 



Tbm fuUowwi raporughrca b pawn by 
Uw faBo«fa« Md affmU: E«hr«fd H. 
Foibarii for N«« Ei«tead: ^Inthrop 
PMkaid far Miwichuwuu; Herbert K. Job, 
im dMUfr of Uw Dcpartmcat oT Apfittad 
OnUkAagy; MIm FrMcts A. HuH of Ca»- 
Mdkut: aad Ifn. Muy S. Simic for Loof 
lalud. Hmm riporti aad otber* piovakad 
diKiMkia OR • varlrly ai topk» in coo- 
MCtfan with iht AtiddMMi Society move- 
moA and iu work. 

At I o'dodi tlM meeting adJounMd for 
luacheoa in tbe Mueeoai reeUurmnt. The 
aftcmom eeMion, mVA cnavcaed at i r. m., 
waa ondcr the leadenUp of Edward H. 
Porbueb. Reports from various aHUiated 
organiatiaaa were beard and further ffi»- 
ciMeinne took place. Dr. G. Clyde Fiihrr 
ga\'c a nwat cntrrtaining talk on the life and 
«ork of Jolin Burromba* Oluatniting hia 
■tateaMBN with a icmufcable eeriea ol itcm> 
opticon flidca fnm pbotograplw be bad made 
of Mr. BunvMi^M under vaiSoua ooomtiaBa. 

Several branch aodetka and afiliatcd 
organlaatioaa were reprcaeafced. A at o a g tbe 
penoaad of them wcrer 

Mia. Baker HuU, Preiidrat ol the Mary- 
Umd AudtdMB Sodety; Dr. Frank M. 
OwpoMa, Prcsideat of tbe Eaglewood (N. J.) 
Bfad Hub; Dr. T. S. Palmer of the Dis- 
trict of Colwabia Audulme Society; Joba 



Drydoi Kumr, Fnsideat, and Rcecber S. 
Bnwdisb, Secrttary of the New Jeraey 
Aodubon Society; R. If. Ilowbnd, Prcaident 
of tbe Moaldair (N. J.) Bird Oub; Mrs. 
KhipariB Marr^ r^wenaliaf tbe Florida 
Andttboa Society; Mn. George M. Cuauaii^ 
Secretary of tlw Audubon 9nrk>ty of Ir¥> 
iagtott-oa-the-Hudaot Henry 

E. Mercaess of the ; i n«inry 

Society of Albany (N te 

of tbe Bird Qub of 1^^ l».tei. :»». ^.. :- 
E. Kaevda, Secretary «riiHllKHtM Hllb G 
dens (N. Y.) Auduboa S< ' 
Frands H. CafBa« Prcaidrt. >(i 

(Pa.) Auduboa Society. 

At the raeeliiw of the Board of I>ir. ; 
held at > p. M., the following officen were 
reflected: T. Gilbert PrarM.n Prr«i.irni 
Theodore S. Paln»cr, Hr 
Frederic A. Lucas, Seconii * m i ir^iiirui, 
WHUam P. Wharum, Serrrtary; Jonathan 
Dwi^t, Treasurrr. and Mia. F. A. I>< ■ 
Aari)«ant Secretary. 

The bodgrt as submittal « 4. 

Detailed reports were beard *<■ r'% 

work and plans laid for the at t ^>e 

engaged in during tbe next t« < 

These yearly gatherings of i 
and bird-lovers are annbalt ' 
bugdy attended and bkr 
nuudfcsted in tbe Asaodsliun's «uik. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



At the annual buaincM meeting of the 
Aawdatien on October is» >0>i> the fol- 
lowing were Hw te d meaibcn of the Ad^'isor)' 
Board of Direcion for the coming year: 
Juhn H. Sairr .Connecticut 

Ralph Haffman .Qdifarvia 

David Surr Jonlan CaHfomk 

Robert W. William^ IHtlrirt of Colambln 

Harry Harris.. MiMouri 

George M. Cbambcrin. Florida 

Joba E. Thayer MamacbuMtU 

Ricbmoad Tattx.t New York 

Ruthvcn Deanc lllinoi* 

Albert F. Ganirr I t-nncwcc 

H. P. Attwater Texas 

Carlctoa D. Howe. . Vermoat 

WitiMrSlMH. Pennsylvmnia 



Joseph Grinnrll 
Edward H. Forbosh 

II. L. Madison. 

Barton W. K«'ennan 

Howard Eaton 

Thomas S. Roberts.. 

Frederic A. Walcstt. 

GifTotd PIncbot. DiMrict of ( 

Frank Bond. '^^trictafC 

Clinton G. Ab)^ (. 

Donald Soott N< 

Mfs. Anna B. ComstcMk N 

Mn. Alice Hall Wall 

H. H. Brimley ...;.. v 

H. Tulben 

Mrs. B. H. Johnson. 
Walter Barrows^ 



I .ilifomJa 



( .klitomia 

U.. .„,,„» 

M 

t Ol, 



Tr 



The Audubon Sodetiet 



MORE FEDERAL BIRD RESERVATIONS 



Vwn new FrHeral BiH Rr*rrv!ith»nt were 

nown as 

< of the 

North atwi N' 4od the 

Ninrpi|)r Rt^ ,; of the 

.Vinr|>i|ir Kc-M-noir. Both are in the »Ute of 
Moolana and Mtiuted within t* 
•4 the Flathead IrriKatiao Pn> 



llaniinii on June 3$, 1921. Ob the 
date the Preddent alw imwd an onfer m- 
laigiag the bouodarics of tJw ladiaa Key Re- 
•ervation ia Tampa Bay, Fla., in order tu 
include other Ulanda. 

Through the kindncM of Frank Bond, 

'"^ ' ' the Federal Lead OAcc, a friend uid 

'>l the Aawiriatioa. the ofioe ha* 

*>r above ordm 



PLEASE READ THIS! 



In muot ui the citie» of the I'nited Statea, 

Ami iktrti. uI.trK in New York, the plumeaof 

•- are diaplayed for tale 

> omiBon use on women's 

heir tale is advertised in 

'V I be traffic in these feathers 

^avr hem on the increase the |Mut 

eivcs numerous inquiries 

'I Us of these things and 

flagrantly \'iobted. 

. ;:thing " As a mat- 

t , in so far as the sale and wearing of 

— it roBccmed, the law is not 

for the bw docs not prohibit 

^ against the law to sell 

< of the white Kgret. but 

vate poaaession tlwre ap- 

roeable bw against their 

bring worn. In the case of Paradise plumes. 

K..-^^, ti., ,.«K restriction is the United 

! in the Tariff Act of 191 j, 

•>f the fcathen 

ted Sutcs for 

the law that 

tcfcath- 

' HFcct on 

•w i. I9iit — over eight years ago,— 

...... ,-.. I—, f-xhausted, and the plumes 

I worn arr moat ccftaialy 

->«vr ben MitiiiM. iMpeo 

torn OAoci have HMde a hu|e 

urea, and to thcw roiumna we 

• to tfaaerBpartcd the taking of 

near illegal goods and the dlifwaition 

ihrm. 



Thia AaMiciatioo planned to aak the pi«»- 
cnt semioa of Congrem that b rrvWag the 
Tariff to amend the bw b such a way as to 
prohibit absolutely the sak of Paradise 
plumca. Just before the date set by the 
Chairman of the Ways and Meant Conadt' 
tee for the President of the Amorbtioa to 
appear before the Congmamen having thb 
matter in chaixe, it was learned that the 
United Sutcs Milliner>' Chamber of Coaa- 
mercc had a bill to propose, and after a con- 
ference and much ddiberatioa it was decided 
to back their bill, and this was done, not only 
formally before the \Va>-s and Means Com- 
mittee on Februar>' 11. loat, but subse- 
quently by other means. This bill makea it 
illegal to seU the plunca of BinbHrf-Paradbe 
or other smuggled fcalhcn unlcaa the mOct 
can produce evidence to satisfy the court* 
that the fcathen were brought legally toto 
this countr>' before the Tariff Act of 191 j 
became effective. Thb b now under con- 
aidcration to Congma, and if it b e c wnea an 
item of the Federal sUtutea it will virtually 
mean that the bsi battb of the war waftd by 
the AudiriMin Sodeiiea since 1886 agatoat 
the Wallanl feather traflit vhatt h«\e brm 
wor 

Oi < X. tcgardhei u4 ....• ..i.. 

bw» may be made, it b probabb tha I 
for millinery dscomtion will coniii 
w mgg le d into the country.' IW\ 
AModallon'a varden-lorrp, E|NU ia the 
•ootbrm awampa will conttooe M be UMid 
becMW therr will ptraist a onlato type of 
frmininr mind lh«l wants the ptunuurr. 




mULKATUtKOfl 
BV SIGM LATI 



TUEJLL AMJL SVUZSn 



Report of the National Association of Audubon 

Societies and Affiliated Organizations for 

the Year Endini^ October 19, 1921 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Rl ' "i VRSnS. PRKSIDKNT 

Vi.isr^ wuntrut I ' •v. i - ArrtUATKO OtCAMIZATIOMS.— 

WAItbk.N» A>iU Kk»K*\ ATioNN I.I -.IM \Ti<>N.-.Jtf|IMNI DKrAmfBMT. — MUCKL> 
LANCOrS AND FiNAMUl. (.iStll>l..\ 



k Kpi »RTS or Fmn Acknts 

■N,Y. AUnilB I ( 

S. YJ. 

Km><>k [sop State Audubon ^ 
t KuiuaxiA, CoKxacncirT, I 
MAMAoroiBrn, Mnscx 
0«o, OuflOM. Rhoos Is; 



I'ACKASO, roR MAMAOniSBm; 

KS; HnuHttT K. Jos, Arruso 
M mnk; Mm. Ma>y S. Sack, ro« Lomo 



K, New JUttEY, NORTB DAKOTA, 



k» pfiRTs or OniFR ArnuATEO Orc wiz axioms 

!U»K or TOt r M-ir.).— Ai i a or N'orsisiowm 

HisSocimrori N'. Y.).— A ocrmr or GnmcKK 

I'L'BON Society v» UviNr.TuN-oN-IltUM». (N. Y.).— An>u»ON 
-TifiiN Prsv«vi VAVIA — Rtiinl^n'FR«'(*it!iior Kkooklyn (N. Y.). — 

oimoN Socamr or 

IIAVTAOQVA (N. Y.) 

.-..> SuaKTY.— COLrHKlft 

AVDUKOM AKD NaTIRK 

. ?i<n-iKrv -n»v4 \atV- 

K. — 

RKST 

n. — 

:VOY 

Y.) 

1. — 



rnK 



I'AJ MlRO i U'K.— 



--T or Ami I \ X HizATioNS 

roiTor 1 

K>tT or Ai^DiTiNc CuMMirmc 



f\yM 



REPORT OF T. GILBERT PEARSON. PRP:SIDKNT 

INTRODUCTION 

The •evenlccnth \rar ni ihi> AMoctationS turimralivc life l.i 
clote, and today we pause to kx>k back over the results of the year's etTort 
before tuminK to the duties that await us on the morrow. It' nayear« 

progmt, anil the incfcaie of interest on the part of the pul o cause < 

wild-life protection has been continuous. There is much for which we ma 
rejoice, but. naturally, some things have taken place w); ' ' t wish ha 

not occurred. Victories adiieved for wild-life protectioi cheer ati 

enooungement, while certain defeats, and, at tunes, the inadequacy of tli 
financial support, have neoewuted calling upon our reser\c of courage ai) 
fortitude. 

Ulule heartily regretting the discontinuance of the excellent educational 

ion woHk built up in tin ' V ^'ork under the leadership of 

Member, George I). Pm of the legislatures of North 

Carolina and Florida to csubfah game < ns, we can uke comfort in 

the defeat of certain congressional • ^ * • 

ploiting our National Parks for indi\ 

the creation of many new bird sanctuaries and reservations, as well as t) 
enlarging membership of this Association and that of many of the stat< 
kxal groups associated with it. Also, the increasing respect shown by .\: 
can gunners for the Federal bird-protective laws augurs well for the futur 
wild-fowl supply. 

The Asiodatkm has passed through a year of exacting activities, some • 
which I shall attempt briefly to set forth. Through the warning of friends .< 
the ri^t moment, we were able to pfaiy a part in inducing President W ' 
to N'eto a bQl fidiich passed Congress for the purpose of turning over to |> 
interests an important wild-fowl range in one of the western states. Time' 
warning from another member traveling in the West enabled us to l>rinK 
pressure to bear upon the governor of another western state, who, at ting 
within his legal rights, appeared to be on the point of granting permits to kill 
100 prong-homed antek^, a species whidi has almost disappeared from our 
western plains. As a result, the permits were not granted. 

We have been in active cooperation with the United Sutes Trcasui 
Department in the matter of enforcing the law prohil>' 
plumage. The Government, continuing its policy • 
cated plumage to this Association for educational purposes, has presented > 
with three more contraband shipments of Paradise and aigrette plumes. 

FIELD AGENTS AND OFFICE FORCE 

The work of the Association's Field .\Kcnt> has l>ecn all that could ' 
eqxcted of an earnest, energetic, and k>yal group of men and women. 

(134) 



I 



Rqvirr i»f fhe President 335 

Tlu- olui .ii!>ii.u .' (it-rural .\^:rt>i for \rw Kngland, 

i> well known h\ all \\:. ., o! Ninl proio \u>n in ihu country. 

During the summer your President had the pUuNurr <>t \isiting with him the 
x-arious (lull and Ter- tchusetts ooa»t, which, under 

hU watchful eye, have , ,L ;..: . 

Winthrop Packard. Agent for the state uhuaetts, from his head- 

.|iuirttr> at fv/. N'ewbur\- ^ -.tic and ^cctive, ai 

u-ual. in all iht phases of i:.. .. v....^„.. . ...... a hb territory. 

The work of William L. Finley, Agent for the Pacific Coast States, has 
\>Kvn lare(-l\ iri rlu Meld of making and |m>dui'ing additions to his remarkable 
M:ric> ut muiujii pa tares uf wild bird life studies, chieAy in California aod 
Oregon. One hundred and eighty of hb films, representing nine subjects, 
h:i\r U-en in constant circulation in the moving-picture theatres throughout 
ihr iounlr>'. 

Herbert K. Job's work in applied omithokigy has continued in the dis- 
^ntination rf informaticm regarding the propagation of birds by artificial 
nu ih<xis He has dune much lecturing and for several weeks the past summer 
vsus i-Dira;:! <i in making still and nootion pictures of wild birds in Connecticut, 
Mainr. aixi < .t-'t-m Canada. 

Arthur 11. .Norton, Field Agent for Maine, had much to occupy his time in 
combating adverse legislation at the capital of his state, and, in cotiperation 
with state and Federal authorities, inspecting the great sea-bird cokmics 
euarclfil )>y this Association along that rocky coast. 

I)r. I uu'cne Swope, Field Agent for Ohio, enjoyed the greater |)art of his 
NahUiiiia! \rar studying the bird-life of Florida. He is again engaged in his 
n-k'ular duties in Ohio. 

Mi^H Frances A. Hurd, in Connecticut, who for a time was inactive in the 
AuriuUin work because of the temporary scarcity of funds in the Junior De- 
partment, recently took up active duties again in her field of effort. 

.Mrs. Mary S. Sage spent the entire year lecturing on Long Itland, in co- 
• >|Krntinn with the Bird C\uh of Long Island. The reports received would 
»ccm tu indicate that there is hardly a school building on the entire island 
which has rxit been visitctl by her Ford coup^. 

.Miss Kathrnne H. Stuart represented the AModntion in conducting a 
course in bird>tudy at the .Summer School at the University of Virginia, and 
the same work was tarried forward by Mias Edna L. Johnson at the University 
of Cobrado. 

P-tv>rts of some oi these representatives have been made and will 
iisbed with this general report. The work of these vmrkwn agmu 
^iioultl never be underestimated. I wish it were po«Q>le in this con< 
nection abo to enumerate the scores of volunteer woriwrs. who, t hr o u gho u t 
the countr>-, sti greatly aid in iprending the prindpica for which the Audubon 
Societv stands. 



336 Bird - Lore 

I doubt if our BMmberdiip gawnOy appcedato the ewnett and often 
•etf-Mcrifidag ipirit of the AModatioo's oAcc force. The earnest desire to 
produce the best results and the splendid spirit of ooflperation and loyalty 
which runs throu^ this group of twenty men and women b a matter constantly 
commented upon by those in intimate touch with the home office. No one 
man or woman can a irwu i liih much in this world by his or her mI 

effort. The widely eipandin g influence of the Audubon Societies b wh- 

combined efforts of many workers. The officers and directors of the Ascx* 
datioo have given their best thought and endeavor to the building up of 
the Association's work, but their efforts are at best onlv a fractional part of thU 
growing nation-wide organisation. 



AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS 

During the Worid War, and for some time afterv^-ard, the work of many 
of the Audubon Societies and Bird Clubs naturally suffered. The past year 
has seen a strong revival ci activities on the part of the 155 sute and local 
societies and clubs affiliated with the National Association. A listing of their 
principal actixities, e>'en without comment, would be quite be>'ond the space 
allotted for this report. These societies, therefore, have been invited to submit 
summaries of thdr work, and a large number of these will be printed with 
this report It has been the pleasure of the home office to cooperate with 
many of these organisations in their kxal problems, and in return we have 
recei v ed most splendid support from Ntuious clubs and societies, not only in 
supporting Federal and ^^'tate legisUtion, but in many cases financially. 

There has been an increased ntmnbcr of publications by the affiliated groups. 
Among these may be mentioned the bulletins of the Massachusetts .Audubon 
Sodety, New Hampshire .\udubon Society, Illinois Audubon Sodct ! ' la 
Audubon Society, and the Indiana Audubon Society. Tkr Gtdl, pu \ 

the .\udubon Assodatiaa of the Padfic, has continued to appear punctuallv 
.\t tractive reporU and yearbooks have been issued by the Bird Club of Long 
Island, the Junior Audubon Society of Brunswick, Maine, the West Chester 
Pennsylx-ania Bird Club, as well as by the Vermont Bird Club, the Oregtm 
Audubon Society, the Ohio Audubon Soci< * ' New Jersey Audubon 
Sodety, and others. The moat handsome ^ i«in was by the Sod^tc 

Provenchcr of Quebec This oonsisU of 88 pages with covers. It contains 
9 full-page colored plates of birds by Hennessey and 38 half-tot " * ations. 
There is great opportunity for constant cooperation, and all soci. • reste<t 

in wild bird and animal life are invited freely to make use of such fadlities a^ 
the National Association may be able to offer them. To give some idea of the 
extent of the Audubon Society organisation among adults it nnay be stated 
that these 155 active branches are dbtributed as follows: There is one each in 
Ariaona, Georgia, Kansas, North Carolina, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon. 



I 



Report of the President 337 

Utmh, and Vennont. There are a in Colondo and the lame number fai Ken- 
tucky, Blaryland, Minneaou, Miaaouri, Louisiana, North Dakota. Rhode 
Island. Tenneaee. and West Virginta. Iowa has 4; and Florida, Indiana. 
Ohio, and Washington, each has 5. Six sit in Illinois and Michigan; 7 in 
New Jersey; 8 in Connecticut; la in Massachusetts; 14 in Pennsylvania, and 
2Q in New York state. Also there is one in the District of G>lumbia and 4 in 
the Dominion of Caiuula. 

A complete list of affiliated organisations, together with the names and 
addresses of the president and secretary will be found published elsewhere 
in connection with this report. 

WARDENS AND RESERVATIONS 

The idea of designating areas of land or water in which wild birds may find 
sanrtuar>' apparently had its distinctive beginning wrhea, on March 14, 1903, 
M>nu- o( the founders of this Association induced President Roosevelt to declare 
Pelican Island, Florida, a United States Bird Reservation. Today there are 
more than seventy Government bird reservations, some of which are very 
extensive in area. In the neighborhood of eighty other breeding colonies of 
water-birds are guarded by wardens of this Association. There are now many 
state bird reservations, embracing within their boundaries several millions of 
acres of forest and swamp-lands. Various Audubon Societies and bird clubs 
have their bird sanctuaries. City parks, cemeteries, hospital grounds, and 
numerous other territories have been dedicated to the untrammeled use of 
wild-bird life. Many of these, of course, are sanctuaries only in so far as they 
protect the birds from hunters, for to be in reality Cities of Refuge for wild 
feathered life, they should be free from the presence of the domestic cat. The 
bini-reser\-aiion idea has gathered greater momentum in this country than in 
any other region in the world, unless it be in areas of India where for reUgfoos 
rea.'ion'^ *' 'ives regard it advisable to leave the birds undisturbed. Tbe 
Hinicrai lary at Fairfidd, Conn., still maintains the lead as the most 

fierfect exemplitication of the bird sanctuary idea. 

1 )uring the year, three additional Federal reservations have I N< n < M .1 1 1 1 hni. 
aixl the boundaries of the one at Indian Key, Fhu, have been « \u M.i< <l lite 
greatest addition to the reservations cared for by this AiaodaUon unexpectedly 
came to us as a present from the Legialatttre of the state of Texas. In iqiq 
anfi lox) your President engaged fai making waie observations of the bird- 
life of the lower coast of Texas. As a result of this, and of friendly con n e cth M S 
made with some of the dtiaens of Texas, the Legblature of that sute, at a 
recent special teuton, paswd as an 'eiaetgea cy mmmut' a bill authorisiag 
the leasbig of six isfamds in Laguna Madre to the Association, without cost, Iw 
a period of fifty yean. The water-birds resorting to these islands are estinaled 
to be not less than 100,000. Here are found, not only Snowy Egrela, Ward's 
Herons, Louisiana Herons, Langhiaf GttDs, Brown Ptlkim, and four ^pedes 



338 Bird - Lofe 

o( TcfiM, but an exten>t\'e cokmy of the rare Reddtth Egret and the only 
QCttiof oolociy of While Pdkam known to cxbt in the water* along the Atlantic 
•faorca of North America. 

The AModation enpbyed about the tame number of wardens as last year. 
Tbcae men guarded great ookmies of tea-birds situated chiefly along our cxiast 
from Maine to the mouth of the Mia simip pi River. I operated 

also at Moosehead Lake, Maine; in the Great Lakes; aiu. ... ..: the HeriMi 

and Egret colonies along the coastal plain of our southern countiy from crntn 
North Carolina to western Louisiana. 

In May your President visited twenty-one colonies of KgrrtH, Herons, an<i 
ll>ises in central Fk)rida and was distressed to find that, larxrly on account of 
the destructive forces of the Fish Crow, these colonies have much decreased of 
recent years. 

Little killing of birds for the feather trade has been reported except in 
Florida, where the bush-whacking of Kgrrts probably will continue as long a^^ 
any are to be found in the southern part of the state. There have been some 
nuds by eggers on a few of the sea-bird islands, but the losses from this source 
have been OMMre than offset by an unusually favorable breeding season, owing 
to theabsen««*"f •'tormsandhigh tides at the critic a! mMin?-!-'i'-' 

LEGISLATION 

At the last session of Congress, before the incoming of the present ad- 
mtnistration, two bills, intended to expbit the Yellowstone National Park for 
commercial interests, were introduced in the United States Congress an<i 
pushed with great vigor by their supporters. This Association joined with 
other National organiaations in a campaign of o|>|K)«ition. Thousands of 
letters and telegrams from our members and affiliated organixations throur^""' 
the country aided in the defeat of these bills. Members of the Aasot 
contributed a fund of over $6,000 with which the expenses for publicity, seixiin^' 
of agents to Washington, and other defensive measures were met. We wen- 
u\so able to contribute financially to the park work of the American Civii 
.\ssociation and the National Parks Association, thus aiding them in the 
publication of their bulletins of propaganda. 

During the present session of Congress Attempts have baen made by our 
t-nrmirs to revive these bills. Thus far, however, little progress has been made. 
In this connection I may draw your attention to the fact that upon the occa- 
sion of our annual gathering, one year ago, the Association directed by 
resolution that telegrams be sent to Warren G. Harding and James M. Cox 
asking of each the question, whether in the event of his luring elected President 
of the United States hb policy would lie to guard the National Parks and bird 
reservations against conmerdal attempts to expk)it them, and whether he 
would fax-*"' •*»«• i-nforoement of our treaty with Canada for the pr<>''' '■"" "^ 



Report of fhe Prwldenr %%q 



I III- 



mij?nitor\' birtls. Allow me on 

rrtripl of the foIKiwing idcgram from M: . 

"TbAak you for your tckgna olOctober s6. If you care to <k> to you OHy um the fol- 
!••« inx mi-ta«j;r aim] rclcMe to the pvcH: 1 MD fully III (t»ar ol a poUcy which wfli guard the 
intncritv ot .>ur Natuinal Park* and our Mrd RcMnrallom. I favor tke imfoiTriwi ol the 
Trratv «ith CaiMda lor the pR>t;rtkn of valuahie migratory binb.' Plcaae aoccpt way gicct- 

ihi; to yiKir AHodation." 

It need only be added that Mr. Hardmg has kept hb word, and when the 

atuck on the Natk>nal Parks was renewed last spring, and we filed protest with 

rt«r>' of the Interior, we received a reply from that gentleman to the 

.It we need have no fear as to the result of these bills in Congress, as 

President Harding had already given this Association his word that he would 

defend these great natural musetuns of scenery and out-of-door life. 

Several bills are now before our National law-makers in which the Asso- 
ciation is greatly interested. One was drawn for the purpose ol requiring a 
license •' ^ ' pIc who desire to htmt migratory game-birds. The 

I und> t h lie used for the payment of additional Federal game- 

wardens, and for the purchase of areas of territory suitable for breeding or 
feeding places of migratory birds, particularly Wild Ducks and Geese. 

Many reports have reached us of the destruction of bird-life caused by 
pouring into the harbors and along the coast crude oil from vessels reaching 
our shores. We are actively supporting two bills in Congress looking to the 
alM>lishment of this e>il. 

Despite the provision in the Tariff Act of 1913, which prohibits the im- 
{toriaiicm of feathers of wild birds into the United States, imin»t>«^ qimntitiet 
of high-priced plumes have entered the cotmtry, to be di^ibyed, sold, and 
worn in all our large centers of population. The plumage one most often sees 
15 that of the Minor Bird-of-Paradise. With a view ol ammding the law in 
!»uch a way as to put an end to the sale of these smuggled gooda, your President 
asked for and received permission to appear before the Wa>'s and Means 
Commit- lew Tariff Act. Shortly before the date set lor his 

appcarai 1 that the United Sutes MQlinery Chamber ol Com- 

merce had the ^ame idea in view, and had already prepared a bill looking to 
)ce in Waibiagton with the reprctentativct ol this 
It was dedded by your President and First Vice* 
I'rr-Klcnt, who were present, to support the measure as it had been drafted b>' 
i)i< ' y. It happened, therefore, that on February 11, 19J1. 

rrp: • Audubon Society and ol our ancient enemies, the whole- 

sale milliners, met in our Capital City in support ol a measure which we both 
■ law. 

t tee-room that day, and kiokcd abont at the laces ol 

men who on various occasions during the past twelve yean we had oppos e d in 

ive committee-roona fai diflennt parU ol the oouDtry, 1 could bat 



340 



Bird • Lore 



reflect on the vast changes in lentinient whidk the years have brov^t. Here 
sat men who for many years had wprndrd Ume and money seeking to retain 
their andent privilege of dealing in the plumage of wild birds, but now, when 
at last it had become illegal to handle the feathers, these same men, being 
honest, were intcrasled in securing a law which would force dishonest men to 
observe its provisions. 

The new Tariff Act is still pendfaig in Congress, but we have strong hopes 
that when it is enacted, the display of Paradise feathers in our dty stores will 
come to an end. Our Association also advocated the pUdng of an import 
duty on song-birds brongbt into this country. The Tariff Bill now pending 
mntains this provision for which we asked. 

JUNIOR DEPARTMENT 

In a letter recd\*ed from Miss Ada B. Cdpeland, principal of the Riverside 
School at Grand Junction, Goto., the writer said: 

**Out school for four years has had its Junior Audubon Qub. During thb 
period over forty species of birds have been identified and studied on the 



^^——^^^—. ■ ,'■ - ' ' ^ -1 1' ^ ' -^^^— — 


HB 


^^k_ ^--^ .. n 









I 



J< MOR At 



s COLa MISS ADA B COTELAND 



Report of the President 



341 



rhtxO pnuinils an ' — riiale \n.iiiii> . The older people, 

IN well a-* Noun;:. i*ooine real bird-lovers, and mudi 

ha> Un-n dotic t<>r uu- jtmui '.i.'ii <>! h.r.i.Ufe and to encourage birds to build 
near our honii-< 1 he |Jiiai year, inicroi aroused by the Junior Audubon Oub 
in Uhali >>f t>ir<i life resulted in the raising ol a fund for the erection of an 
Vudulxtn bird-fountain and bath in Riverside Park. Thb was dedicated 
tn June. IQ30, with exercises by the entire school. It is the first bird-bath in 
the ciiy, or even in the county." 

A large numlier of similar letters have been received from principals and 
(rachrrs throughout the United States and Canada, At hundreds of 




l.;k ! K . M t H 1 1 II BV lll». 



I V OF r.R WD 



-'choob bird-boxes were built and erected. Pr< ;;:d: 
.It other periods were rendered by Jimior Clubs in t 
ue^. Parents naturally are interested in what their 
>o an immense missionary work b constantly being car 
it» of the country through the interest aroused among puptb l> 
Junior Department. 

Owing to the difficulty in securing funds and the high coat ol printing, it 
wm.H found hnpowihlf again the past year to supply all those who sought 
<nhip, and the io<ent membenliip fees were returned to many 
. . groups of little children. Chiefly by the aid of the $m,ooo 
cd by our unnamed Benefactor, we were able to f<Min 5,851 bird- 
>tuily i \uU in the scboob, with a total ncmbcfahip o( 119,7^ 1^ cxming 
year it wUl be possible to supply a greater nunbar as more funds have been 
made available and there has ben a slight drop in the cost of printing. Edu- 
cational leaflets, colored bird picturea, outline drawings and Audubon buttona 



341 Bird • Lore 

have bcm numufacturcd to the extent of joo/soo sets, and the pretent 
«*f»«»»^ for material would seem to indicate that thertf will be calU for 
this gnat stock of bird literature before the achoob dote next June. 
To thoae actively cngafed in the handling of this im|>ortant |>ha*e of the 
Aaaodation't activitiec it is a source ol unending regret that suflictrnt fumb 
are not in hand to push this oreanization amone itu- i hitdnn i«> ilu- 
maximum extent 

We ha\'e the experience, the organiralion, the guuU will >>l ihi 
authorities, and the enthusiasm of the children sufficient to enroll one iii 
or perhaps two million annually if we could only meet the neoHiary 50 per 
cent of the expense. The children's fees, it will be remembered, cover the 
remainder of the cost. 

In the work of placing the subject before the teachers of the countr>' and 
in the distribution of the literature, the As8ociatk>n has enjoyed, a> ' <•, 

the active co<Iperation of a numl)er of the State Audubon Sodetic .il 

affiliated organizations. Some, also, have aided financially. For example, 
the Bird Club of Long Island supplied funds stiffident to pay 70 per cent of 
the entire expense of empbying Mrs. Mary S. Sage as a lecturer in the sdKmb 
of Long Island throughout the year, and in supplying the Island children with 
literature. The Massachusetts AuduUm Society has cofv K . 

In Oregon, Indiana, and some other places, literature ha> -. w 

the State Societies, which also bore the expense of the necessary clerical assis- 
tance and postage. The New Jersey Audubon Society again coflperated in 
the Junior organixalion work in that state. Many others have provide<l 
speakers to go into the schools and present the subject. The organized ct> 
operative work of various societies and dubs is constantly increasing, with 
good results to the cause. 

The foOoinng table shows the distribution of the Junior Clubs in the 
various states and Canada during the school year ending June i, 1921. 



ANNUAL SUMMARY OP JUNIOR AUDUBON CLUBS AND MEMBERS 
UNDER THE CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL FUND 

Summary Endtng June I, 1921 



Hum 


n«iM 


Urmhtn 








Mabum 




559 


(jcurgia 


1 a 


S5O 


AfisoM 


i 


JI9 


Idaho 


10 


4«a 


AfkUMM 


lA 


;i« 


IllinoU 


3» 


13.457 


CAHInraia 


14? 


5.80J 


loduaa 


iRi 


fuioo 


ColonMlo 


51 


SJOI 


Iowa 




. 106 


Coaaectk ' 


.», 


*^*in 


KaAJM> 




41 


Dcbwmrr 




5S» 


Krnturk) 




^ 


Dbtfktoil cMiiti : i 


3 


$0 


Lottiuuu 




.19 


Florids 


i;0 


iA^i 


llsiM .. 




47« 



Rq>ort of the President 



n4 > 



ANNUAL tUMMAKT OP JUNIOR AUOUMM OI.UM AND MBMBBKS. 

40: 
•4'' 

; o -• 



. '-w Jef»c> 

* M. V. . 



4 

Mi 

II 

37 




10,689 

i8a 
.i3.«M 

1.388 

377 
3,63$ 



Bfililli Guiana 
JafMB ... 

Ttilal- 



Ctiite 


M«aW» 


«»7 


JS.086 


1 J 


65 » 


u> 


SO* 


V' 


1.184 


Q 


S18 


4.' 


«/«97 


.♦<> 


09J 


.'> 


I.05J 


41 


i.838 


U4 


SsW» 


vi 


«sl«4 


isy 


6.iiQ 


Ji 


»74 


;^8 


«.«57« 


1 


J<. 



♦0.787 



MISCELLANEOUS AND FINANCIAL 

Within ihe year our Supply Department sold at cost 518 stcreopticon 

<ir^. »•. well as several thousand dollars* worth of leaflets, bird-books, field- 

1 -< Mrd-charts, and other hdpt to bird students. We issued 2,060.000 

il Leaflets, and other circularB to the extent of 310,000. During 

>cre were enrolled 153 Life Members at $100 each. From the estate 

Bcal. of Boston, Mass., we received a bequest of $100. The sum 

I'cs, together with $770 in gifts, totaled $16,070 added 

... l....;ownient Fund. The Sustaining Membership (fee $5 

his year numbered 4,527, the htrgesl yet attained. The total 

<• for the year was $152,304.93. 



CONCLUSION 



ih.,! 



.1 !!,.■ .1. ■,,•). 



•l<>\r<| dirrttiir-, I'r J'xi X-.ijih \inir ••! ttii- \nirrn.iii MuMiiiii i>t 

.itural History, who passed from this earth on August 29, 1921, at an age 

re than 83 ytu%. 

> was one of the foaaden of this AsMcktioQ and had bscn an active and 

•^ply interested member of the Board tince iu first ocgsnJMtinn. He was a 

holar and scientific InvestifMor of rare aad moiual ability tad posMHsd at 

11 times a spirit of great modesty and umdMBMn. In the cooDdb of this 

\ ^socsation hb services were invaluable, and be was ahvays so kind and sympa- 

t hetic in his attitude toward others that it wasa gicat priviltgt to beaaodMod 



344 



Bird - Lore 



with htm. By hb death thb Aatocktion has lost one of it* mm\ to>'al, camefti. 
and devoted friends. 

Recently, by direction of the Board of Directors, there was ntade and 
erected in the hnnte flffirr of the A«iinriAti«n a hronzr tablet bearing this legend: 



!\ MEMORY OF 

il i iAM DUTCHER 

1846 — 1920 

SD AND PROTFCTOR OF Bl' 

PRFSIBENT M THE Na 

."* of \ 1 ni o n \ c n r I c T 1 1 



TIOS c 



ONSERV..^ 



^^S^S^ 



?*v * V*^. ^u^. ' tv*-. 'ri»' 



The co»i ui iiic labkl wa» bona- i M I 

friends, and chief among those who nIujv. v^l ;:cviH. 
was Mrs. Kingimill Marrs, a loyal member of the A 
admirer of our lamented first President and founder. 



' ht-r's old )•< r-!i.il 
I in this mciiiunal , 
ion and friend and I 



Reports of Field Agents 345 

REPORTS OF FIELD AGENTS 

REPORT OF EDWARD HOWE FORBUSH. FIELD AGENT 
FOR NEW ENGLAND 

There b much to be said about the protection of birds in New En^and 
:rinK the past year, but for lack of space this report must be devoted to two 
important topics: (i) The danger that menaces the GuUs and Terns of New 
Fngland ; (a) the increasing destruction of small birds by gunners. 

It b well known that the greatest nurseries of sea-birds in New Fj[»giand 

Are located on certain islands off the Maine coast. There the GuUs and Terns 

^rr protected by wardens employed by the National Association of Audubon 

cieties. and there these birds have increased largely within recent years. In 

ihat n 'c are many ishmds well offshore, so situated that the protection 

of the i ... ;.cding upon them is not difficult. On some of the islands Petreb 

may have been decreased or extirpated by dogs and cats, and the Eider Ducks 
are ba' m'n, but, on the whole, the protective work there has 

'•renci; .-il. One colony of Herring Gulb on the New Hampshire 

xst, which b continually raided by eggers, will l>e exterminated if it b not 
•otccicd 

On the .M.. •<' Gulk and Terns have been increasing under 

otection for years, hu :c*y have reached their height, and thb year 

they have begun t '' many of their breeding-places are on 

•elands close to the . ..arbors or even on the mainland. In such 

. atiuns protectior. rult. The National Asaodatioo has but one 

irdcnon ion that has been given the 

rds in th> ...: .ia> or by the Massachusetts 

nscrvati lection has been extended to only 

^ecoloaie*, and ilu» year ti iker for the Least Terns 00 

)c south coast of Martha's \ ...^, — 
Arctic Terns are not known to breed anywhere south of Massachusetts. 
Roseate Terns nest nowhere ebe in the Northeast, with the ex- 
• '-W birds which may still breed on some of the isbnds of Maine 
m. Massachusetu is believed to be the last stronghold of Least 
1 1 of Virginia. Elsewhete in the East they are believed to have beei 
Probably the number now breeding in Massachusetts is l<>v« than 
the strictest protection can posdbly save them. 
Ii< t: Gulls have been brcedinf for several years in two localities in 
Ma^^cltu^tts, but their numbers are small. They are so situated that very 
tir protectioo can be afforded them, and probably they will be unable to 
hemsdvcskmg. 

; ^n Terns are breeding on Muskcget, Pcnikese, Cull, the Wepeckets, 

ne. and several other smnU islands, as weO as on Martha's Vineyard and 
intucket and ak)i« the ahoras of Cfepe Cod. This year, bowevw, their 



546 



Bird • Lore 



numticn have decmaecL It b <loubtiul if more tluui too pairs bred tucceMlull> 
thb year on the Wqwckets. The great colony oq Muskcgct has decreased 
cooaideimbly. The colooica on the outer beaches of Nauset and Chathrtv- 
have practicatty disappeared. The colony at Monomoy has been dectma 
The colony at Truro was raided by cggers, and the other colonies show reai]> 
no signs of incrcasr 'T^" S""'*" '-nkmy is the only prosperous one vi8ite<l 
by me in 1921. 

Roseate Terns have been breeding thb year in greater 01 lesser nun' 
at Penikese, Muskeget, Chatham, Monom"* -"^-i Vauset, the lanmt culo.... 




^'■f 



1 



m 



><V>a)Nic«j uj r.'jwarxj ii>n>v ruruuwi 



bcmg at Muskcgct and Chatham. At Chatham and Muskegci t' 
great mortality among the young birds, and at Chatham many an 
were killed by raU. Elsewhere they do not seem to be increasing now. A 
small number of Arctic Terns bred at several of the colonies Ust year. T' 
year only one cokHiy was kxated— that on the north beach at Chati > 
which was wiped ouL It was first swept by a high tide and later raided b> 
cats and skunks, which destroyed both eggs and young and drove the i^i 
birds away. Only a few pairs were known to breed anywhere on the M. 
chusetts coast this year 

Very few oc cup ied nesis ui Least Terns were noted. On the s>uth sh< 
Martha's Vineyard, where for several years about 300 Tems of thU si>< 
have bred, less than 20 nests were reported. There were a few on Monomo> 
and a smaU number bred at other places on Cape Cod and on ? ' 
Not one waa found on Nantucket where they formerly were r< . 1 c 



Rqwrts of 



Agents 



347 



jth shore of Martha's Vlne>'ard is the safest and best breedfa^-pboe foe the 
i.vast Tern in New Enifanrt If by reason of persecution by nan or natura 
enemies the>' uncc leave that shore, extirpation from New Englaiid will in- 
evitably follow ub1c» strict protection can be given them wherever they settle. 
^ Martha's Vmc>*ard there are no raccoons, skunks, or foxes, few minks, 

A vcr>- few other inimical mammah. The greatest natural enemy there, 

well a5 on thr mainland, is the domestic cat run wild. These animab roam 

^< ' ' -^ cunjiiderable numbers. If the birds are to enst there, wardens 

i to destroy wandering cau and rau on that part of the island. 

>cwhcrc though the birds nest from time to time, the>- will be driven away 




their natural enemies and molestation by summer people on the beacfaci. 
here is no safety for then anywhere in Mimrhniftta unim strictly protected 
iring the bree ding- season by resident wardens. Even if so guarded, all 
aches on which these Terns are likely to breed are by law open to the public. 
^ the beaches become more and more frequented, there will always be danfer 
at the eggs and young, the oolors of which res e mb le that of the sand on which 
ry lie, will be trodden tmder foot 

Many Tern colonies now lie near popular beadies and are visaied by many 

itumer sojourners and tourists. The birda are constantly d jrturb e d and 

tven from their nests. Such disturbance increasing will in time drive them 

from any kxality. The old notion that Terns leave their eopi to be hatched 

by the heat of the sun b an error. The eggs must be conel Mrt l y Incnbated and 

the newly hatched young BMMt be brooded to preserve their Hvcs. If ripoa^d 



34S 



Bird - Lore 



long to the sun's hett, they die. Along the New Engbnd const, in summer, 
tbope are many southerly or southwesterly gales, when the dry sand oi the 
beaches blows over the Imiwling giiwiiMls If the Terns are driven from their 
nests at such a time, cspedally when the young are hatching, the sand is blown 
on the little chicks while their feathers are still wet, it adheres to them, and 
they are soon buried. Eggs also are thus buried. Someone should be at hand 
to see that the birds are never disturbed on such days. 

Foreigners, fishermen, and eggers take ever>' opportunity to raid colonics 
of ncsth^ birds, taking the eggs or the young, which they use for food or for 




HALF^iaOWN YOUNO OP aOSIATB TERN 
PhaU«n»lMd br Bd«Md ifawt r«i««b 

bait. Every part of the mainland upon which the birds c&n iin-iw ir> « • • i!l\ 

overrun by cats, dogs, skunks, and other natural enemies of the bir : \ 
soon as a colony b established, these enemies concentrate upon it. Many 
people who sonuner in New En^and leave cats along the shore which run wild, 
and numberless skunks seem to thrive on the beaches. There are a few small 
Tern colonies on the coasU of Rhode Ishnd and Connecticut, and all that has 
been said about better protection in Massachusetts would apply also to these 
ootooiea. 

Penikese Island b now the property of the Conunonwealth of Massachusetts, 
but since the leper colony has been removed from the island, the state authori- 
ties have had offers from mtending purchasers. This isbuid, the property of 
the Commonwealth, shoukl be preserved for all time as a breeding-place for 
birds. It b one of the best strongholds of the Roseau Terns, and thousands 



Rqwrts of Field Agents 349 

n Terns nest thcrr. They have been decimated from tone to time 

n the island, but the cats can be eliminated. If, during the 

I of the Terns, an efficient guard could be placed on Penftcte to 

the natural enemies of the birds and to forbid landing, no doubt the 
Kl cont inuc to occupy it indefinitely. It is far from shore, no steamers 
. and no better location could be desired. On this island Louis 

\ji 1/ n.untair;.,! his famous School of Natural Histor)-. If the state of 
'^' '. lux ;!- Mill not retain Penikese, it should be placed in charge of the 
al \--*Hiation of Audubon Societies for all time. 

INCREASING DESTRUCTION OP SMALL BIRDS BY GUNNBR8 

In all his experience m New England, your Agent never has received so 

any complaints regarding the destruction of small birds by gimners as during 

' ^ rar. The number of gunners is increasing rapidly. When Massa- 

>rst began to Issue hunters' licenses, the number issued was about 

3.000. In a few years it has increased to over 100,000. As soon as the shooting 

AMm for shore birds opened in August, reports began to come in to the effect 

at gunners were shooting Gulls, Terns, and small shore-birds. Swallows, 

jiarrows, and birds of many kinds protected by law. Wlien the Duck season 

;>ened, these complaints increased, and when the general hunting season 

• gan. there wrre more reports of the killing of Robins, Flickers, and other 

luill land-hird>. Much of this destruction, it is said, was done by automobile 

iriir- aIu. h ~. .r fhc countr>' in all directions. Government and state 

ir.itii- itaw aj>jii< i.< idcd some of these people, but the number of wardens 

insufficient to cope with this element, and the>' are not proxided with ade- 

'•»r transportation. With the consta ' n-asing numlier of 
song-Nrds are to receive any adequa > tion, the National 

\ lation may be obliged to secure the appointment of additional wardens 
i< >r this purpose. 

REPORT OF WINTHROP PACKARD, FIELD AQBNT 
FOR MASSACHUSETTS 

In summing up the actixities of the past year, your Massachusetts agent is 
rnM^ to find that, in spite of hard tim«, total receipts of the office h^vt 
!u.illy eaceeded disbursemenu by a modest sum. Thnmgh lectures and 
her personal acti\ntics. many newspaper artides and a very vigoro us and 

• rsistent use of the maib, the work and needs o( the NatkiDsl Assoc i ation of 
\tidubon Societies have been continually kept before the people of the sute. 

t y-three new Sustaining Members and three Ufe Members have been 

to the rolls, and 18,2.^1 Juniors joined the bird-study dMses in the 

schools. The dem